2. Match on action
• Match on action is a part of the editing group.
It is used as part of continuity editing to move
the scene on. It starts with one shot then cuts
to another shot showing the movement of a
subject in the first shot. It presents a
continuity of the same action. It helps the
audience understand exactly what's going on.
3. 180 degree rule
• The 180 degree rule is based on the idea that there is a
line of 180 degrees running through both characters of
that particular scene (usually used in conversation with
two characters), which is known as the axis. The axis is
placed between the two characters to divide them in
two and make sure that the camera should only ever
stay on the one side of the line. If the camera were to
switch to both sides of the axis as seen in the picture
that is called "crossing the line". If the line is crossed
this may cause confusion for the audience and lose
focus in the film. The axis may be crossed for effect to
disorientate the audiences or setting the scene.
4. CAMERA MOVEMENTS
• Arc An arc shot is a camera move around the subject, somewhat like a tracking shot. In
mathematics, an arc is a segment of the circumference of a circle. A camera arc is similar - the
camera moves in a rough semi-circle around the subject.
• Crab The term crabbing shot is a less-common version of tracking, trucking and/or dollying.
These terms are more or less interchangeable, although dollying tends to mean in-and-out
movement whereas the others tend to mean side-to-side movement at a constant distance
from the action.
• Dolly A dolly is a cart which travels along tracks. The camera is mounted on the dolly and
records the shot as it moves. Dolly shots have a number of applications and can provide very
dramatic footage. A dolly shot is also known as a tracking shot or trucking shot. However some
professionals prefer the more rigid terminology which defines dolly as in-and- out movement
(i.e. closer/further away from the subject), while tracking means side-to-side movement.
• Dolly Zoom A dolly zoom is a cinematic technique in which the camera moves closer or further
from the subject while simultaneously adjusting the zoom angle to keep the subject the same
size in the frame. The effect is that the subject appears stationary while the background size
changes (this is called perspective distortion). The exact effect depends on the direction of
camera movement. If the camera moves closer, the background seems to grow and become
dominant. If the camera moves further away, the foreground subject is emphasized and
5. Type of shots
• A close up is a shot that focuses heavily on the face or an object, usually blurring out the background
to set a deeper focus. This is often used to add emphasis to a scene or image.
• An extreme - close up is similar to close up, but an extreme close up usually fits the whole frame of a
photo, and you can only see a certain feature within the frame, for instance a human feature that
focuses solely on the eyes. This is done to create tension within a scene or image.
• A panoramic shot is a series of landscape photographs that have been put together by software, but
taken individually, then overlapped to create a wide panoramic shot. Particularly used to show an
overview of a scene.
• A long shot shows a realistic scale of an object or human being. It is able to fit objects and people
within a scene in the frame without cutting anything out. It is also able to if necessary, show other
happenings/people in the background.
• An extreme long shot is used to establish the scene and mood of a film. It is typically used inaction
adventure scenes, to create tension. Although little detail is paid to the image you are able to establish
where the scene has been set.
• Middle shot is where the camera focuses on a figure from the waist upwards, or an object with little
zoom. The middle shot outlines the characters and the background has little detail ,very minimal and
6. • Birds eye view shows a ‘summary’ of a scene, this is taken in the view high above ground level,
people and objects are smaller than actual size when this camera effect is used, but it is a good way
to show an overall perspective of a scene. It is typically used in action films when a new location is
• A high angle shot is similar to a birds eye view, but instead of using a helicopter to get an overview
of the scene, a crane is used to elevate the camera, and then focus on filming something at ground
• Low angle shots are filmed at ground level and are used commonly when filming action scenes. This
adds the effect of anxiousness for the character onscreen, and fear, because the effect is used to
build up tension for a scene .This type shot would be used for example when; a character has to
jump from one building to another, or from one building to the ground.
• Point of view shots are shot in the perspective of a character within the film, it is as if the audience
are experiencing everything the character goes through within that scene. It is a technique used to
make the audience feel like they are part of the film, and actually are the main character. It is used
to show the audience the perspective of the main character and works well in most films. It is
typically used so that the audience can engage with the film and it’s characters.
• Oblique is the term used for camera shots that are titled slightly at an angle to show confusion or
disturbance within a film. It is a good way to introduce disaster scenes, such as weather effects.
Oblique shots are most popular within horror films as oblique can change the mood of the film
quite quickly. Oblique shots are similar to point of view shots because there is an eventual
transition where the camera becomes the view of a character within the film.
7. The Rule Of Thirds
The Rule of Thirds is a concept in which the shot
is divided into nine sections, which acts as a
guide to filmmakers on where to position
objects/characters within the shot. (As seen
below). When there is one main character in a
shot they are normally placed in the middle of
the frame with their eyes being centred on the
top horizontal line.
8. Shot reverse shot
This is a film technique whereby one character
is shown looking at another off-screen character.
The camera then cuts to the second character
looking back at the first The characters are
shown facing opposite directions, so the
audience assume they are looking at each other
9. Eye line match
• Crossing the line when filming over the shoulder shots shifts the
person’s eye line, meaning that the actors’ eye lines do not match
• The two people should always be on the same side of frame in
each shot As seen below, crossing the line makes it look like the
actor is looking in the opposite direction
• The Results of breaking the rule: confusion of audience, audience
lose focus become disorientated. Ways around the rule: the only
way to cross the line without disorientating the audience is to show
the camera movement .You cannot cut across the line or the viewer
will not be orientated Once the line has been crossed, and
movement shown, you have to stay on that side of the line, unless
you show the movement back over it