The purpose of this paper is to1. increase your knowledge o
1. The purpose of this paper is to:
1. Increase your knowledge of how theory explains
2. Challenge you to apply theoretical ideas to real life
3. Help you learn how theory is tested and shaped through
4. Develop your skills for doing library and database research in
the social sciences.
You will be provided several news stories about current events
by your assigned TA. You need to choose one of these stories.
In a 5-8 page paper, you need to identify, review, and apply a
specific communication theory to the people, events, or issues
that are involved in the news story.
SPECIFICS - PART I: BACKGROUND WORK
Consider which news story to focus on. You will ultimately
need to choose one news story from the stories your TA assigns
to you. Each TA will have a different set of stories, so you can
only choose from the ones your own TA assigns to your section.
Brainstorm communication topics. You will utilize one theory
to explain something that is going on in the news story.
However, it’s likely the case that you don’t know all the
theories yet (at least, not by name). So, in order to find a
theory, first read the news stories several times and think of any
topics related to communication (in general) that you see. This
could include various topics, such as conflict resolution,
ingroup/outgroup interaction, media effects, agenda setting,
nonverbal communication, technology and interpersonal
relationships, selective attention to media, emotion, and
2. persuasion. These are just a few of the many topics you might
find. If you’ve taken Comm 1, you can also think back to any
topics you remember from that class. The communication topics
you find can help you determine which theory to use in your
Use the literature to help you find possible theories. Once you
have some good communication topics/terms/concepts in mind,
start thinking about which of the theories we’ve discussed might
help you analyze the communication you see in happening in the
article. There are several ways to find a good theory for this
paper. You can look through the assigned readings posted on
GauchoSpace to see if any of the theories sound promising. But
be careful not to just pick the first theory you see. You can also
scour the research literature for sources (e.g., journal articles,
book chapters) that focus on your topic of interest. You can
search for a particular theory name if you already have a theory
in mind (e.g., Social Cognitive Theory, Groupthink, Elaboration
Likelihood Model). This can help you explore the numerous
theories that might be appropriate for the type of
communication you want to analyze.
Helpful Tip: Be sure to download and save the articles you read
while you’re doing your research. Save the articles as PDFs. It’s
easy to forget where you found an article. Saving downloaded
articles can save you a lot of time in the long run.
Focus on one particular theory. Ultimately, you need to pick
one theory that you think has something valuable, insightful, or
interesting to say about the issues, events or people involved in
the news story. The theory you select might not a “perfect fit,”
and that’s okay! Not every
1 of 4
aspect of a theory will apply to the situation in your selected
new articles. Likewise, the situation in your news article might
be so multifaceted that many theories could potentially apply.
Your goal is to apply your theory as best you can to the
3. situation. In the end, the goal is for you to “see something new”
in the news story based on your knowledge of your selected
You’re also strongly encouraged to find additional sources that
could help you provide depth and richness to the points you
make in your paper. Such additional sources might be other
articles, book chapters, or textbooks that give you helpful
information about the theory.
SPECIFICS - PART II: ORGANIZING THE PAPER INTO THE
FOUR MAJOR SECTIONS
Write a comprehensive introduction that informs the reader of
the main ideas in the paper with a clear thesis statement and
preview. Try to make your introduction both informative and
engaging. Be sure to identify the communication issue/topic that
arises from the people or events in the story and the theory that
will help to explain it. It is possible that your introduction will
require more than one paragraph.
Helpful Tip: The main ideas to be presented in your thesis
statement are those you will cover in the In-Depth Application
and Analysis section. Thus, you might not be able to construct
your introductory paragraph(s) until after your write that
section of your paper.
In this section, you need to summarize your selected theory and
its main ideas. In approximately 2-3 paragraphs, you need to
articulate the critical elements of your theory and how scholars
have used the theory in research. This can be harder than it
seems given that theories can be quite complex.
For this section, you’ll need to draw upon the course readings,
but the strongest papers will also provide additional sources
(e.g., journal articles, books, edited book chapters). “Peer -
reviewed” sources are, by far, the best types of sources to rely
on when writing this section. Avoid theory summaries you find
on websites—the information on websites might be highly
4. unreliable. We’ll discuss what “peer-reviewed” means
throughout the quarter. We’ll also discuss tips for how to
review theories in your paper.
3. In-Depth Application and Analysis
This section represents the heart of the paper! Across several
paragraphs, you need to discuss how this theory and its
terms/concepts would explain or apply to the communication
you observe in the news article. Be as specific, thorough, and
thoughtful as possible.
When thinking about this section, ask yourself questions such as
these (you do not have to cover ALL of these):
o In what specific ways does this theory provide me with new
understanding of these events,
people, or behaviors?
o What aspects of the events or behaviors does the theory
explain well, and why?
o What lessons can people potentially learn from viewing the
news events through the lens of
your chosen theory?
o In what ways might the theory fall short in helping to
understand these events/behaviors?
2 of 4
As you think through your answers to these types of questions,
you should begin to see potential main ideas emerge for you to
write about in your paper. One you arrive at the 3-4 main ideas
you want to focus on, you should start thinking about those
main ideas as arguments. That is, each main idea is a claim that
you need to support with evidence. You claim is only as good as
the evidence you provide to support it!
So, where can you find evidence to support your claims? The
answer, once again, is your peer- reviewed sources.
Ultimately, the goal in this section is to show that you gained
new and valuable insights into the events in the news story
based on your newly-acquired knowledge of communication
theory. In addition to the clarity of your main ideas, we’ll be
assessing this section on the quality of the argume nts you make
5. in support of your main ideas.
In 1-2 paragraphs, you should review the main points you
covered in the paper. Strong conclusions, when possible,
provide the reader with thought-providing statements on the
topics you wrote about in In-Depth Application and Analysis
REQUIREMENTS AND POLICIES
The paper should be 5-8 pages of text (not counting title page
and references). Your title page should have your name, Perm #,
course name (i.e.,, and TA Name. You do NOT need an abstract
for this paper. The paper should be typed, double- spaced, page-
numbered, with 1" margins and Times New Roman 12-point
font. Please use APA formatting throughout the paper. Note that
Word’s default settings are usually wrong for this assignment
(margins too big, font too small, extra line spaces inserted after
paragraphs, etc.), so you’ll need to change these settings. If you
have questions about formatting, don’t’ hesitate to ask! All
papers should also have proper spelling, grammar, and
punctuation. Problematic writing mechanics hinder the clarity
of your ideas and the strength of the arguments, and will
therefore detract from the paper score.
APA Style Citations and Plagiarism
Since this assignment requires you to make good use of the
thoughts, writings, and work of others, proper citations are
essential. Your paper must follow APA style (not MLA) for in-
text citations and for your reference list. You will find some
guidelines for APA style on GauchoSpace. We will also review
key features of APA formatting.
Plagiarism will result in a failing grade in the course and
further disciplinary action consistent with student conduct code
(see syllabus for details). Be especially carefully not to
“borrow” from another student’s paper, as this is also
plagiarism (whether or not specific words have been changed).
In short, do your own work.
6. You must also be sure to write your paper on one of the exact
news stories that your TA assigns to you. If you write about a
story not assigned to your section, your paper will receive a
Turning in Papers – Submit to GauchoSpace
All papers must be submitted electronically to GauchoSpace.
3 of 4
Papers must be submitted online on the specified date. Late
papers are marked down 10 points per day late (see syllabus for
additional details). Double check to make sure you uploaded the
correct file! We can only grade what you submit. Be sure not to
accidentally submit an older draft or the wrong file. Again, we
can only grade what you submit. Always keep a copy of your
paper on hand for your records as well. In cases of serious
emergency, please notify your instructor and/or TA as soon as
possible, and we will proceed from there depending on the
nature of the emergency.
Your score will be based on how well your paper, compared to
other students’ papers, shows: 1. depth of analysis in using
course concepts and outside research, 2. effectiveness at
articulating and supporting arguments, 3. accurate and thorough
understanding of course material and outside research, 4.
University-level writing and organization, and 5. adherence to
Note that we do not deduct points from your paper, but rather
you earn points for writing with clearer understanding and for
making better, stronger, more insightful arguments than other
papers do. It’s often unclear what a truly excellent paper will
look like until we read the papers that are turned in. We
anticipate that “average” papers will receive the equivalent of
about a B-/C+ grade. The papers that tend to end up in that top
range are the ones that apply the theory and discuss the research
not only with accuracy, but also with depth, insight, and strong
4Title of Paper
Title of Paper
Use the title of your paper rather than the word “Introduction.”
Notice this is the only Level One Heading that should not be
bolded. Triple click your mouse anywhere in this paragraph to
replace this text with your introduction. Often the most
important paragraph in the entire essay, the introduction grabs
the reader's attention—sometimes a difficult task for academic
Level One Heading
Replace the level one heading with the words for your heading.
The heading must be in bold font and centered. Headings are a
necessary part of helping your audience track the sub-topics
discussed in the body of the essay or report.
Be sure to indent the first line of each paragraph between five
and seven spaces by pressing the Tab key one time on the
keyboard. In addition, remember to double space the entire
paper using the double space functionality in Word. This
template is already formatted for double spacing.
Another Level One Heading
In addition, keep in mind an academic essay should contain at
least five paragraphs, which includes the introduction
(introductory paragraph), the body (which is generally at least 3
8. paragraphs), and the conclusion (generally one paragraph). Most
well-developed paragraphs contain at least 3-5 sentences, one of
which is the topic sentence. Limit each body paragraph to one
sub-topic. Remember to always use citations such as this one
(Wheelen, Hunger, Hoffman, and Bamford, 2015).
The closing paragraph is designed to bring the reader to your
way of thinking if you are writing a persuasive essay, to
understand relationships if you are writing a
comparison/contrast essay, or simply to value the information
you provide in an informational essay. The closing paragraph
summarizes the key points from the supporting paragraphs
without introducing any new information. Every Reference on
the references page must have a citation in your text, and every
citation must be listed on the references page as well. If in
This is a hanging indentation. To keep the hanging indent
format, triple click your mouse on this line of text and replace
the information with your reference entry. You can use the
Reference and Citation examples from the Owl at Purdue to help
format your source information into a reference entry.
The reference page always begins on the top of the next page
after the conclusion. You must list every citation with a
reference, and every reference must have an in-text citation to
Wheelen, T. L., Hunger, J. D., Hoffman, A. N., & Bamford, C.
E. (2015). Concepts in strategic management and business
policy: Globalization, Innovation, and sustainability (14th ed.).
Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.
Strategic Management Project Background
Page 2 of 2
9. Strategic Management Project BackgroundOverview
The intention of the Strategic Management Project is to provide
you practical experience with the elements of strategic
management. The project is spread across the 5-week period of
the course. Weeks 14 provide an opportunity to put key terms
into practice by appraising the strategic planning elements of
Caterpillar Inc. through documentation in the Strategic
Management Research Journal. The Week 5 concluding
assignment showcases your understanding of strategic
management and improvement in the formulation of a
presentation to Caterpillar Inc.’s leadership team.
For purposes of the Strategic Management Project, you will
operate as if you are a new hire at the Caterpillar Inc.
headquarters in the role of Assistant Strategic Development
Analyst.Assistant Strategic Development Analyst Job
· Maintain a Strategic Management Research Journal in which
· Appraise Caterpillar Inc.’s corporate data, competitors, and
associated business information.
· Document background information to include previous and
current strategic management of Caterpillar Inc.
· Assess the strengths and weaknesses of strategic management
of Caterpillar Inc., based on your analyses, and provide
information in a presentation to Caterpillar Inc. leadership.
· Recommend strategic management actions to ensure future
success in a presentation to Caterpillar Inc.’s leadership
team.About Caterpillar Inc.
The following is derived from the Caterpillar Inc. website:
Caterpillar Inc. is a leading manufacturer of construction and
mining equipment, diesel and natural gas engines, industrial gas
turbines, and diesel-electric locomotives. Caterpillar’s
enterprise strategy focuses on solutions to help customers build
a better world and allows the company to deliver profitable
growth for their shareholders. The company’s corporate
governance program ensures they serve the interests of
10. stockholders and other stakeholders with the highest standards
of responsibility, integrity, and compliance with all laws.
Caterpillar’s global presence, product breadth, and financial
strength enables the company to be competitive in today’s
Copyright 2020 by University of Phoenix. All rights reserved.
Copyright 2019 by University of Phoenix. All rights reserved.
Live video dating: Finding love
online with an audience
By Dougal Shaw
Business reporter, BBC News
1 September 2020
WATCH: What is live video dating and how does it work?
Television game shows have made dating a form of
entertainment for the
masses for decades. More recently reality TV has adopted the
hits like Love Island and First Dates. Now the phenomenon has
- and anyone can play.
"I remember it as if it were yesterday. I was so nervous to eve n
say, 'Hi'. The first
time I saw him smiling, my heart told me. 'That's the one, I'm
going to make that
man happy whatever it takes."
Ericka's heartfelt letter (which she published on social media)
11. recalling the
first time she met boyfriend Lex sounds like a timeless tale of
love. But read
on a bit further and it becomes apparent that this is a love story
with a very
"I think the thing that caught my attention was how he made
everyone in his
stream feel important and welcomed. Not one comme nt was
missed. He made
everyone feel like they had a purpose in his stream."
Ericka on a live date with Lex as virtual giNs come flying in
Ericka and Lex live in the US and met on popular dating app
broadcast live from their phones and then interact with people
who tune in.
This live vlogging format includes a series of live dating game
Livestreamers are paired up to see if there is any chemistry
Viewers comment on a "stream" underneath, in real time. In fact
quite a bit of
the date can involve participants responding to these comments
- a bit meta,
but handy when the conversation runs dry.
Ericka began as what's known as a "lurker". She watched Lex's
what she saw, she plucked up the courage to comment. Then she
forward for the "guest box", meaning she herself would have a
12. video date with
him - while others watched on.
Ericka and Lex are not the only couple to have got together this
Kevan and Haley are livestreaming stars on the MeetMe dating
Thirty-eight-year-old musician Kevan and make-up artist Haley,
22, also met
on MeetMe this year.
Neither had been on other dating sites before, but they didn't
come on the
platform with the intention of "dating", they say. They just
wanted to "stream"
and meet people.
Haley started streaming "to share my positive energy".
She watched popular livestreamers for inspiration and saw
Kevan. "I promised I
would never catch feelings, but when something is right in your
gut, you take
it," she remembers.
Like Ericka, she appreciated the way she could see how Kevan
different types of people on the app, which gave her a measure
of him as a
When they met for the first time offline, in Orlando, Florida,
Haley says it was
"a dream come true".
13. "Every second was perfect. God has blessed me in so many
ways, but Kevan is
my favourite prayer that he has answered."
They still stream together on the platform individually and as a
Sometimes they even take part in "dates" with other people, on
understanding that "nothing can go beyond a crush".
Dating goes live and public
MeetMe is part of a suite of dating apps run by US company
The Meet Group.
Others include Skout, Tagged (which focuses on an African-
audience) and LOVOO (an app developed in Germany, which
Between them they have more than 15 million users and on
dating games are played each day, with more than one million
watching the live dates unfold - mainly in the US, though some
in the UK too.
The group's chief executive Geoff Cook describes the platforms
as "a public
version of speed dating" and compares them to Twitch, where
watch computer gamers play and interact with their favourite
A live date taking place on the MeetMe app
Like Twitch, the most popular "daters" can make money, as
14. audiences send
them virtual giNs - suitably romantic, like roses and chocolates
- which can be
converted to cash.
You buy a virtual giN like you would buy someone a drink at a
bar, to get that
person's attention, explains Cook.
Though a top livestreaming dater can make close to $1m
(£750,000) a year,
Cook says the vast majority don't make much money. Most
users are there to
flirt, have fun and find a real-life partner in their locality.
Some users are also there to harass and leave lewd comments.
livestreams are monitored by both human moderators and
searching for abusive language.
"Dating apps have been evolving toward ever-increasing
nothing is more authentic than live video," says Cook.
accelerated that trend, making people accustomed to live video
remote work and keeping in touch with family members, he
The number of dating games being played on the apps has
"It's fascinating to think where the live video dating trend came
15. from," says
dating expert Charly Lester.
It first got big in China with the Momo app, she says, even
though the country
has such a different culture to the US.
Lester wrote a popular dating blog in London for many years
and has since
worked as a consultant for dating companies.
She is not surprised by the rise of live video dating and the
goes with it.
Charly Lester wrote a popular blog about her dating experiences
"When I first started my dating blog, I thought the only people
who would be
interested were other singles, but you suddenly realise that
something that fascinates everyone, even people in couples."
Being in the audience for a date on an app allows you to "test
the waters", she
There is still a little bit of a stigma around dating sites and the
of it helps to get round this, she thinks.
Lester reckons live dating with an audience is a new trend that
popular beyond specialist apps like MeetMe, though more
platforms, which use detailed questionnaires to match people,
16. may resist it.
Plenty of Fish is a mainstream dating site currently offering live
experiences. Badoo also recently experimented with the idea.
Meanwhile, some aspiring dating stars are using other social
to create their own live dating shows.
Urszula Makowska, 25, was growing increasingl y disillusioned
with New York's
online dating scene.
The fashion blogger was ready to give up on apps like Tinder,
proved a turning point.
Her friends decided - with her consent - to find some eligible
set up a series of live dates on Instagram, using her account.
A few other influencers had broadcast dates this way too and
Bumble had created a weekly chat show on Instagram Live
Dating Dial In.
Some men declined the date with Urszula when they learned it
An advert for Urszula's dating show on Instagram Live
Those who took part had their charm rated by Urszula's
17. thousands of
followers, who voted on whether there would be a second date.
Urszula says the feedback has changed her approach to dating.
She learned that she oNen cuts men off mid-sentence and is now
She also learned to be more open-minded about the kind of
person she was
One of Urszula's dates turns raunchy and the viewers seem to
But was the project really about finding love, or finding new
followers? She is
aNer all a social media influencer, who grows more powerful as
"You don't do it to grow your followers, that's not cool," says
Since the outbreak of coronavirus people are no longer satisfied
shallow interaction like swiping and a handful of text
messages", says Geoff
Cook of the Meet Group.
Video has become by default a way to filter out people you have
met on apps,
to decide who you actually want to meet in person, he says.
18. But broadcasting these video dates themselves, as entertainment
spectators, is that not a little, well, shallow?
The usual criticism of dating apps is the excess of choice, says
makes people restless and unlikely to commit to a relationship.
Observing how someone behaves in a livestream means you get
to know the
person better, he says. "And once you've connected with
someone, how you
met is secondary."
Matching couples can win things like restaurant vouchers on
Kevan and Haley, who are both committed Christians, agree on
this. Asked if
they would be happy to tell any future grandchildren that they
met on a live
online date, Haley says: "Everyone's scared or embarrassed to
say we met on
Tinder, or whatever, because they think people use these apps
for bad reasons,
but this is our truth so it's what we're going to say."
"The cool thing about livestreaming, and Haley knows this,"
says Kevan, "is we
weren't looking for love. I was committed to being single, and
You can follow Dougal on Twitter: @dougalshawbbc
You may also be interested in:
19. Lorna is part of a growing trend for over-50s to use dating apps
Thanks to trailblazers like Tinder, online dating has gone
mature daters want in on the action too. Lorna is 62 and lives in
where she works as a PA. She is a divorcee with children and
is still looking for love. "You come home from work, you want
to be talking to
someone about your day, it's good for your mental health," she
the reason why I'm still dating at my age." Read more here.
Dating apps Dating Online dating
Elsewhere on the BBC
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26. b. details regarding example 2
III. In-depth Analysis
A. Point 1 covered in in-depth analysis
1. Example 1 of point 1
a. details regarding example 1
b. details regarding example 1
2. Example 2 of point 1
a. details regarding example 2
b. details regarding example 2
B. Point 2 covered in in-depth analysis
1. Example 1 of point 2
a. details regarding example 1
b. details regarding example 1
2. Example 2 of point 2
a. details regarding example 2
b. details regarding example 2
A. Point 1 covered in the conclusion
B. Point 2 covered in the conclusion
C. Point 3 covered in the conclusion