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Unit 3 defense mechanisms

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Unit 3 defense mechanisms

  1. 1. Muhammad Baqar Post RN BScN, MSPH Unit -3 DEFENSE MECHANISM OR MENTAL MECHANISMS
  2. 2. Objectives At the end of this lesson you will be able to: o Define defense mechanisms o State the different defense mechanisms.
  3. 3. Defense Mechanisms o Methods of attempting to protect the self and cope with basic drives or emotionally painful thoughts, feelings, or events. o Defense mechanisms are used to reduce anxiety or resolved conflict by modifying or changing our behavior. o All Defense Mechanisms are Unconscious (except Suppression), distinct, Dynamic & Irreversible, Adaptive & Maladaptive
  4. 4. Defense Mechanisms Highly adaptive (mature) o Sublimation o Repression Less adaptive o Displacement, Intellectualization, Isolation of Affect, Rationalization, Reaction Formation Primitive (immature) o Acting out, Denial (deletion from consciousness), Projection & Splitting
  5. 5. Purposes of defense mechanisms 1. Resolve a mental conflict 2. Reduce anxiety or fear 3. Protect one's self esteem 4. Protect one's sense of security
  6. 6. Types of Defense Mechanisms Defense Mechanisms Repression Displacement Regression Undoing or restitution Suppression Reaction formation Dissociation Intellectualization Identification Denial Introjection Fantasy /Daydreaming: Sublimation Splitting Compensation also called substitution Somatization Rationalization Isolation Projection Acting out
  7. 7. Repression o Defense mechanism by which unacceptable thoughts, feelings, and impulses are automatically pushed into the unconscious, out of awareness o Excluding emotionally painful or anxiety-provoking thoughts and feelings from conscious awareness Example: Sexually abused as a child blocks the experience from her consciousness and is confused about inability to respond sexually. Woman has no memory of the bag-snatch she suffered yesterday Woman has no memory before age 7, when she was removed from abusive parents.
  8. 8. Regression Using childlike ways for expressing emotions. o Crying, name calling, throwing things, o Five-year-old asks for a bottle when new baby brother is being fed.
  9. 9. Suppression o Willingly or voluntarily putting unacceptable thoughts or feelings out of one’s mind with the ability to recall the thoughts or feelings at will. o Example: Voluntary forgetfulness or “I rather not talk about it, right now!” o Example: A nurse working in the ward and there is a sick child at home but she keeps it out of mind until she finishes her duty time
  10. 10. Dissociation The unconscious separation of painful feelings and emotions from an unacceptable idea, situation, or object  Example: A woman raped found wandering a busy highway.
  11. 11. Identification o A conscious or unconscious attempt to model oneself after a respected person such as a parent or teacher o Example: without being aware that he is copying his teacher
  12. 12. Introjection o Attributing to oneself the good qualities of another. Incorporate feelings & emotions, values & beliefs, traits and personality. o Example: a little boy tells his younger sister to let him hold her hand as his mother used to hold her hand while crossing the road.
  13. 13. Sublimation o Redirecting bad or unacceptable behavior/emotions into positive behavior. o Example: We sublimate the desire to fight into the ritualistic activities of formal competition. o Wife who is angry enough to hot husband goes around scrubbing and cleaning the whole house.
  14. 14. Compensation o also called substitution: It involves trying to make up for feelings of inadequacy or frustration in one area by excelling or overusing in another. o Example: An adolescent takes up jogging because he failed to make the swimming team. o “I am not good at football so I will try the swim team o Example: An unattractive girl became a very good tennis player.
  15. 15. Rationalization o Unconsciously used to justify ideas, actions and/or feelings with good acceptable reasons or explanation. Irrational/illogical excuses to escape responsibility . o Example: Student fails an exam, blames it on the poor lectures.
  16. 16. Projection o Blame other people or things for failure o Example: “It’s my psychiatric teacher’s fault I failed the test” o Person rejects unwanted characteristics of self and assigns them to others. Example: man who was late for work blames wife for not setting the alarm clock.
  17. 17. Displacement o The transfer of negative emotions from one person or thing to an unrelated person or thing. Or o Mechanism that serves to transfer feelings such as frustration, aggression or anxiety from one idea, person or object to another o Example: Shouting at a subordinate after being shouted at by the boss.
  18. 18. Undoing or restitution o Doing something to counteract or make up for a misbehavior or wrongdoing o Example: Sending flowers after embarrassing her in public.
  19. 19. Reaction formation o expressing emotions that are the exact opposite of what ones feel. Mask anger/hate with kindness. Teasing/bothering someone you like. o Example: Man who dislikes his mother in low is very polite towards her.
  20. 20. Intellectualization o Using only logical explanations without feelings or an affective component o Example: person who does not want close to the women emotionally give intellectual explanation for lack of involvement of getting close to a women.
  21. 21. Denial o failure to accept reality. o This is not happening. It can’t happen to me.” Or o This is the unconscious refusal to face thoughts, feeling, wishes, needs or reality factors that are intolerable: o Example: a student who is determinedly late for a scheduled class because that student is actually very fearful of the topic, so he/she expresses the fear by being absent from the class, or o A person who has just been admitted to a mental hospital states “I am really not sick, I am just in here
  22. 22. Fantasy /Daydreaming o Escaping from an unpleasant situation by using imagination. o Living in a fantasy world OR o This refers to imagined events or mental images to express unconscious ideas, conflict, gratify unconscious wishes, or prepare for anticipated future events.
  23. 23. Summary o Defense mechanisms are used to reduce anxiety. o Defense mechanisms not a very effective way to deal with stress. Defense mechanisms are Highly adaptive (mature),Less adaptive, Primitive (immature) involuntary coping mechanisms.

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