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1_Introduction to Health Education.pptx

  1. March 26, 2023 Tesfaye F. 1 Tesfye F. (BSc, MPH, Assistant Professor) Email:
  2. Learning Objectives March 26, 2023 Tesfaye F. 2 At the end of this class; you will be able to:  Recognize the concepts of Health Education  Describe the aims and principles of Health Education  Identify the role of Health Education in Primary Health Care  Familiar with the Health policy of the country as related to Health Education
  3. Historical Development of HE/HP March 26, 2023 Tesfaye F. 3  As a practice as old as human being.  The concept of educating about health has been around since the dawn of humans.  As a profession in the world ~>100 years – USA  Health belief model 1966: the oldest model  As a course: Gondar Health science ~ 1954  As a profession in Ethiopia: JU <10 yrs
  4. Evolution/developmental process of HE/HP March 26, 2023 Tesfaye F. 4 There have been three revolutions in public health:- The First Public Health Revolution  Fight against communicable/infectious diseases, malnutrition and environmental factors over which people had little control (water, basic sanitation, food security)  Health Education had already been taking part during this first revolution The Second Public Health Revolution  Fight against non-communicable diseases over which people had some personal control, when social conditions and context were favorable (obesity/healthy diet, sedentary lifestyles/exercise, addictions, abuse, mental health, risky behaviors)
  5. Evolution of HE/HP… March 26, 2023 Tesfaye F. 5 The Third Public Health Revolution–the ‘Birth of Health Promotion’ (since 1974)  Health promotion is viewed as a strategic activity to promote health as a “resource for every day life”  Health promotion focuses on wellbeing and quality of life, for which it is necessary to empower communities for action
  6. Brainstorming March 26, 2023 Tesfaye F. 6  How do you define health?  Define health education?  Describe health promotion?  Differentiate health information and health education?  Describe the role of health education in public health?
  7. Introduction March 26, 2023 Tesfaye F. 7 Health: is “a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being not merely the absence of disease or infirmity” (WHO 1948)
  8. Health Education March 26, 2023 Tesfaye F. 8 “Any combination of learning experiences designed to facilitate voluntary action conducive to health”  Combination: it emphasizes on the importance of matching multiple determinants of behaviors with multiple learning experiences or educational intervention  Designed: distinguishes health education from incidental learning experiences as systematically planned and organized activity  Facilitate: creating favorable condition such as predispose, enable, reinforce  Voluntary: with full understanding and acceptance of the purpose of the action  Action: behavioral steps/measures taken by individuals, groups or community to achieve the desired health effect.
  9. Health Promotion March 26, 2023 Tesfaye F. 9  To reach a state of complete physical, mental and social well being it is beyond the activity of health education and even health sectors  “A combination of educational approach (health education) and the ecological /environmental approach (political action) for actions and conditions of living conducive to health.” Components of health promotion  Health education  Political environment  Social environment  Economic environment  Organizational environment
  10. Health Education Vs Health Information March 26, 2023 Tesfaye F. 10 Health Education Health Information Baseline information or current level of Multiple determinants of behavior are necessarily required Baseline information or data are not necessarily required Appropriate for old problems (problems known to the people for long period of time) Appropriate for newly emerging health problems and during epidemics Required at all stages in behaviors change Continuum One time telling facts provided that the information reaches at all the intended audiences and understanding takes place Encourage people to make their own choices for healthy life Merely telling people to follow healthy behaviors Use a variety of methods or educational Strategy as appropriate May not use a variety of methods Focus on the reason behind behaviors Blind to the reason behind behaviors
  11. Rationale for health education and Health Promotion March 26, 2023 Tesfaye F. 11  The continued existence and spread of communicable diseases.  such as malaria, TB, HIV/AIDS  About 75% of childhood illnesses are preventable e.g. measles by immunization, malnutrition and diarrhea, promoting breast feeding up until age of two.  Need the involvement of the community members and environmental interventions.  For some diseases health education is the only practical choice:  In order to prevent the spread of the disease or to lead a normal life. E.g. HIV/AIDS.
  12. Rationale … March 26, 2023 Tesfaye F. 12  The tendency of increasing magnitude of chronic conditions and other emerging agendas/new: starting to appear, arise, occur, or develop, which required the cooperation of individuals to lead with the problem. E.g. Hypertension. Human behaviors are almost the single causes for the development of such currently emerging health problems and also the main solution. Many people do not seek treatment until it is too late. Ignorant, access, afraid of seeking treatment
  13. Rationale … March 26, 2023 Tesfaye F. 13 Prevention is better than cure:- is a statement which is generally true especially for non-communicable diseases Increasing threats to the young from new and harmful behaviors E.g.. tobacco use, teen-age pregnancy, substance use etc. Increased awareness of people on chronic health problems and the need to know preventive actions.
  14. Objectives of health education March 26, 2023 Tesfaye F. 14  Ultimate goal of health education is to promote, maintain and improve individuals and community health. Educational objectives of health education  To provide appropriate knowledge: provision of correct knowledge, facts and information. For example, facts about CVD, HIV/AIDS.  To help develop positive attitude: has a lot to do with changing opinions, feelings and beliefs of people.
  15. Objectives of health education… March 26, 2023 Tesfaye F. 15  To help exercise health practice/behavior: concerned with helping people in decision-making and actually performing.  For example helping people choosing alternatives (weather to abstain, be faithful, or use condom)  Decision-making: means choosing between and/or among alternatives in the future about health.
  16. Settings of health education : March 26, 2023 Tesfaye F. 16 Health education occurs in a variety of places, these include:  Health facilities  Schools  Worksite  Health departments  Voluntary health agencies  Communities
  17. Settings of Health Education March 26, 2023 Tesfaye F. 17 Setting Primary Mission Who is served Hospitals Treat illness Patients Community primary care settings Prevent, detect and treat illness and trauma Patients, clients and local community Schools Education Children, adolescents … Worksite Produce good and services Consumer of products and services Health department Disease prevention and control Public Voluntary health agencies Disease prevention and control Public
  18. Principles of health education March 26, 2023 Tesfaye F. 18 1. Principle of educational diagnosis The first task in changing behaviors is to determine its causes. Just as physicians must diagnose an illness before it can be properly treated, so in health education there must a behavior be assessed/diagnosed before it can be properly changed. If the causes of the behaviors understood health educator can intervene with the most appropriate and efficient combination of education, reinforcement and motivation
  19. Principles of HE… March 26, 2023 Tesfaye F. 19 2. Principle of Participation The prospect for success in any attempt to change behaviors will be greater if the individuals, families, community groups,, etc…have been participated in identifying their own needs for change and have selected the methods that will enable them to take action. 3. Principle of multiple methods  This principle follows from the principle of educational diagnosis. In so far as multiple causes will consistently be found for any given behaviors.
  20. Principles of HE… March 26, 2023 Tesfaye F. 20 4. Principle of planning and organizing  Planning and organizing are fundamentals for health education which distinguishes it from other incidental learning experiences.  It involves deciding in advance the when, who, what, how and why of health education.  It also requires the planning for resources, methods and materials to be used, identification of target groups etc.
  21. Principles of HE… March 26, 2023 Tesfaye F. 21 5. Facts Health education is given based on scientific findings/facts and current knowledge. 6. Segmentation Health education should be designed for a specific group of people/specific target groups 7. Need based Health education is primarily educational and its purpose is to ensure a desired health related behavior after real need identification.
  22. Principles of HE… March 26, 2023 Tesfaye F. 22 8. Culture Health education should not considered as artificial situation or formal teaching –learning process. One has to get into the culture of the community to introduce new ideas easily Rigid statements particularly contrary to existing belief, culture, practices will not be liked. Therefore HE starts from where people are and slowly build up the talking point to avoid any clash of ideas through the communication process
  23. Principles of health education… March 26, 2023 Tesfaye F. 23 9. Principle of motivation: Motivation is mental direction /desire for doing or rejecting something. It is something that happens within the person, not something done to a person by others. 10. Principle of feedback It is a mechanism of assessing what has been happened in the target Population after receiving the message..
  24. The role of HE in primary health care March 26, 2023 Tesfaye F. 24 What is PHC?  Primary health care is essential health care made accessible at a cost a country and community can afford, with methods that are practical, scientifically sound and socially acceptable.
  25. Role of HE… March 26, 2023 Tesfaye F. 25 HE is:  A component of PHC  Core principles of primary health care is “community participation”. Thus:  Health education is central to primary health care  All components of primary health care have health education  Informing the community is the first important step towards community participation  Facilitating inter-sectoral action  Primary health care can not successfully implemented without health education.
  26. March 26, 2023 Tesfaye F. 26 Health policy of Ethiopia as related to Health Education Health policy  A formal statement or procedure within institutions (notably government) which defines priorities and the parameters for action in response to health needs, available resources and other political pressures.
  27. Health Policy and Health Education March 26, 2023 Tesfaye F. 27 1. General policy  Development of the preventive and promotive components of health care.  Promoting and strengthening of intersectoral activities.  Promotion of attitudes and practices conducive to the strengthening of national self-reliance in health development by mobilizing and maximally utilizing internal and external resources.  Working closely with neighboring countries, regional and international organizations to share information and strengthen collaboration in all activities contributory to health development including the control of factors detrimental to health.
  28. Health Policy and Health Education… March 26, 2023 Tesfaye F. 28 2. Priorities of the policy 1st. Information, Education and Communication (I.E.C) of health shall be given appropriate prominence to enhance health awareness and to propagate the important concepts and practices of self-responsibility in health.
  29. Health policy and Health Education… March 26, 2023 Tesfaye F. 29 General strategies Health Education shall be strengthened generally and for specific target populations through the mass media, community leaders, religious and cultural leaders, professional associations, schools and other social organizations for:-  Inculcating attitudes of responsibility for self-care in health and assurance of safe environment.  Encouraging the awareness and development of health promotive life-styles and attention to personal hygiene and healthy environment.
  30. Health policy and Health Education… March 26, 2023 Tesfaye F. 30 General…  Enhancing awareness of common communicable and nutritional diseases and the means for their prevention.  Inculcating attitudes of participation in community health development.  Identifying and discouraging harmful traditional practices while encouraging their beneficial aspects.  Discouraging the acquisition of harmful habits such as cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, drug abuse and irresponsible sexual behavior.  Creating awareness in the population about the rational use
  31. March 26, 2023 Tesfaye F. 31 How do you describe the health education program in Ethiopia?
  32. References March 26, 2023 Tesfaye F. 32  TheodoreH, Tulchinsky, Elena A. Varavikova(2000) The new public health  John Hubley 1993. Communicating health. An action guide to health education and health promotion.  Lawrence W. Green et al. 1980. Health education planning a diagnostic approach  Getnet Mitike 2003 health education for health science students. Lecture note series. Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia.  Randall R. Cottrell, James T. Girvan, James F. McKenzie 2006. Principles& foundations of health promotion and education. Third ed. USA.  John Hubley 1993. Communicating health. An action guide to health education and health promotion.  Health policy of the transitional government, 1993
  33. March 26, 2023 Tesfaye F. 33 March 26, 2023