2. Learning Objectives
Locate Rizal ‘s life in the Philippines within
the wider context of the development in the
Explain the impartment role of the Chinese
mestizos and their ranks within the
changing Philippine economy and society
Discuss the interplay pf several factors that
contributed to the changing landscape of
Philippine society and economy
3. The Changing Landscape of Philippine
Economy and Society
Many scholars consider the 19th century
as an era of profound change in the
During this period, vast economic,
political, social and cultural currents were
In the late 18th century, monarchy in Spain
experienced a dynamic shift from the
Habsburgs to the Bourbons.
With the goal of invigorating the
profitability of the colonies like the
Philippines, Bourbons policies and reforms
By the time Basco arrived, the Galleon
Trade, the main economic institution
existing in the Philippines, was already
4. The Changing Landscape of Philippine
Economy and Society
The global wave became the silver lining
Many imperial powers in Europe and the west were undergoing
industrialization, there was an increase of demand for raw
materials presented an opportunity in the agricultural potential in
Basco established the Royal Philippine Company in 1785 to
finance agricultural projects and manage the new trade being
established between Philippines and Spain also other Asian
Resistance also came from various sectors like Catholic Church
that was not receptive of the labor realignments by the planned
reforms, and traders that still holding the Galleon Trade.
5. Global events continued to affect the
Philippines at the beginning of the 19th
In 1810, the Mexicans War of
Independence rattled the Spanish Empire
that may lead to the loss of the precious
Latin American colonies.
Manila opened to world trade by 1834, as a
result foreign merchants and traders came
and resided in Manila.
In the half of the 19th century, majority
exports of the Philippines came from cash
crops like tobacco, sugar, cotton, indigo,
abaca and coffee.
6. Today, Binondo is famous as the world’s oldest Chinatown: a slice of China
outside the mainland. The Binondo area, from the streets of Escolta and
Divisoria to the bustle of Plaza San Lorenzo Ruiz all the way to Ongpin—and
the many who lived there and contributed to its rich history—has had a huge
influence on the rest of Manila, as well as the nation.
7. The Chinese and Chinese Mestizos
The Chinese Mestizos were
an important element of the
Philippine society in the 19th
The Chinese and Chinese
Mestizos greatly benefited
from the changing economy
since pre-colonial times.
The Chinese proved to be
necessary outsiders in
Philippine colonial economy
They influenced the economy
in the 19th century by
purchasing land, accumulating
wealth and influence.
8. Impact of life in the Economy
The economic development precipitated social, political, and
cultural developments as well.
As Manila became a trading center, it became viable destination
for people seeking better opportunities or those wanting to
escape the worsening conditions in the farmlands.
As the new economy afforded the colonial state new
opportunities it also prompted the state to be more regulatory
and to assert its authority
9. Renegotiating Social
Sociologists use the term social stratification to describe the
system of social standing. Social stratification refers to a
society’s categorization of its people into rankings of
socioeconomic tiers based on factors like wealth, income,
race, education, and power.
You may remember the word “stratification” from geology
class. The distinct vertical layers found in rock, called
stratification, are a good way to visualize social structure.
Society’s layers are made of people, and society’s
resources are distributed unevenly throughout the layers.
The people who have more resources represent the top
layer of the social structure of stratification. Other groups of
people, with progressively fewer and fewer resources,
represent the lower layers of our society.