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Fibre, Nylon &
Noor Azurah Abdul Razak
Wan Norazwani Mahusin
Ira Nusrat Jaafar
Lecturer : Dr Noorsyida
• Fibres are the base unit
of all textile materials
• They are slender thread-
like structures that can
be spun into yarns and
thread, and woven,
knitted or felted into
Composed of atoms of various elements, such as
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, sometimes of nitrogen
and other elements (sulphur) in lower quantities
Come from plants, animals and minerals.
Have short fibres, called staple fibres.
The exception to this rule is silk, a natural fibre
whose continuous filaments are up to one
kilometre in length.
Sources of natural fibres
• Cotton from the cotton plant
• Linen from the flax plant
• Wool from sheep
• Silk from silkworms
Man is involved in the actual fibre
Synthetic fibres and regenerated fibres
are man-made, usually from chemical
and natural polymer sources.
Continuous filament fibres: Fibres are
long and do not always have to be spun
Sources of synthetic fibres
• Viscose comes from pine trees or
• Acrylic, nylon and polyester come from
oil and coal.
Slick and abrasion resistant
Strong and resilient
Resistant to most common fibre
degradants: sunlight (except for
Flame resistance varies widely
Man-made – Synthetic Fibres
• Fibers made by chemical
synthesis are often called
Man-made – Regenerated Fibres
o Polymerization (poly condensation or
• Process of macromolecules formation through repetition
of basic units (synthesis fibres).
• Activated and controlled during the process by various
parameters: Temperature, pressure, catalysers and
• Two mechanisms of chemical reaction available for the
synthesis of linear polymers:
Poly-condensation - two molecules of same type or of
different types are joined together to form macromolecules
by removing simple secondary products as water,
hydrochloric acid, alcohol.
Poly-addition - joins together several molecules and
redistributes the valence links existing in the monomers,
however without removing secondary products.
• The term spinning defines the extrusion process through
spinnerets of fluid polymer masses which are able to solidify
in a continuous flow.
• The polymer processing from the solid to the fluid state can
take place with two methods:
Melting: applied on thermoplastic polymers which
show stable performances at the processing
temperatures (used by 70% of the fibres)
Solution: the polymer is solved in variable
concentrations according to the kind of polymer and of
solvent, anyhow such as to produce a sufficiently
viscous liquid. (used by 30% of the fibres)
• The polymer extruded by the spinnerets in
form of filaments has not yet the properties
which are typical of a textile fibre: poor
thermal and chemical stability, low resistance
to ageing, high plasticity
• To develop strength, pliability, toughness, and
Issue 1: Silk Production Causes
Painful Death for Insects
• Silkworm is a domesticated insect.
• Undergoes stages of metamorphosis: egg,
larva, pupa, and adult.
• Silk derived from the cocoons of larvae. Most
of the insects raised by the industry don’t live
past the pupa stage
• They are steamed or gassed alive in their
cocoons. Approximately 3,000 silkworms are
killed to make every pound of silk.
• belonging to a class of polymers
• It is made of repeating units linked
by amide bonds and is frequently
referred to as polyamide
• Developed in the 1930s as an
alternative to silk
• Developed by Wallace Carothers at
the Dupont Chemical company
General Properties of Nylon
• Functional group is amide
• Light in weight
• Incredible tensile strength
• Resistance to damage
• Takes dye easily
• Absorbs most water
• Greater stretchability
• Dries slower
• smoother and softer fabric than
• Somewhat UV resistant
Type of Nylon and its Manufacture
• In nylon, the repeating units contain
chains of carbon atoms.
• There are various different types of nylon
depending on the nature of those chains
• synthesised by polycondensation of
hexamethylenediamine and adipic acid.
• Hexamethylene diamine and adipic acid are combined with water in a
reactor. This produces nylon salt.
• The nylon salt is then sent to an evaporator where excess water is
• The nylon salt goes into a reaction vessel where a continuous
polymerization process takes place. This chemical process makes molten
• The molten nylon -6,6 undergoes a spinning process, where the nylon 6-6
is extruded and sent through a spinneret, which is a small metal plate
with fine holes.
• The nylon is then air-cooled to form filaments.
Uses of Nylons
• Synthetic replacement for silk
• It replaced silk in military applications
such as parachutes and flak
vests, and was used in many types of
• Used in many applications, including
fabrics, bridal veils, carpets, musical
strings, and rope.
• Artificial muscles have been crafted out of materials including
metal wires and carbon nanotubes, but they have proven to be
costly to make and tricky to control.
• According to research published in the journal Science on 20th
February 2014, these scientists instead turned to high-strength
polymer fibres made of polyethylene and nylon, materials found
in everyday items like fishing line and sewing thread. They
twisted the fibres into very tight coils and used changes in
temperature to make the artificial muscles contract and relax.
The name "polyester“ (aka Terylene) refers
to the linkage of several monomers (esters)
within the fibre.
Esters are formed when alcohol reacts
with a carboxylic acid:
filament form :
polyester fiber continuous in
length, producing smooth-surfaced fabrics
Staple form :
filaments are cut to short, predetermined
easier to blend with other fibers
A form in which continuous filament are
drawn loosely together
the voluminous form used in the manufacture of pillows
o Colorless and transparent
o Smooth and lustrous
o Shape as we require
o Shiny glass rod like
Resistant to stretching and shrinking
Retains its shape good for making outdoor
• when polyester emerges from the spinneret, it is soft and
easily elongated up to 5 times its original length.
• This helps to reduce the fibre width.
• This fibre is now ready and would into cones as filaments. It
can also be crimped and cut into staple lengths as per
Polyester Fibre Uses
Apparel: Every form of clothing
Home Furnishings: Carpets, curtains, draperies, sheets
and pillow cases, wall coverings
Other Uses: hoses, power belting, ropes and
nets, thread, tire cord, auto upholstery, sails, floppy disk
liners, and fiberfill for various products including pillows
Functional group is amide Functional group is ester
Absorbs most water Absorbs some water
Greater stretchability Resistant to stretching
Dries slower Dries quickly
smoother and softer fabric than
polyester has always been a
rougher fabric than nylon
Somewhat UV resistant More UV resistant
lightweight and durable synthetic fabrics