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Media research


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Media research

  2. 2.  Collection of information and facts  Reassembling of information  Work based on mysterious theory  An effective way to get attention and credibility. Media research is systematic, scientific and logical procedure which aims to discover new or verify information or analyze their cause and effect of relationship. It facilitate in discovery new knowledge, concept and theories.
  3. 3. 1. Study the situation 2. Identification of the problem 3. Development of objectives 4. Formation of hypothesis 5. Reviewing of relevant literature 6. Deciding the research design  Exploratory  Descriptive  Experimental
  4. 4. 7. Collection of data  Tools are interview, questionnaire, schedule etc. 8. Data analysis  Statistical techniques  Tests and Scales 9. Finding the results 10.Policy implications and conclusions
  5. 5. 1. Historical 2. Anthropological 3. Experimental 4. Psychological 5. Sociological Above approaches can use qualitative, quantitative and mixed methodologies
  6. 6. PROCESS EFFECT IMPACT Treatment of message Simplification of message content Content of message as per channel used Change in knowledge, skill and attitude in short term Long term effect on audience in terms of change in knowledge, skill and attitude
  7. 7.  “Research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure.” It consist of three stages: 1. Observational- methods and tools 2. Statistical- sampling, methodology and tests 3. Operational- execution
  8. 8.  Experimental: Ex-post facto, Panel studies & Quasi- experimental  Exploratory  Descriptive  Longitudinal and Horizontal  Simulation Studies
  9. 9. Finding Media ResearchQuestion Development of Media ResearchTopic Selection of Media ResearchTopic Defining the Media ResearchTopic Deciding the Media ResearchTopic Finalizing the title Media ResearchTopic
  10. 10. a. Brief b. Specific c. Reflects the research topic d. Sharply focused e. Properly worded f. Meaningful g. No ambiguity
  11. 11.  Objectives of the media research are designed to understand the directions through which the research topic will be studied.  The objectives help in shaping the research design.  Acts as a guide for analyzing the inferences and helps in report writing.
  12. 12.  “A hypothesis is statement of assumption made in relation to research study to test it in terms of truthfulness or not.”  A good hypothesis is:- a. Clearly defines the assumptions with all operational definitions b. Should be brief and requires limited assumptions and conditions to testify it c. Explaining an expected relationship between the variables.
  13. 13. 1. Parametric test  Z-test  X² test  F-test  t-test 2. Non-parametric test These tests are based on the measurement equivalent to at least an interval scale
  14. 14.  Variables is a characteristics which can be measured or manipulated.  Types ofVariables:- a. DependentVariable: A variable which is dependent on other variable. b. IndependentVariables:A variable that is not dependent on any other variable. e.g.The income is independent but richness depends on the income.
  15. 15. 1. Census 2. Case study 3. Content analysis 4. Focused group study 5. Survey 6. Observation 7. Interviews 8. Discussions
  16. 16.  Is a method to determine the content of written, visual and spoken communication. It is a systematic and objective analysis based on empirical data, quantitative and qualitative variables.  The content analysis is basically quantitative.  Content analysis will be qualitative if it deals with qualitative characteristics of the information level attitudes and values etc.
  17. 17. 1. The research question 2. Identification of source 3. Formulation of objectives and hypothesis 4. Definition of universe 5. Sampling 6. Categorization 7. Units of analysis 8. Coding 9. Methods of Analysis(statistical) 10. Inferences and interpretation 11. Suggestions and implications
  18. 18.  Instruments used by the researcher to collect the information such as Schedule and Questionnaire.  Scheduling : is the form containing blank tables and fill in the blanks by the investigator after getting information from the respondent  Questionnaire : Is a set of questions to be answered by the respondent himself/herself.
  19. 19.  A processing plan of coding, classification and tabulation. It helps in properly analyzing the collected data in an organized manner.  Coding of data is checked and editing the data sheets and recording in categories.  Classification is a method of distributing data in groups or classes as per research design.  Tabulation is arranging data in forms of table i.e. a systematic organization of data in columns and rows.
  20. 20.  It is an activity aimed at detecting and connecting errors in data.  The errors may arise during encoding and decoding from collected data.  Edit type refers to the actual nature of edits applied to data during input or output processing.
  21. 21. 1. Validation edits :To check the validity of classificatory items. 2. Logical edits : Ensure that two or more data items do not contradict. 3. Range edits : Identify whether data item value falls in range. 4. Variance edits : Involves looking for high variances at output stages.
  22. 22.  Means providing an identification label.  After editing the data the answers of the questions are put in meaningful categories which will help to observe the pattern.  Researcher must prepare a coding frame for each question separately.
  23. 23.  A method of distributing data in groups or classes. Convert the data into a few homogenous group. Purpose of classification ▪ Simplification of data ▪ Symbolizes unity ▪ Differentiate between similar and dissimilar activity ▪ Make facts concise and logical
  24. 24.  Means a systematic organization of data in columns and rows.  Tables are a means of recording. Purpose ofTabulation ▪ Easy access to required information. ▪ Facilitates comparison ▪ Takes less space for presentation ▪ Signifies data
  25. 25.  Hand tabulation – tabulation is done manually by using tally or score sheet.  Mechanical tabulation- the tabulation is done mechanically by machines using computers or various using computers or various software.
  26. 26.  Title  Introduction  Review of literature  Research methodology  Analysis & Findings  Conclusion & Implications  Reference & Bibliography
  27. 27.  Brief  Specific  Reflecting the- a) Content of the research problem b) Subject of the research problem c) Area of the research problem  Sharply focused  Properly worded  Meaningful and unambiguous
  28. 28.  Importance  Statement of the problem  Need  Objectives  Scope  Utility  Limitation  Key words
  29. 29.  It is significant in the research proposal. Research methodology adopted by the other scholars and findings concluded by them. It can be arranged: a) Objective wise b) Chronologically c) Author wise
  30. 30.  Research approaches  Research design  Research methods  Hypothesis  Research tool  Sampling  Statistical technologies  Conceptual framework and operational definition  Data collection methods and tools
  31. 31.  Tables  Diagrams  line diagrams  Bar  Rectangle  Squares  Circles  Cubes  Cylindrical blocks  Globes  Graphs  Analysis  Interpretation
  32. 32.  Since, the findings are worked out as per the objectives, the conclusions are also given objective wise. Implications or recommendations on the basis of total research findings are given .
  33. 33. Examples-  Arthur Asa Berger, (2008), Media and Communication Research Methods: An Introduction to Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches, New Delhi : Sage  Chris Hart, (2010), Doing your Masters Dissertation, fifth printing, New Delhi:Vistaar Publications: Sage
  34. 34.  Case study is a method of exploring and analyzing the life of a social unit be that a person, a family, institution, cultural group or even entire community  Case studies are associated within depth research studies
  35. 35.  Aim is to determine the factors that account for the complex behavioural pattern of the units and relationship to its surrounding milieu.  Introduction to commercial television in India, “a case study by Crabtree and Malhotra in the year 2000 is a good example.
  36. 36.  Findings new perspective, meanings, interpretation.  It studies practical, real life situations by focusing particularly on a situation, event, program or phenomenon.  Provides a detailed description of topic under study.  To discover new or re-check relationship and intricacies involved in it.  Aims at studying the unit as a whole
  37. 37.  Helps in finding clues and ideas for further research  Assists in forming valid hypothesis  Leads to obtain a wealth of information about a research topic.  Used in gathering descriptive and explanatory data.  Helps in stratification of the sample.  Used to learn why a problem has occurred  Allows researcher to work on a wider range.  Enlarges the area of experience of the researcher  The more is the data sources the more will be the valid study.
  38. 38.  Criticized of being biased studies  Do not have a scope of improvement to generalization  Time consuming  May produce massive quantities of data that are hard to summarize and use  Generalizations are drawn from a few cases  Comprises of detailed study of the subject over a long period of time  Incapable of verification and generalizations drawn not very accurate as not verifiable.