Ce diaporama a bien été signalé.
Nous utilisons votre profil LinkedIn et vos données d’activité pour vous proposer des publicités personnalisées et pertinentes. Vous pouvez changer vos préférences de publicités à tout moment.
ICT
Research Questions
ICT
Agenda
 Why research questions?
 Relevance
 Rigor
 How to formulate one?
 Design and creation
 Positivist
 Inte...
ICT
Why research questions?
Discussion
(Write down your research question!)
ICT
The thinking man
You
Other researchers
Your research
Practice
Rigor
Relevance
ICT
Practical vs. Research Problems
Practical
Problem
Research
Question
Research
Problem
Research
Answer
motivates
defines...
ICT
Conceptual Problems
Conceptual
Problem
Research
Question
Research
Problem
Research
Answer
motivates
definesfinds
helps...
ICT
Practical vs. Research Problems
Condition Cost
Practical Problem An undesirable
situation in the real
world
Unhappines...
ICT
Examples
Practical problem Research question
An aging population leads to more
fall injuries. These injuries are costl...
ICT
The "So what?" Test
 Topic: I am studying X
 Question: Because I want to answer Y
 Significance: In order to help s...
ICT
Examples of the "So what?" test
 Topic: I am studying falls among seniors.
 Question: Because I want to find out wha...
ICT
Agenda
 Why research questions?
 Relevance
 Rigor
 How to formulate one?
ICT
How does a rigorous research
question look like?
Discussion
ICT
Non-rigorous research questions
 Research questions that are not asked.
 Research questions that are not answered.
...
ICT
Rigorous RQs should
 Be focused,
 Identify the right paradigm,
 Positivist, interpretive, critical.
 Drive the rig...
ICT
RQs should be focused
Research Area
Research Topic
Research Question
Problem
space
dimension
ICT
How to focus? Qualitative example.
Coherence
 Use of active verb:
 Understanding, Exploring,
Interpreting, Construct...
ICT
Examples of focusing
Area Topic Research Question
Aging and IT Falls among seniors and
the use of IT
What do we know a...
ICT
Research question should drive
research design
Practical
Problem
Research
Question
Research
Problem
Research
Answer
mo...
ICT
The research design process
What is the impact of using
system X to promote
exercise Y with N elderly
living in nursin...
ICT
Primary and secondary RQs
Primary
Research
Question
Primary
Research
Question
Secondary
RQ1
Secondary
RQ1
Secondary
RQ...
ICT
Focusing through designing:
Lean research and iterative RQs
Pre-pilot Pilot Main study
Secondary
Question 1
Secondary
...
ICT
Secondary questions and iterations
Sample n = 100
e.g. questionnaire
Sub-sample n = 10
e.g. interviews
Sub-
sub-
sampl...
ICT
Examples of primary and secondary RQs
Primary RQ Secondary RQs
What is the impact of using system X
to promote exercis...
ICT
Check list
 Is my RQ something that I am curious about and that others might
care about? Does it present an issue on ...
ICT
Mr. Rigorosi and Mrs. Relevanté
Who wins the H2020 race?
ICT
Mr. Rigorosi and Mrs. Relevanté
Who wins the Nobel prize?
ICT
Agenda
 Why research questions?
 Relevance
 Rigor
 How to formulate one?
 Design and creation
 Positivist
 Inte...
ICT
RQs should use the right wording
 "What is the effect of ….?"
 Requires a design based on Randomized Controlled Tria...
ICT
RQ should use the right wording
 Positivist:
 "What is…..?"
 "How big….?"
 Interpretist:
 "How do….?"
 "Why do…....
ICT
Design and creation RQs
 First ask yourself: What is the role of the IT system in my
research?
 Is it: The main focu...
ICT
Design and creation RQs: Areas
How might a persuasive system based on reward theories look like?
ICT
SE research questions
ICT
Quantitative RQs
 Three Rules for Quantitative Research Questions
 They Begin with “How”, “What”, or “Why” and can N...
ICT
RQs: Positivist or interpretive?
Research
Question
Research
Design
(Interpretive)
Hypothesis
Research
Design
(Positivi...
ICT
RQs in qualitative research
 Generalizing Qs vs. particularizing Qs
 From "How do students use social media in their...
ICT
RQs in qualitative research
 Descriptive RQs
 Ask about what actually happened.
 Interpretive RQs
 Ask about the m...
ICT
PICO (Quant.) and SPIDER (Qual.)
ICT
RQs in qualitative research
 Will be revised during the research (very different than
quantitative research!)
 Bewar...
ICT
Qualitative RQs in context
Research Questions
Purposes
Conceptual
context
Methods Validity
ICT
FINER (Clinical)
 F:Feasible
 Adequate number of subjects
 Adequate technical expertise
 Affordable in time and mo...
ICT
Choosing the right questions
ICT
The wrong research question
leads to wasted time and effort!
ICT
Credits
This presentation is based on a number of publications from others. The
figure introduced in 5 is by (Booth, C...
ICT
References
 Agee, Jane. 2009. “Developing Qualitative Research Questions: A Reflective Process.” International Journa...
Prochain SlideShare
Chargement dans…5
×

19

Partager

Télécharger pour lire hors ligne

Research questions

Télécharger pour lire hors ligne

In this lecture you will learn about the importance of research questions, how they related to research problems, the properties of good research questions, and the differences between quantitative and qualitative research questions.

Livres associés

Gratuit avec un essai de 30 jours de Scribd

Tout voir

Livres audio associés

Gratuit avec un essai de 30 jours de Scribd

Tout voir

Research questions

  1. 1. ICT Research Questions
  2. 2. ICT Agenda  Why research questions?  Relevance  Rigor  How to formulate one?  Design and creation  Positivist  Interpretive
  3. 3. ICT Why research questions? Discussion (Write down your research question!)
  4. 4. ICT The thinking man You Other researchers Your research Practice Rigor Relevance
  5. 5. ICT Practical vs. Research Problems Practical Problem Research Question Research Problem Research Answer motivates definesfinds helps to solve Applied Research Purpose Aim Objective
  6. 6. ICT Conceptual Problems Conceptual Problem Research Question Research Problem Research Answer motivates definesfinds helps to solve Pure/Basic Research
  7. 7. ICT Practical vs. Research Problems Condition Cost Practical Problem An undesirable situation in the real world Unhappiness, pain, material cost, social cost, etc. Research Problem Not knowing or not understanding something Cost of not knowing (and thereby not being able to solve the practical problem).
  8. 8. ICT Examples Practical problem Research question An aging population leads to more fall injuries. These injuries are costly in terms of mental, social and economical costs. • What do we know about the causes of falls among seniors? • What do we know about the role of IT in preventing falls among seniors? • What type of IT systems are best in preventing falls among seniors?
  9. 9. ICT The "So what?" Test  Topic: I am studying X  Question: Because I want to answer Y  Significance: In order to help solve real world problem Z  From "So what?"  So what if problem Z is not solved?  To "OMG! Tell me, what do we do about that?"  Problem Z is important also for me! Please solve it!  Discussion: How relevant are your research questions?
  10. 10. ICT Examples of the "So what?" test  Topic: I am studying falls among seniors.  Question: Because I want to find out what causes these falls.  Significance: In order to create IT-based solutions that can reduce falls among seniors.  Topic: I am studying X  Question: Because I want to answer Y  Significance: In order to help solve real world problem Z
  11. 11. ICT Agenda  Why research questions?  Relevance  Rigor  How to formulate one?
  12. 12. ICT How does a rigorous research question look like? Discussion
  13. 13. ICT Non-rigorous research questions  Research questions that are not asked.  Research questions that are not answered.  Research questions that have Yes/No answers.  Research questions whose answers don't produce any new knowledge.  Research questions that don't have "symmetry of outcome".  Research questions that are too broad.  Research questions that are too narrow.  Research questions that include presumptions.
  14. 14. ICT Rigorous RQs should  Be focused,  Identify the right paradigm,  Positivist, interpretive, critical.  Drive the right research design,  Case study, design and creation, survey,….  Drive the management of the research project,  Needed time,  Needed resources,  Inherent dependencies on others.
  15. 15. ICT RQs should be focused Research Area Research Topic Research Question Problem space dimension
  16. 16. ICT How to focus? Qualitative example. Coherence  Use of active verb:  Understanding, Exploring, Interpreting, Constructing, Explaining, etc.  Use of relevant nouns:  Experiences, Feelings, Views, Perspectives, Knowledge, etc.  Indication of methodology:  Grounded theory, Action research, Exploratory study, etc. Structure  What will be studied?  Who will be studied  When will they be studied  Where will they be studied  What will be studied  How it will be studied  Why it will be studied
  17. 17. ICT Examples of focusing Area Topic Research Question Aging and IT Falls among seniors and the use of IT What do we know about the role of IT in preventing falls among seniors? Empirical evidence of IT and falls among elderly What types of systems have shown to actually reduce falls among seniors? Exercise-based interventions for fall prevention and the role of IT How can an IT system help seniors to comply with preventive exercise interventions? What is the impact of using system X to promote exercise Y with N elderly living in nursing home A in Trondheim?
  18. 18. ICT Research question should drive research design Practical Problem Research Question Research Problem Research Answer motivates definesfinds helps to solve
  19. 19. ICT The research design process What is the impact of using system X to promote exercise Y with N elderly living in nursing home A in Trondheim?
  20. 20. ICT Primary and secondary RQs Primary Research Question Primary Research Question Secondary RQ1 Secondary RQ1 Secondary RQ1 Secondary RQ1 Secondary RQ1 Secondary RQ1 help answer help answer Contributory research questions Ancillary research questions Remember: There should always be a relation between primary and secondary RQ!
  21. 21. ICT Focusing through designing: Lean research and iterative RQs Pre-pilot Pilot Main study Secondary Question 1 Secondary Question 2 Secondary Question 3 Main Question
  22. 22. ICT Secondary questions and iterations Sample n = 100 e.g. questionnaire Sub-sample n = 10 e.g. interviews Sub- sub- sample n = 1 e.g. case study Progress of the research Third sample n = 100 e.g. questionnaire Second sample n = 10 e.g. interviews Initial sample n = 1 e.g. case study
  23. 23. ICT Examples of primary and secondary RQs Primary RQ Secondary RQs What is the impact of using system X to promote exercise Y with N seniors living in nursing home A in Trondheim? • What is system X? • What do seniors living in nursing home A think system X is? • What do seniors in nursing home A think about a paper prototype of system X? • What is the effect of using system X for 4 weeks to promote exercise Y with N seniors…..? • What is the effect… after one year?
  24. 24. ICT Check list  Is my RQ something that I am curious about and that others might care about? Does it present an issue on which I can take a stand?  Does my RQ put a new spin on an old issue, or does it try to solve a problem?  Is my RQ too broad, too narrow, or OK?  Is my RQ researchable…  …within the time frame of the assignment?  …given the resources available at my location?  Is my RQ measurable? What type of information do I need? Can I find actual data to support or contradict a position?  What sources will have the type of information that I need to answer my RQ (journals, books, internet resources, government documents, interviews with people)?
  25. 25. ICT Mr. Rigorosi and Mrs. Relevanté Who wins the H2020 race?
  26. 26. ICT Mr. Rigorosi and Mrs. Relevanté Who wins the Nobel prize?
  27. 27. ICT Agenda  Why research questions?  Relevance  Rigor  How to formulate one?  Design and creation  Positivist  Interpretive
  28. 28. ICT RQs should use the right wording  "What is the effect of ….?"  Requires a design based on Randomized Controlled Trials.  "What is the impact/influence of ….?"  Might require case study research.  "What are the attitudes of … towards …?"  Might require case study or ethnography.  Etc.
  29. 29. ICT RQ should use the right wording  Positivist:  "What is…..?"  "How big….?"  Interpretist:  "How do….?"  "Why do…..?"  Critical:  "Why is it….?"  "Why not….?"  Design and creation  How good is….?  How can we create…?
  30. 30. ICT Design and creation RQs  First ask yourself: What is the role of the IT system in my research?  Is it: The main focus of the research?  Research domain: Computer science.  Research questions: Addressing the system as a phenomenon.  Is it: A vehicle for something else?  Research domain: Information systems and applied CS.  Research questions: Addressing the system in its context of use.  Is it: A tangible outcome of a process, where the process is my focus?  Research domain: Software engineering.  Research questions: Addressing the process and tools used during the development of the system.
  31. 31. ICT Design and creation RQs: Areas How might a persuasive system based on reward theories look like?
  32. 32. ICT SE research questions
  33. 33. ICT Quantitative RQs  Three Rules for Quantitative Research Questions  They Begin with “How”, “What”, or “Why” and can NEVER be answered by a simple Yes or No  Specify the independent and dependent variables  IF your questions deal with connections among multiple variables, you will again - use relate or compare – just as you did in the purpose statement  General Descriptive Examples [using rules 1 and 2]:  What factors positively impact employee turnover rates of hourly workers?  Why do Asian-American students outscore other student groups on AP Calculus Exams?
  34. 34. ICT RQs: Positivist or interpretive? Research Question Research Design (Interpretive) Hypothesis Research Design (Positivist) Quantitative research starts with a hypothesis: • RQ: What do I want to know? • RH: What is my tentative answer? Avoid "Fishing expeditions" Quantitative Qualitative Research Propositions
  35. 35. ICT RQs in qualitative research  Generalizing Qs vs. particularizing Qs  From "How do students use social media in their study?"  To "How do 5. year CS students at NTNU use Facebook to coordinate their project-based subjects?"  Generalization important?  Consider quantitative!  Instrumental Qs vs. realist Qs  Do we need to reframe questions to collect objectively measurable data, or do we collect what is there, even if subjective?  Objective data mandatory?  Consider quantitative!  Variance Qs vs. process Qs  Variance Qs focus on differences and variations: "How much?", "To what extent?", "Is there?" Consider quantitative!  Process Qs focus on the meaning of events and the influence of the physical and social context of use on these events.
  36. 36. ICT RQs in qualitative research  Descriptive RQs  Ask about what actually happened.  Interpretive RQs  Ask about the meaning of what happened to those involved.  Theoretical RQ  Ask about why those things happened.  Generalization RQ  Normally not asked in QR (not big enough samples).  Evaluation RQ  Normally not asked in QR (imposes values on people).
  37. 37. ICT PICO (Quant.) and SPIDER (Qual.)
  38. 38. ICT RQs in qualitative research  Will be revised during the research (very different than quantitative research!)  Beware of "smuggling unexamined assumptions"!  Can be a statement rather than a question.
  39. 39. ICT Qualitative RQs in context Research Questions Purposes Conceptual context Methods Validity
  40. 40. ICT FINER (Clinical)  F:Feasible  Adequate number of subjects  Adequate technical expertise  Affordable in time and money  Manageable in scope  I: Interesting  Getting the answer intrigues investigator, peers and community  N: Novel  Confirms, refutes or extends previous findings  E: Ethical  Amenable to a study that institutional review board will approve  R: Relevant  To scientific knowledge  To clinical and health policy  To future research
  41. 41. ICT Choosing the right questions
  42. 42. ICT The wrong research question leads to wasted time and effort!
  43. 43. ICT Credits This presentation is based on a number of publications from others. The figure introduced in 5 is by (Booth, Colomb, and Williams 2003), so is the "So what?" test in slide 9. The terms used in "How to focus?" slide are by (Mantzoukas 2008). The figure in slide 18 and a lot of ideas in the slides are by (Oates 2005). The discussion of primary and secondary questions is adopted from (Andrews 2003). The research outputs/activities matrix is by (March and Smith 1995). The table showing software research questions is by (Shaw 2002). A lot of the material on qualitative data is adopted from (Maxwell 1996) and (Agee 2009).... Slides on PICO and SPIDER are from (Cooke, Smith, and Booth 2012). Some of the discussion on choosing a good research question and the graph are from (Alon 2009).
  44. 44. ICT References  Agee, Jane. 2009. “Developing Qualitative Research Questions: A Reflective Process.” International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education 22 (4): 431–47. doi:10.1080/09518390902736512.  Alon, Uri. 2009. “How to Choose a Good Scientific Problem.” Molecular Cell 35 (6): 726–28. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2009.09.013.  Andrews, Richard. 2003. Research Questions. London: Continum.  Booth, Wayne C., Gregory G. Colomb, and Joseph M. Williams. 2003. The Craft of Research. 2nd ed. Chicago, London: The University of Chicago Press. http://www.press.uchicago.edu/ucp/books/book/chicago/C/bo5821939.html.  Cooke, Alison, Debbie Smith, and Andrew Booth. 2012. “Beyond PICO: The SPIDER Tool for Qualitative Evidence Synthesis.” Qualitative Health Research 22 (10): 1435–43. doi:10.1177/1049732312452938.  Mantzoukas, Stefanos. 2008. “Facilitating Research Students in Formulating Qualitative Research Questions.” Nurse Education Today 28 (3): 371–77. doi:10.1016/j.nedt.2007.06.012.  March, Salvatore T., and Gerald F. Smith. 1995. “Design and Natural Science Research on Information Technology.” Decision Support Systems 15 (4): 251–66. doi:10.1016/0167-9236(94)00041-2.  Maxwell, Joseph A. 1996. Qualitative Research Design- An Interactive Approach. Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications.  Oates, Briony J. 2005. Researching Information Systems and Computing. 1st ed. SAGE Publications.  Shaw, Mary. 2002. “What Makes Good Research in Software Engineering?” International Journal on Software Tools for Technology Transfer 4 (1). Springer-Verlag: 1–7. doi:10.1007/s10009-002-0083-4.
  • cmruchiangmai

    Jun. 25, 2021
  • ImeldaPelenio

    Mar. 19, 2021
  • ritikabutar

    Feb. 12, 2021
  • KrishnenduDebnath3

    Mar. 6, 2020
  • moonaung

    Jan. 13, 2019
  • marlieskroon

    Jun. 8, 2018
  • atere4ever

    May. 12, 2018
  • dorgold

    Mar. 8, 2018
  • ArashMashhadi

    Nov. 20, 2017
  • ShaykhAliu

    Oct. 25, 2017
  • sherrylmft

    Aug. 23, 2017
  • 100000867942098

    Jul. 31, 2017
  • LocTran58

    Jul. 19, 2017
  • PhamNgoc24

    May. 4, 2017
  • cikguib

    Apr. 28, 2017
  • charlottewong2

    Jul. 28, 2016
  • KhanyisileNgodwana

    Jun. 6, 2016
  • molly_bullock

    Apr. 27, 2016
  • EffatNashat1

    Jun. 7, 2015

In this lecture you will learn about the importance of research questions, how they related to research problems, the properties of good research questions, and the differences between quantitative and qualitative research questions.

Vues

Nombre de vues

27 250

Sur Slideshare

0

À partir des intégrations

0

Nombre d'intégrations

197

Actions

Téléchargements

726

Partages

0

Commentaires

0

Mentions J'aime

19

×