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Collection of information and facts
Reassembling of information
Work based on mysterious theory
An effective way to get attention and credibility.
Media research is systematic, scientific and logical
procedure which aims to discover new or verify
information or analyze their cause and effect of
relationship. It facilitate in discovery new
knowledge, concept and theories.
1. Study the situation
2. Identification of the problem
3. Development of objectives
4. Formation of hypothesis
5. Reviewing of relevant literature
6. Deciding the research design
7. Collection of data
Tools are interview, questionnaire, schedule
8. Data analysis
Tests and Scales
9. Finding the results
10.Policy implications and conclusions
Above approaches can use qualitative,
quantitative and mixed methodologies
PROCESS EFFECT IMPACT
message as per
“Research design is the arrangement of
conditions for collection and analysis of data
in a manner that aims to combine relevance
to the research purpose with economy in
It consist of three stages:
1. Observational- methods and tools
2. Statistical- sampling, methodology and tests
3. Operational- execution
Experimental: Ex-post facto, Panel studies &
Longitudinal and Horizontal
Finding Media ResearchQuestion
Development of Media ResearchTopic
Selection of Media ResearchTopic
Defining the Media ResearchTopic
Deciding the Media ResearchTopic
Finalizing the title Media ResearchTopic
c. Reflects the research topic
d. Sharply focused
e. Properly worded
g. No ambiguity
Objectives of the media research are
designed to understand the directions
through which the research topic will be
The objectives help in shaping the research
Acts as a guide for analyzing the inferences
and helps in report writing.
“A hypothesis is statement of assumption
made in relation to research study to test it in
terms of truthfulness or not.”
A good hypothesis is:-
a. Clearly defines the assumptions with all
b. Should be brief and requires limited
assumptions and conditions to testify it
c. Explaining an expected relationship between
1. Parametric test
2. Non-parametric test
These tests are based on the measurement
equivalent to at least an interval scale
Variables is a characteristics which can be
measured or manipulated.
a. DependentVariable: A variable which is
dependent on other variable.
b. IndependentVariables:A variable that is not
dependent on any other variable.
e.g.The income is independent but richness
depends on the income.
2. Case study
3. Content analysis
4. Focused group study
Is a method to determine the content of
written, visual and spoken communication. It
is a systematic and objective analysis based
on empirical data, quantitative and
The content analysis is basically quantitative.
Content analysis will be qualitative if it deals
with qualitative characteristics of the
information level attitudes and values etc.
1. The research question
2. Identification of source
3. Formulation of objectives and hypothesis
4. Definition of universe
7. Units of analysis
9. Methods of Analysis(statistical)
10. Inferences and interpretation
11. Suggestions and implications
Instruments used by the researcher to collect
the information such as Schedule and
Scheduling : is the form containing blank
tables and fill in the blanks by the investigator
after getting information from the
Questionnaire : Is a set of questions to be
answered by the respondent himself/herself.
A processing plan of coding, classification and
tabulation. It helps in properly analyzing the
collected data in an organized manner.
Coding of data is checked and editing the data
sheets and recording in categories.
Classification is a method of distributing data in
groups or classes as per research design.
Tabulation is arranging data in forms of table
i.e. a systematic organization of data in columns
It is an activity aimed at detecting and
connecting errors in data.
The errors may arise during encoding and
decoding from collected data.
Edit type refers to the actual nature of edits
applied to data during input or output
1. Validation edits :To check the validity of
2. Logical edits : Ensure that two or more data
items do not contradict.
3. Range edits : Identify whether data item
value falls in range.
4. Variance edits : Involves looking for high
variances at output stages.
Means providing an identification label.
After editing the data the answers of the
questions are put in meaningful categories
which will help to observe the pattern.
Researcher must prepare a coding frame for
each question separately.
A method of distributing data in groups or
classes. Convert the data into a few
Purpose of classification
▪ Simplification of data
▪ Symbolizes unity
▪ Differentiate between similar and dissimilar activity
▪ Make facts concise and logical
Means a systematic organization of data in
columns and rows.
Tables are a means of recording.
▪ Easy access to required information.
▪ Facilitates comparison
▪ Takes less space for presentation
▪ Signifies data
Hand tabulation – tabulation is done
manually by using tally or score sheet.
Mechanical tabulation- the tabulation is done
mechanically by machines using computers
or various using computers or various
Review of literature
Analysis & Findings
Conclusion & Implications
Reference & Bibliography
a) Content of the research problem
b) Subject of the research problem
c) Area of the research problem
Meaningful and unambiguous
Statement of the problem
It is significant in the research proposal.
Research methodology adopted by the other
scholars and findings concluded by them. It
can be arranged:
a) Objective wise
c) Author wise
Conceptual framework and operational
Data collection methods and tools
Since, the findings are worked out as per the
objectives, the conclusions are also given
objective wise. Implications or
recommendations on the basis of total
research findings are given .
Arthur Asa Berger, (2008), Media and
Communication Research Methods: An
Introduction to Qualitative and Quantitative
Approaches, New Delhi : Sage
Chris Hart, (2010), Doing your Masters
Dissertation, fifth printing, New Delhi:Vistaar
Case study is a method of exploring and
analyzing the life of a social unit be that a
person, a family, institution, cultural group or
even entire community
Case studies are associated within depth
Aim is to determine the factors that account
for the complex behavioural pattern of the
units and relationship to its surrounding
Introduction to commercial television in
India, “a case study by Crabtree and Malhotra
in the year 2000 is a good example.
Findings new perspective, meanings,
It studies practical, real life situations by
focusing particularly on a situation, event,
program or phenomenon.
Provides a detailed description of topic under
To discover new or re-check relationship and
intricacies involved in it.
Aims at studying the unit as a whole
Helps in finding clues and ideas for further research
Assists in forming valid hypothesis
Leads to obtain a wealth of information about a
Used in gathering descriptive and explanatory data.
Helps in stratification of the sample.
Used to learn why a problem has occurred
Allows researcher to work on a wider range.
Enlarges the area of experience of the researcher
The more is the data sources the more will be the
Criticized of being biased studies
Do not have a scope of improvement to
May produce massive quantities of data that are
hard to summarize and use
Generalizations are drawn from a few cases
Comprises of detailed study of the subject over a
long period of time
Incapable of verification and generalizations
drawn not very accurate as not verifiable.