At the end of this class participants
will be able to explain the method of
Problem solving and Brainstroming.
• Problem is an obstacles or barrier of any
things or activities.
• Problem solving is a planned attack upon
the difficulties and complexities for the
purpose of finding of satisfactory solution.
• Brainstroming and Brain writing are
probably the most well known tools of
creative problem solving.
Problem solving is the art of predictive reasoning of
manipulation knowledge to make it fit new task
It is a collective thinking process and skill to solve
the problem in order to achieve a goal.
The ultimate goal of problem-solving method is to
overcome obstacles and find a solution that best
resolves the issue
6. Characteristic of problems
1. Intransparency (Lack of clarity of the situation)
2. Multiple goals
3. Complexity (large numbers of items, interrelations
4. Dynamic (time consideration)
8. Steps contd..
1. Define the problem
Collect additional information , from elsewhere if
necessary, and analyse it to understand the problem
Helpful techniques at this stage include using
flowcharts to identify the expected steps of a process
and cause-and-effect diagrams to define and analyze
9. Steps contd..
2. Identify possible alternatives
Look for solutions and the normal sequence of events
The objective should be to generate as many ideas and
suggestions as possible
Sometimes it pays to deliberately think of 'wild ideas'
which are apparently not relevant
Brainstorming and group discussion are both useful tools
in this stage of problem solving
10. Steps contd…
3.Choose the appropriate alternative
This will involve resolving some conflict.
Collaborative and consensus based resolution
is preferable rather than forcing a choice
Considerable discussion is needed to evaluate
the various alternative solutions on the basis of
constraints and available resources
11. Steps contd…
4. Implementing the solution
Leaders may be called upon to order the solution to
be implemented through a plan by others or facilitate
the implementation by involving the efforts of others.
The most effective approach, by far, has been to
involve others in the implementation as a way of
minimizing resistance to subsequent changes.
12. Steps contd…
5. Monitoring and evaluation
Feedback channels must be built into the
implementation of the solution, to produce
continuous monitoring and testing of actual events
Effective problem-solvers tend to monitor their
progress as they work towards a solution. If they
are not making good progress toward reaching their
goal, they will reevaluate their approach or look for
1. Good opportunity to learn by using own brain in real life
2. Participants develop their invention and research skill
3. Develop the art of analysis of the problem and identify the real
4. Participants learn by themselves so that they understand the
subject matter in depth
5. Develop the skill to work in a team spirit
6. Promotes higher thinking by exploring pre-existing knowledge
and then building upon it
1.Only use in higher level because needs depth knowledge
2. All participants may not actively involve
3. All participants can not get opportunity to learn
4. Difficult to organize and manage to select participants
5. Need more skills to conduct the session
6. It can be time consuming
7. Increase the potential for interpersonal conflict
• How it works
• Organizing brainstroming session
• Common mistakes to avoid
• Benefits of brainstroming
• Brainstroming using Xmind
• Its productivity stems from the long-standing and
pervasive need to improve the productivity of groups.
• It is simple, easy to learn, and has potential to
dramatically improve group idea generation and
enjoyment with the activity itself.
• The word “brainstroming” has taken on a variety of
popular meanings. It means simply to get together
and have a casual discussion in order to come up
with a few ideas.
19. • Brainstorming as a technique was first
introduced by Alex Osborne in the 1930s..
• It is a method used in groups in order to
support creative problem-solving, the
generation of new ideas and greater
acceptance of proposed solutions.
20. How it works
• The brainstorming technique is based on the
capacity of the human brain to make associations.
• Although the capacity of one person is somewhat
limited, the production of words increases
enormously if there are more people working
• The theory of associations is the first principle of
21. Organizing a brainstorming session
1. The preparation phase
• In the preparation phase, the following
questions should be answered:
What is the purpose of the brainstorming session and
what is the topic?
How many people and which people should be involved?
When and where will the session take place?
22. 2. The rules of brainstorming
• No criticism or judgement.
• During brainstorming participants are completely free to
• To all the participants give equal focus.
• The quantity and not the quality of ideas is what matters.
• All ideas are recorded on the flip chart. When a page of
the flip chart is full, it is posted on the wall so that all
participants can see it and a new page is started.
• The results are evaluated after a lapse of time.
23. 3. Leading a brainstorming session
• At the beginning of the session, the moderator should explain the
objectives of the session and describe the chosen topic.
• The moderator should explain the rules of the brainstorming
session and hang them on the wall.
• All suggestions, however outlandish, are recorded on the flip
• The moderator may help the participants with generating ideas.
He or she can also try to unlock hidden ideas by asking “What
else?”, “What next?”
• Ask members how two or more ideas can be combined into one
succinct idea or be combined to produce another distinct idea.
• At the end, the moderator should thank the participants.
24. 4. Evaluation phase
• Ensure that you are recording, summarizing,
and distributing the results of your brainstorming
• The evaluation of the results of the session should be
deferred for several days, overnight or at least for
• During that time, the brain recovers and has
time to calm down, reflect or produce new word
associations and solutions.
25. Common mistakes to avoid
• Participants have a negative attitude.
• Judgements are made during the session.
• Too many brainstorming sessions have
been held previously.
26. Benefits of brainstorming
• Solutions can be found rapidly and economically;
• Results and ways of problem-solving that are new and
• A wider picture of the problem or issue can be obtained;
• The atmosphere within the team is more open;
• The team shares responsibility for the problem;
• Responsibility for the outcome is shared;
• The implementation process is facilitated by the fact that staff
shared in the decision-making process.
• Brainstroming and brain writing are the
best approach of problem solving.
• Process of identifying and solving of the
problem is method of improving
knowledge, attitude and practice of
• Sapkota SP, Pahari DP. A Textbook of Health Promotion and Health
Education. Kathmandu: Vidyarthi Prakashan (P) Ltd; 2013.
• Balackova H, “Brainstroming a creative problem solving method”,
Masaryk Institute of Advanced Studies, Czech Technical University,
Prague, Czech Republic.