A protean career is based on self-direction with the goal of psychological success in one’s work.
The goal of the new career is psychological success: the feeling of pride and accomplishment that comes from achieving life goals that are not limited to achievements at work (such as raising a family and having good physical health).
The emphasis on continuous learning has altered the direction and frequency of movement within careers (known as a career pattern).
Self-assessment refers to the use of information by employees to determine their career interests, values, aptitudes, and behavioral tendencies.
Reality check refers to the information employees receive about how the company evaluates their skills and knowledge and where they fit into the company’s plans (potential promotion opportunities, lateral moves).
An action plan is a written strategy that employees use to determine how they will achieve their short- and long-term career goals. Action plans may involve any one or a combination of development approaches such as enrolling in courses and seminars, getting additional assessment, obtaining new job experiences, or finding a mentor or coach and long-term development objectives.
Formal education programs include off-site and on-site programs designed specifically for the company’s employees, short courses offered by consultants or universities, executive MBA programs, and university programs in which participants live at the university while taking classes.
Tuition reimbursement refers to the practice of reimbursing employees’ costs for college and university courses and degree programs.
Assessment involves collecting information and providing feedback to employees about their behavior, communication style, or skills.
The Myers-Briggs Type Inventory (MBTI) refers to an assessment that is based on Carl Jung’s personality type theory. This theory emphasizes that we have a fundamental personality type that shapes and influences how we understand the world, process information, and socialize.
At an assessment center, multiple raters or evaluators (assessors) evaluate employees’ performance on a number of exercises.
In a leaderless group discussion, a team of five to seven employees is assigned a problem and must work together to solve it within a certain time period.
In the interview, employees answer questions about their work and personal experiences, skill strengths and weaknesses, and career plans. An in-basket is a simulation of the administrative tasks of the manager’s job.
In a role-play, the participant takes the part or role of a manager or another employee.
Upward feedback refers to appraisal that involves collecting subordinates’ evaluations of managers’ behaviors or skills. The 360-degree feedback process is a special case of upward feedback. In 360-degree feedback systems, employees’ behaviors or skills are evaluated not only by subordinates but also by peers, customers, their bosses, and the employees themselves.
Stretch assignments refer to assignments in which there is a mismatch between the employee’s skills and past experiences and the skills required for success on the job.
Job enlargement refers to adding challenges or new responsibilities to employees’ current jobs.
Job rotation gives employees a series of job assignments in various functional areas of the company or movement among jobs in a single functional area or department. Job rotation involves a planned sequence of jobs that the employee is expected to hold.
Temporary assignments refer to job tryouts such as employees taking on a position to help them determine if they are interested in working in a new role.
A sabbatical refers to a leave of absence from the company for personal reflection, renewal, and skill development.
A mentor is an experienced, productive senior employee who helps develop a less experienced employee (the protégé).
Reverse mentoring refers to mentoring in which younger employees mentor more senior employees.
A coach is a peer or manager who works with employees to motivate them, help them develop skills, and provide reinforcement and feedback. There are three roles that a coach can play
Glass ceiling A barrier to advancement to higher-level jobs in the community that adversely affects women and minorities. The barrier may be due to lack of access to training programs, development experiences, or relationships.
SOURCES: Based on B. Groysberg and K. Connolly, “Great Leaders Who Make the Mix Work,” Harvard Business Review, September 2013, pp. 68–76; D. McCracken, “Winning the Talent War for Women,” Harvard Business Review, November–December 2000, pp. 159–67.
Succession planning refers to the process of identifying and tracking high-potential employees who are capable of moving into different positions in the company resulting from planned or unplanned job openings due to turnover, promotion, or business growth.
SOURCES: Based on A. Cremo & T. Bux, “Creating a Vibrant Organizational Leadership Pipeline”, TD (July 2016): 76-77; W. Rothwell, “The Future of Succession Planning,” T + D, September 2010, pp. 51–54; B. Dowell, “Succession Planning,” in Implementing Organizational Interventions, ed. J. Hedge and E. Pulaskos (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2002), pp. 78–109; R. Barnett and S. Davis, “Creating Greater Success in Succession Planning,” Advances in Developing Human Resources 10 (2008), pp. 721–39.