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Presentation on-Resarch-paradigms.pptx

  1. RESEARCH PARADIGMS Course: Research Methods Session: Evening-Main Campus Course Group:…………. Lecturer: Leonard Kyei 1
  2. DISCUSSION  What are the key differences between objective and subjective research? 2
  3. LEARNING OBJECTIVES  After this lecture you should be able to:  Understand the meaning of research paradigm.  Recognise the components of research paradigm.  Describe the types of research paradigms.  Distinguish between quantitative and qualitative ontologies and epistemologies. 3
  4. BACKGROUND ABOUT RESEARCH PARADIGM  The word paradigm was first used by the American philosopher Thomas Kuhn (1962) to indicate to philosophical way of thinking.  Paradigms are general viewpoints or ideologies (Perera, 2018).  Research paradigms are a set of common beliefs and agreements shared by scientists on how problems can be understood and address (Perera, 2018).  Research paradigms can also be referred to as ways scientists respond to three basic questions of ontology, epistemology and methodological questions (Perera, 2018).  The word paradigm has its origin in Greek where it means pattern.  It includes the abstract beliefs that shape how a researcher views the world, and how s/he interprets and performs within that world. 4
  5. BACKGROUND ABOUT RESEARCH PARADIGM (CONTINUED)  It is not a methodology, but a philosophy that directs the process of research in a specific manner.  Paradigm is: o The way of comprehension of the world reality and investigating it (Rehman & Alharthi, 2016). o The framework that directs research and practice in a field (Willis, Jost, & Nilakanta, 2007). o The lens by which the researcher can view and comprehend the reality (Shek & Wu, 2018).  The paradigm and the research questions determine data collection and analysis methods most suitable for research (Mackenzie & Knipe, 2006). 5
  6. BACKGROUND ABOUT RESEARCH PARADIGM (CONTINUED)  The selected paradigm should guide the selection of the research methodology.  It is important for the quality of the process that there is coherence throughout the research between the paradigm and method. (Creswell & Clark, 2007) 6
  7. COMPOENETS OF RESEARCH PARADIGM 1. Ontology. 2. Epistemology. 3. Methodology. 4. Methods 7
  8. ONTOLOGY  The term Ontology is from two Greek words (onto, which means ‘being’ and logia, which means ‘science, study or theory’ (Antwi & Hamza, 2015).  A view of the nature of reality - whether it is external or internal to the knower (Willis, Jost, & Nilakanta, 2007).  Ontology identifies the nature and shape of social reality and what can be recognized about this reality (Antwi & Hamza, 2015).  Its refers to “the nature of our beliefs about reality” (Richards, 2003, p. 33).  The ontological questions are:  What is the form and nature of reality?  What is there that can be known about it? (Guba & Lincoln, 1994). 8
  9. ONTOLOGY (CONTINUED)  There are two broad contrasting positions: 1. Objectivism: holds that there is an independent reality. 2. Constructionism: assumes that reality is the product of social processes. (Neuman & Kreuger, 2003) 9
  10. ONTOLOGY CONTINUED  The ontological question leads the investigator to ask what type of reality is existent: a single, reality or socially constructed several (multiple) realities. 10
  11. EPISTEMOLOGY  The term epistemology comes from the Greek word epistêmê, which means knowledge (Trochim & Donnelly, 2001).  Epistemology is the philosophy of knowledge or how we come to know (Trochim & Donnelly, 2001).  Epistemology refers to “the branch of philosophy that studies the nature of knowledge and the process by which knowledge is acquired and validated” (Gall, Gall, & Borg, 2003, p. 13).  Epistemology is closely linked to ontology and methodology (Krauss, 2005).  Ontology involves the philosophy of reality, epistemology addresses how we come to know that reality while methodology identifies the particular practices used to attain knowledge of it (Krauss, 2005). 11
  12. EPISTEMOLOGY (CONTINUED)  A related view of the type of knowledge that can be generated and standards for justifying it (Willis, Jost, & Nilakanta, 2007).  Epistemic understanding determines type of knowledge available to, or required by the researcher to place them within a given topic area (Rapport et al., 2018). 12
  13. EPISTEMOLOGY (CONTINUED)  Epistemological questions:  ‘What is the nature of the relationship between the knower or would-be knower and what can be done?’(Guba & Lincoln, 1994).  What is the relationship between the knower and what is known? How do we know what we know? (Krauss, 2005).  How can the researcher come to know this reality? (O'Neil & Koekemoer, 2016). 13
  14. EPISTEMOLOGY CONTINUED  Epistemology leads the investigator to debate the potential and need for objectivity, subjectivity, causality, validity, and generalisability of the research (Rehman & Alharthi, 2016).  For example: o Singular truth (reality) is assumed, then the researcher must be one of objective detachment to be able to reveal , how things really are? o Multiple realities are assumed, then the researcher would reject the idea that people should be investigated like objects of natural sciences. Rather, they need subjective understanding of the phenomenon in its contexts. (Patton, 2002) 14
  15. ONTOLOGY AND EPISTEMOLOGY  Ontology and epistemology have intimate associations.  It has been said that ontology and epistemology may be viewed as a sweater, which can be put on while considering the philosophical underpinnings and removed when actually conducting the research (Furlong & Marsh, 2010). 15
  16. METHODOLGY  A disciplined approach to generating knowledge (Willis, Jost, & Nilakanta, 2007).  The pathway or approach of action that justifies the selection and employment of certain methods (Crotty, 1998). 16
  17. METHODS  The means of collecting and analysing data.  Selection of methods depend on the design of the study and the researcher’s theoretical mindset. 17
  18. METHODOLOGY  The methodological question leads the researcher to inquire how the world should be studied. 18
  19. METHODOLOGY AND METHODS  Methodology can be viewed as a map, and the method can be viewed as a sequence of steps to move between two points on this map (Jonker & Pennink, 2010). 19
  20. KEY RESEARCH PARADIGMS 1. Positivism. 2. Post positivism (critical realism). 3. Constructivism (interpretivism). 4. Pragmatism 20
  21. POSITIVISM (DEFINITION)  Positivism sees social science as an organized method for combining deductive logic with precise empirical observations of individual behaviour in order to discover and confirm a set of probabilistic causal laws that can be used to predict general patterns of human activity. (Neuman & Kreuger, 2003) 21
  22. POSITIVISM 1. Positivism  Positivism postulates that reality exists independently of humans (social construction) and the reality is controlled by unchangeable laws (Rehman & Alharthi, 2016).  Positivism suggests that it is possible to formulate these laws and describe them using genuine statements (Rehman & Alharthi, 2016).  It is frequently utilised to test theories or hypothesis (Taylor & Medina, 2011).  The ontological position in positivism is realism (Rehman & Alharthi, 2016). 22
  23. POSITIVISM (CONTINUED)  The social world is treated like the natural world (cause-effect relationship between phenomena). Therefore, it is possible to make probabilistic predictions and generalizations.  The reality is context free (the researchers will get similar conclusions regarding the phenomenon in different times and places, no complete understanding of the phenomenon)= insensitivity to context, complexity and change.  The epistemological position is objectivism (Researchers are objective observers to examine phenomena that exist independently of them and they do not influence the observed phenomenon). (Rehman & Alharthi, 2016) 23
  24. POSITIVISM (CONTINUED)  Observation and verification are essential features of positivism.  knowledge is objective and quantifiable.  The world is real and not socially constructed.  Positivism is the primary base for quantitative research (Rehman & Alharthi, 2016).  Synonymous with Scientific method, Empiricism, and Objectivism (Mack, 2010). 24
  25. CRITICISM TOWARD POSITIVISM PARADIGM  The issue of separation between the researcher and the researched phenomenon, and of considering that the researcher and the researched phenomenon have an independent existence has been claimed as problematic.  It has been argued that it is impossible for the researcher to investigate particular events without permitting for researcher interests and values interfering or interacting with the investigation. 25
  26. POST POSITIVISM 2. Post positivism (critical realism)  Post positivism appeared as a result to criticism directed toward positivism.  Assumptions: o Reality exists independent of the observer. o Potential of the researcher’s beliefs and values affecting the observed phenomenon. 26
  27. POST POSITIVISM (CONTINUED)  One of the most prominent characteristics of post positivist research is using triangulation within and between methods (Bisman, 2010).  It has been claimed that by triangulating the data we obtain a deeper understanding of the reality but could endanger the objectivity (Chilisa & Kawulich, 2012).  It has been well established that mixed method is the preferred technique/ method of post positivists in order to explore multiple viewpoints to gain deeper consideration of the research problem (McEvoy & Richards, 2006). 27
  28. CRITICISM TOWARD POST POSITIVISM  The post positivism paradigm has been criticized for the following reasons: o It rejects the presence of laws and truths (Tekin & Kotaman, 2013). o It takes a distanced view of the research event and the researcher (Ryan, 2006). 28
  29. CONSTRUCTIVISM (INTERPRETIVISM)  Aims to : o Understand the social phenomenon in its context (contextualised investigation). o Understand how people make sense of their world and, thereby, construct meaning.  Depends on qualitative data collection over an extended period of time (e.g. ethnography and case studies).  Data analysis approach is inductive, i.e. the researcher attempts to discover patterns in the data, categorise them under broad themes to understand a phenomenon and generate theory.  The premise of interpretive researchers is that access to reality is only through social constructions such as language, consciousness and shared meanings (Aliyu, Bello,Kasim & Martin,2014), implying that it is how the way a person interprets what he or she has seen or experienced. 29
  30. CONSTRUCTIVISM (CONTINUED)  knowledge is established through the meanings (versus measurement) attached to the phenomena studied.  Researchers interact with the subjects of study to obtain data (research is based and depends on the researcher’s interests).  knowledge is context and time dependent (interpretation of the knowledge in its context). 30
  31. CONSTRUCTIVISM (CONTINUED) Interpretive research does not predefine dependent and independent variables, but focuses on the full complexity of human sense making as the situation emerges (Antwi & Hamza, 2015). 31
  32. CONSTRUCTIVISM (CONTINUED)  In general, qualitative research is based on constructivist ontology: o No objective reality. o There are multiple realities (i.e. truths, worldviews) constructed by human beings who experience a phenomenon of interest. o Interpretivists employ methods that enable them to generate qualitative data. o Methods that can yield qualitative data include: Open-ended interviews which can be standardised open-ended interviews, semi-standardised open ended interviews, and/or informal conversational interview. 32
  33. CONSTRUCTIVISM (CONTINUED)  Research is considered to be of good quality if it has:  Credibility (internal validity).  Transferability (external validity).  Dependability (reliability).  Confirmability (objectivity). 33
  34. PRAGMATISM  Pragmatism is not always referred to as a paradigm or philosophy of science since is not committed to a single philosophy.  It is rather concerned with the best practical way to answer a research question. As such the research question is the pivotal point for the selection of method.  Pragmatism is mostly associated with mixed methods research. Thus, qualitative and quantitative designs.  Pragmatism advances the adapting and combining of different ontologies and qualitative methods to answer research questions from various perspectives, and thus giving way to methodological pluralism. (O'Neil & Koekemoer, 2016) 34
  35. Research Design  Kasonde-Ng’andu (2013) refers to research as a systematic process of collecting, examining and interpreting data, for the purpose of providing answers to the unusual questions about nature or a phenomenon.  A research design is a scheme, an outline or a plan a researcher uses to generate answers to research questions (Kasonde-Ng’andu, 2013).  It is a framework comprising the methods and strategies that a researcher uses to solve a research problem. 35
  36. Research Design (CONTN)  There are two main types of a research design, namely;  Qualitative Research Design  Quantitative Research Design  When a researcher chooses to use both quantitative and qualitative approaches, the research design qualifies to be a mixed approach. 36
  37. Quantitative Research Designs  Quantitative research approach is aimed at testing theories, determining facts, demonstrating relationships between variables and predicting outcomes.  The quantitative researcher’s design in the tool kit include:  experimental  comparative  causal  survey and correlational designs 37
  38. Quantitative Research Designs(CONTN)  This particular design is dived into two major categories; Experimental Non-Experimental designs. 38
  39. Experimental Designs  Experimental studies seek to determine how or if a specific treatment influences an outcome (Creswell & Creswell, 2018).  It can be a true experiment, a quasi-experiment or a single case study.  Mildner(2019) states that a two-group posttest-only design is the simplest experimental design, and is good for assessing causal relationships.  Experimentation provides the most powerful support possible for a hypothesis of causation. 39
  40. Experimental Designs(types) 1. True Experimental Research Design  A true experimental research design relies on statistical analysis to prove or hypothesis. This type of experimental research is commonly observed in the 2. Quasi-experimental Research Design  The word “Quasi” means similarity. A quasi-experimental design is similar to design. However, the difference between the two is the assignment of the research design, an independent variable is manipulated, but the randomly assigned. 40
  41. Non-Experimental Designs  Non experimental studies do not involve manipulation of the independent variable by the experimenter either for ethical reasons or because of their abstract nature.  Non experimental research can cover designs such as;  Descriptive,  Causal-comparative,  Correlational,  Ex post facto designs ( Khaldi , 2017),  as well as surveys. 41
  42. Non-Experimental Designs(CONTN…) • Descriptive: When values are observed where one or more variables are presented. • Causal comparative: It is responsible for explaining the reasons and relationship that exists between variables in a given time. • Correlational research: is concerned with establishing possible but not necessarily present relationships between variables. • Ex-post facto research: Ex-post facto literally means “from what is done afterwards”. It focuses first on the effect, and then tries to determine possible causes and questions will remain about the effect following the cause, or vice versa. • Surveys: enable researchers to provide a quantitative or numeric description of trends, attitudes, or opinions of a population by studying a sample of that population. 42
  43. Qualitative Research Designs DEFINITION  Qualitative studies seek to explore individuals’ understanding of a social phenomenon. Mohajan (2018) defines a qualitative research is a form of social action focusing on how people interpret, and make sense of their experiences to understand the social reality of individuals.  In qualitative studies, interviews, diaries, journals, classroom observations and immersions; and open-ended questionnaires to obtain, analyse, and interpret the data are used, as well as content analysis of visual and textual materials, and oral history (Mohajan, 2018). 43
  44. Qualitative Research Designs(CONTN…)  Qualitative research method can use designs such as;  Phenomenology  Hermeneutics  Ethnography  Grounded Theory  Case Study  Historical or Narrative Design. 44
  45. THANK YOU!!! 45