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TOWN PLANNING-THEORY AND MODELS

ELEMENTS AND PRINCIPLES OF TOWN PLANNING WITH THE MODELS PROPOSED FOR TOWN PLANNING VIZ CONCENTRIC ZONE THEORY, SECTOR MODEL THEORY AND MULTIPLE NUCLEI MODEL. ADDITIONALLY THE URBAN FORMS OD THE CITIES.

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TOWN PLANNING-THEORY AND MODELS

  1. 1. TOWN PLANNING NAR-804 AYUSHI AGRAWAL
  2. 2. What is a town? • a built-up area with a name, defined boundaries, and local government, that is larger than a village and generally smaller than a city. • Village → Town → City
  3. 3. What is planning? • It is considered a science and art. • It is pre-thinking and pre-arranging things. • Planning is future oriented problem solving process. • It is a way of thinking social and economic problems. • An orderly sequence of activities that will lead to accomplish stated goals.
  4. 4. What is town planning? • Town planning is an art of shaping and guiding the physical growth of the town creating buildings and environments to meet the various needs of the public such as social, cultural, economic and recreational etc. and to provide healthy conditions for both rich and poor to live, to work and to play or relax, thus bringing: • Physical and social planning of an urban environment. • Encompassing many different disciplines and bringing them all under a single roof.
  5. 5. Necessity of Town Planning In absence of town planning, town faces following kind of problems- • Defective road system, narrow streets/ roads • Development of slums • Haphazard location of industries • Heavy traffic during working hrs of day • Inadequate open spaces for parks and playgrounds, i.e. unhealthy living conditions • Lack of essential amenities like power, water supply, drainage • Noisy atmosphere • Uncontrolled development of town
  6. 6. Objectives of Town Planning • According to the town planning acts the main objectives of a town planning may be summarised in three words viz. Health, Convenience & Beauty. Health- • To create and promote healthy conditions and environment for all the people rich and poor, to live, to work, to play and relax • To make right use of land for the right purpose by proper division of land in order to avoid the encroachment of public.
  7. 7. Convenience- Various economic, social and recreational amenities to be given to public, such as • Cheap power • Proper industrial sites • Transport facilities • Adequate water supply • Easy sewage disposal • Open spaces/ parks/ town halls/ play grounds/ theatres etc.
  8. 8. Beauty- • To preserve the individuality of the town by developing it on its most suited natural conditions. • To preserve the aesthetics in the design of all elements of a town or a city plan, which include preservation of trees, natural greenery, improved types of domestic buildings, Architectural control on public/semi-public buildings, historic, ancient buildings etc.
  9. 9. Communications • Roadways • Railways • Airways • Waterways Elements of a city:
  10. 10. Built-up Area • Residential buildings • Public / Semi-public buildings • Commercial buildings • Industrial buildings
  11. 11. Open areas • Recreational- Parks Playgrounds Public utility • Water supply • Drainage • Electricity • Gas • Telephone • Fire Safety
  12. 12. Public amenities • Bank • Post office • Police station • Waste disposal • Petrol pump • Fire brigade
  13. 13. Zoning • A town is divided into suitable zones such as commercial zone, industrial zone, residential zone, and certain rules and regulations should be implemented for each zone. Housing • It should be carefully designed to suit the local population and care should be taken to make sure that all the facilities are there inside the housing complex. Principles of Town Planning:
  14. 14. Green-belt • A green belt is an invisible line designating a border around a certain area, preventing development of the area and allowing wildlife to return and be established. Road systems • Road network hierarchy is very important while building a town or a city. The provision of a faulty road system in the initial stages of town formation proves to be too difficult and costly to repair to rearrange in future.
  15. 15. Public buildings • Should be well organized and distributed throughout the town. Unnecessary concentration of public buildings should be avoided. Recreation centres • Are essential while designing a town. They are necessary for the recreational activities of the public. They include parks, for walking, cycling, amusement parks etc. Transport facilities The town should be provided with suitable transport facilities so that there is minimum loss of time for commuting between the work place and the residence
  16. 16. Concentric Zone Model Developed in 1925 by Ernest w. Burgess.  Cities grow radially outward away from a singlecentre.  Different land uses are distributed like concentric rings around the city centre.  They are: CBD, zone in transition, low-class residential zone, middle-class residential zone, high-class residential zone. Models proposed for town planning
  17. 17. Criticisms about Concentric Zone Model- • Physical features - land may restrict growth of certain sectors. • Commuter villages defy the theory, being in the commuter zone but located far from the city • Decentralization of shops, manufacturing industry, and entertainment • It assumes an isotropic plain - an even, unchanging landscape
  18. 18. Developed in 1939 by Homer Hoyt ,states that a city develops in sectors, not rings  All land uses except the CBD form sectors around the city centre.  The land use zones are influenced by radial transport routes.  High-rental and low-rental areas repel one another. Sector Model Theory
  19. 19. Criticisms about sector model  Applies well to Chicago.  Low cost housing is near industry and transportation proving Hoyt’smodel  Theory based on 20th century and does not take into account cars which make commerce easier  With cars, people can live anywhere and further from the city and still travel to the CBDusing their car. Not only do high-class residents have cars, but also middle and lower class peoplemay have cars.
  20. 20. Multiple Nuclei Model  Amodel of urban land use in which a city grows from several independent points rather than from one central business district.  Apart from the CBD, there are several separated, secondary centres.  Certain functions require specialised facilities or sites, e.g. a port district needs a suitable waterfront.  Similar functions may group together for agglomeration economies.
  21. 21. Criticisms about the Multiple nuclei model  Negligence of height of buildings.  Non-existence of abrupt divisions between zones.  No consideration of influence of physical relief and government policy.  The concepts may not be totally applicable to oriental cities with different cultural, economic and political backgrounds.
  22. 22. Urban Forms Urban Form refers to the- • physical layout and design of the city • spatial imprint of an urban transport system • adjacent physical infrastructures. • Jointly, they confer a level of spatial arrangement to cities. Urban form or city form defined as- • ‘ the spatial pattern of human activities at a certain point in time’.
  23. 23. The Radiocentric City • Geographical possibilities of spreading in all directions. • Radio centric -Radiate outward from a common centre. • Inner Outer ring roads linked by radiating roads. • Core has businessarea. • Industrial areainterspersed within the residential. • Periphery has greenbelts. • Example :Washington DC, Pre-industrial Baghdadin Iraq.
  24. 24. TheRadial city:Moscow • Moscow, the world biggest Megapolis (Russian Moskva) is the capital of Russia. • The city grew in a pattern of rings and radials that marked Moscow's growth from ancient time to modern layout. • The centre of all rings is Moscow Kremlin and famous Red Square. • Successive epochs of development are tracedby the • The Boulevard Ring • The Garden Ring, • The Moscow Little Ring Railway, • The Moscow Ring Road.
  25. 25. The Grid Iron city • It is composed of straight streets crossing at right angles to create many regular blocks. • This form is typical of cities built after the industrial revolution – because only then did cities place such importanceon economic activity. • A city grid iron plan facilitates the movement of people and product throughout the city.
  26. 26. Chandigarh • The primary module of city’s design is a Sector, a neighbourhood of unit of size 800 m*1200 m. • It is a self-sufficient unit having shops, school, health centres and places of recreations . • The population of a sector varies between 3000-20000 depending upon size of plots and topography of the area • The shopping street of each sector is linked to the adjoining sectors thus forming one long, continuous ribbon . • The central green of each Sector also stretches to the green of the next sector
  27. 27. Linear Form  Initiallyproposed by SoriaY Mata.  Expand the city along the spine of transport  The Linear City concept is a Conscious Form Of Urban Development with Housing And Industry Growing Along The Highway Between existing cities and contained by the continuous open space of the rural countryside.
  28. 28. Navi Mumbai • The growth of Mumbai city is constrained by sea at south, east and west. As a result total land area available for development of Mumbai is limited. • The cost of real estate and housing in Navi Mumbai is much less than costs in Mumbai and sub-urban areas. • Many government and corporate offices have been shifted from Mumbai to Navi Mumbai . • the Taloja and Thane Belapur Industrial Belt of Navi Mumbai offer job opportunities of every conceivable kind from engineers to mechanics to clerks to peons. As a result a large population of service class and middle class population shifted to Navi Mumbai.
  29. 29. THANKYOU

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