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APA Referencing Style

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APA Referencing Style

  1. 1. 1/06/15   1   APA  Style  of  Referencing   A  Guide  for  Academic  Wri7ng   Binaya  Chalise     Researcher   Center  for  Research  Training  and  Interna7onal   Rela7on     &   Program  Coordinator     Faculty  of  General  medicine     Nepal  Ins7tute  of  Health  Sciences     Informa(on  contained  in  this  work  has  been  copied   from   the   internet   sources   believed   to   be   reliable.   The  developer  of  this  handout  makes  no  warran(es   with  respect  to  the  accuracy  or  completeness  of  this   handout,   and   shall   in   no   event   be   liable   for   any   errors   arising   out   of   use   of   this   informa(on.   The   content  in  this  work  has  not  been  cited  properly,  so   this  work  should  not  be  cited  for  any  other  purpose.   However,   Nepal   Ins(tute   of   Health   Sciences   may   use   the   handout   to   guide   its   students   and   faculty   members  in  APA  referencing  style,  and  CRTIR  may   ini(ate   to   upgrade   the   handout   into   Reference   Guide   (with   proper   cita(on),   acknowledging   the   ini(a(ve  effort  of  the  developer  of  this  handout.       Session  Overview     •  Referencing  Basic   •  APA  Style  of  Referencing  Basic     •  Component  of  Referencing  using  APA   •  Referencing  Techniques  in  APA   –  Book     –  Journal  ArBcle   –  World  Wide  Web   –  Magazines  and  Newspaper     –  Other  Sources   •  WriBng  Researching  Paper  in  APA  Style     What  is  Referencing?   •  Academic  wriBng  uBlizes  informaBon  from   different  sources.   •  The  obtained  informaBon  serves  different   purpose  for  successful  wriBng.     •  The  source  and  content  must  be   acknowledged  while  using  them  in  original   work.     •  A  systemaBc  way  of  acknowledging  the  source   of  informaBon  and  idea  in  the  formal  wriBng.  
  2. 2. 1/06/15   2   What  is  Plagiarism     Why  Referencing?   •  Avoid  plagiarism.   •  Support  argument  with  evidence.   •  DisBnguish  own  idea  with  others   •  Ensure  that  the  author  is  a  wide  reader   and  researcher.   •  Credit  to  author   What  needs  to  be  referenced?   Yes   Is  it  theory/idea?   Is  it  a  quotes?   No  CitaBon   CitaBon  is   Required   Should  I  Cite?   What  are  the  steps  of  Referencing?   •  Record  the  full  bibliographic  details   and  relevant  pegs  number  of  the   source.   •  Insert  citaBon  at  the  appropriate  place   in  the  text    of  the  document.   •  Include  reference  list  that  includes  all   in-­‐text  citaBon  at  the  end  of  the   document.    
  3. 3. 1/06/15   3   What  is  APA  style  of  Referencing?   •  Developed  by  social  and  behavioral   scienBst  to  standardized  scienBfic  wriBng.     •  Author-­‐date  style  of  ciBng  and  referencing   informaBon  on  academic  wriBng.     •  Used  in  VarieBes  of  Academic  wriBng     •  In-­‐text  citaBon  and  reference  list  are  the   important  component.     What  is  Reference  List  ?   •  list  of  all  the  sources  used  (and  cited)  in  a   academic  wriBng.   •  alphabeBzed  according  to  the  names  of  the   authors.       •  the  reference  list  appears  at  the  end  of  the   wriBng,  under  the  heading  “References”.     •  APA  reference  list  has  a  hanging  indent.     •  Each  reference  has  –  Author,  published  date,  Btle   and  other  informaBon  as  basic  component.     Reference  List-­‐Punctua7on     •  Each  author’s  name  is  separated  from  the   others  by  a  comma,  and  there  is  a  full  stop   aaer  each  iniBal.     •  An  ampersand  (&)  before  the  final  author,   and  a  full  stop  is  always  used  aaer  the   bracket.     •  A  colon  is  used  between  Btle  and  subBtle   and  between  publicaBon  and  name  of   publisher.     Referencing  Book-­‐1  Author   Reference  List     Created  in  following  order   Author,  IniBal(s).  (Date).  Title  of   publica(on  (in  Italic).    (EdiBon   number  if  available).  Place  of   publicaBon:  publisher.  
  4. 4. 1/06/15   4   Example:     Griem,  K.  (2007).  Research   methodology:  Fundamental   principles.  (3rd  ed).  London:  Oxford            University  Press.   Referencing  Book-­‐Authors   •  For  2  to  7  authors:  include  all  authors'   names:   Smith,  J.  D.,  Khan,  V.,  Zhang,  H.,  Williams,   T.,  Garcia,  J.,  &  Sato,  Y.  (2009).  Research   ethics  in          New  Zealand:  A  student  guide.   Wellington,  New  Zealand:  Rata  Press.     Con7nue   •  For  8  or  more  authors’:  include  the  name  of   the  first  6  authors,  followed  by  three   ellipses  (…),  then  add  the  final  authors   name.   Smith,  J.  D.,  Khan,  V.,  Zhang,  H.,  Williams,  T.,   Garcia,  J.,  Sato,  Y.,  …  Roach,  C.  (2009).          Research  ethics  in  New  Zealand:  A  student   guide.  Wellington,  New  Zealand:  Rata   Press.   Edited  Book     Editor,  IniBal.  (Ed  or  Eds).  (Date).  Title  of   publica(on  (in  Italic).  (EdiBon  Number  if   Available).  Place  of  publicaBon:  publisher.   Example     Boag,  S.  (Ed.).  (2008).  Personality  down  under:   Perspec(ves  from  Australia.  (4th  ed).  New   York,  NY:  Nova  Science  Publishers.  
  5. 5. 1/06/15   5   Edited  Book  Chapter     Chapter  Author,  IniBals.  (Date).  Chapter  Title  (no   italic).  In  editors  name  (first.  Last).  (Ed/Eds),  Book   (tle  (italic).  (page  Number).  Place  of  publicaBon:   publisher.     Example   Smith,  J.  D.,  &  Khan,  V.  (2009).  Trends  in  discourse   analysis.  In  G.  Schwartz  &  U.  N.  Owen            (Eds.),  Readings  in  qualita(ve  research  design   (pp.  15–59).  Wellington,  New  Zealand:  Rata            Press.       Referencing  Journal  Ar7cle  -­‐Printed   Author,  IniBal(s).  (Published  Year).  Title  of   ArBcle.  Title  of  Journal  (Italic),  Issue   number(italic)  (issue),  page  number.   Example   Smith,  J.  D.,  Khan,  V.,  &  Zhang,  H.  (2009).   Māori  voices:  Approaches  to  bilingual   research.  Journal  of  Academic   Methodologies,  38(3),  17–28.     Journal  Ar7cle  with  DOI   •  It  is  similar  to  print  journal  except  a  doi   number  is  added  aaer  page  number.     Example   •  Janssen,  M.  &  Viergever,  M.  (2010).   Preexistent  vertebral  rotaBon  in  the  human   spine  is  influenced  by  body  posiBon.   European  Spine  Journal,  19(10),  1728-­‐1734.   doi:  10.1007/s00586-­‐010-­‐1400-­‐3     Journal  Ar7cle  without  DOI   Referencing  order  is  similar  to  journal  arBcle   with  doi,  except  doi  number  is  replaced  with   URL  (web  address).     Example   •  Merrill,  C.,  &  Daugherty,  J.  (2010).  STEM   EducaBon  and  leadership:  A  mathemaBcs   and  science  partnership  approach.  Journal  of   Technology  Educa(on,  21(2),  21-­‐34.   Retrieved  from  hsp://scholar.lib.vt.edu/ ejournals/JTE/      
  6. 6. 1/06/15   6   Journal  Ar7cle  :Abstract   •  Author,  IniBal(s).  (Published  Year).  Title   of  ArBcle  [Abstract].  Title  of  Journal   (Italic),  Issue  number(italic)  (issue),  page   number.   Smith,  J.  (2010).  Māori  voices:  Approaches   to  bilingual  research  [Abstract].  Journal   of  Academic  Methodologies,  38(3),  17– 28.       Journal  Ar7cle  :Abstract  Online   •  Author,  IniBal(s).  (Published  Year).  Title  of  ArBcle   [Abstract].  Title  of  Journal  (Italic),  Issue   number(italic)  (issue),  page  number.  Abstract   retrieved  from  URL  OR  doi  number   Merrill,  C.,  &  Daugherty,  J.  (2010).  STEM  EducaBon   and  leadership:  A  mathemaBcs  and  science   partnership  approach  [Abstract].  Journal  of   Technology  Educa(on,  21(2),  21-­‐34.  Abstract   retrieved  from  hsp://scholar.lib.vt.edu/ ejournals/JTE/     Journal  Ar7cle  in  Press   •  Author(s),  IniBal(s).  (in  print).  Title  of   journal  arBcle.  Title  of  journal  (in   italic).     Williams,  S.,  &  Beave,  H.  J.  (in  press).   Problem  based  learning  in  the   clinical  sevng  –  a  systemaBc  review.   Nurse  Educa(on  Today.     Website   •  Website  with  Author:   Smith,  J.  D.  (2009).  Kindergartens  and  childcare   centres  in  New  Zealand.  Retrieved  from   hsp://www.example.com/thepage.htm     •  Document  within  Website   Cancer  Council  Australia.  (2010).  Stop  smoking   [fact  sheet].  Retrieved  from  hsp:// www.cancer.org.au//file/HealthProfessionals/ Factsheets/FS_StopSmoking.pdf      
  7. 7. 1/06/15   7   Website   Blog     Siegel,  E.  (2010,  November,  10).  The  Physics  of   Global  Warming  [Web  blog  post].  Retrieved   November  11,  from        hsp:// scienceblogs.com/startswithabang/2010/11/ the_physics_of_global_warming.php   Magazine   •  Print  Magazine   Smith,  J.  D.  (2009,  January  12).  TerBary  funding   models  in  New  Zealand.  Ter(ary  Educa(on   Magazine,  21(1),  21–24.   •  Online  Magazine   Smith,  J.  D.  (2009,  January  12).  TerBary  funding   models  in  New  Zealand.  Ter(ary  Educa(on   Magazine,  21(1),  21–24.  Retrieved  from   hsp://www.example.com/   Magazine   •  Printed  Government  Report     Queensland  Health.  (2005).  Health  Systems   Review:  Final  Report.  Brisbane:  Queensland   Government.     •  Place  of  publicaBon  and  publisher  is  replaced   with  doi  number  or  URL  in  online  Government   Report.     Other  Source   •  Thesis     Author(s),  IniBal(s).  (Year  of  preparaBon  of   thesis).  Title  of  thesis(Italic).  (Award).   InsBtuBon,  place  of    insBtuBon.     •  Example   Axford,  J.C.  (2007).  What  cons(tutes  success  in   Pacific  island  community  conserved  areas?   (Doctoral  dissertaBon).  University  of   Queensland,  Brisbane,  Australia.  
  8. 8. 1/06/15   8   Other  Source   •  Conference  paper  -­‐published   Author(s),  IniBal(s).  (Years).  Title  of  paper.  Title  of   published    proceeding.  Place  of  PublicaBon:   publisher.   Scheinin,  P.  (2009).  Using  student  assessment  to   improve  teaching  and  educaBonal  policy.  In  M.   O'Keefe,  E.  Webb,  &  K.  Hoad  (Eds.),  Assessment   and  student  learning:  Collec(ng,  interpre(ng  and   using  data  to  inform  teaching,  12-­‐14.  Melbourne,   Australia:  Australian  Council  for  Educa(onal   Research         Other  Source   •  Conference  paper  –unpublished   Author(s),  IniBal(s).  (Date).  Paper  (tle  (in  italic).   Place  of  presentaBon:  place.     Bowden,  F.J.,  &  Fairley,  C.K.  (1996,  June).   Endemic  STDs  in  the  Northern  Territory:   Es(ma(ons  of  effec(ve  rates  of  partner   change.  Paper  presented  at  the  ScienBfic   MeeBng  of  the  Royal  Australian  College  of   Physicians,  Darwin.         Some  Universal  Rule     •  Author(s),  IniBal(s)  and  date  is  included  when  an   author  and  date  is  available.     •  Author  is  replaced  with  the  OrganizaBon’s  name   when  authorship  lies  with  the  organizaBon.     •  A  shortened  version  of  the  source's  Btle  is  used   when  no  author,  either  individual  or   organizaBon,  is  available.     •  If  there  is  no  date,  the  abbreviaBon  of  n.d.  is   used.   •  All  literature  from  online  sources  include  the  URL   or  DOI  number  or  Database    (Example)  
  9. 9. 1/06/15   9   Wri7ng  Research  Paper  in  APA   Style     Binaya  Chalise       Research  Training  and  Interna7onal   Rela7on     •  APA  uses  a  system  that  includes  the   author’s  last  name  and  the  year  of   publicaBon  in  a  parenthesis.   •  A  page  number  may  be  included  in  the   in-­‐text  citaBon.     •  A  page  number  is  compulsory  if  the   author  is  quoBng  someone’s  idea.     What  is  In-­‐text  cita7on?   In  Text  Cita7on   •  The  author's  name  can  appear   outside  the  brackets,  incorporated   into  the  sentence   According  to  Smith  (2009),  the  best   source  of  …   •  It  can  appear  inside  the  brackets:   …  was  the  case  (Smith,  2009).   In  Text  Cita7on   •  For  2  Author:  Include  all  authors’.     According  to  Smith  and  Khan  (2009),  the   best  source  of  …     …  was  the  case  (Smith  &  Khan,  2009).   •  For  3  to  5  Authors:  Include  all  authors’   for  first  Bme  citaBon,  and  include  first   author  followed  by  et  al.  for  subsequent   citaBon.        
  10. 10. 1/06/15   10   In  Text  Cita7on   According  to  Smith,  Khan,  Zhang,  Williams   and  Garcia  (2009),  the  best  source  of  …   According  to  Smith  et  al.  (2009)  …  (for   subsequent  cita7on)     For  6  or  more  Authors:  include  first  author   followed  by  et  al.  for  every  citaBon   In  Text  Cita7on   •  When  the  author  is  an  organizaBon,   author’s  name  is  replaced  with   organizaBon  name.     According  to  the  Ministry  of  Educa7on   (2009),  the  best  source  of  …   …  was  the  case  (Ministry  of  Educa7on,   2009).   In  Text  Cita7on   • When  the  source  does  not   include  date,  (n.d.)  is  used  in   place  of  date.     According  to  Smith  (n.d.),  the  best   source  of  …   …  was  the  case  (Smith,  n.d.).     In  Text  Cita7on   •  No  Author  -­‐  A  shortened  version  of   the  source's  Btle  is  used  in  place  of   the  author.   According  to  Research  ethics  (2009),   the  best  source  of  …   …  was  the  case  (Research  ethics,   2009).  
  11. 11. 1/06/15   11   In  Text  Cita7on   •  No  author  no  date:  A  shortened  version   of  the  source's  Btle  is  used  in  place  of  the   author,  and  (n.d.)  is  used  in  place  of  the   date.   According  to  Research  ethics  (n.d.),  the   best  source  of  …   …  was  the  case  (Research  ethics,  n.d.).   •  Page  number  encourage  (not   compulsory)  if  the  author  is  paraphrasing   or  summarizing  other’s  work.   •  May  include  page  number  if  the  author   wish  to  direct  reader  to  specific  page.     •  In-­‐text  citaBon  are  carried  out  in  three   ways  via  quoBng,  paraphrasing  and   summarizing.    (Example  –In-­‐text  citaBon)   What  is  In-­‐text  cita7on?   What  is  Quo7ng?   •  an  exact  copy  of  the  words  that  someone  else   has  wrisen  or  said.     •  These  words  are  placed  within  quotaBon   marks  (also  known  as  speech  marks:  “”).   •  Regular  quotes  are  used  when  the  quote  is   less  than  40  words  .   •  Block  quotes  are  used  for  quotes  of  more  than   40  words     What  is  Quo7ng?   Block  Quote   •  Words  more  than  40   words   •  QuotaBon    marks  are   omised   •  Started  in  a  new  line   with  indentaBon  of  half   intch  (approximately  5   spaces).   Regular  Quote   •  Words  less  than  40   words   •  QuotaBon  marks  are   always  used.   •  Started  in  a  same  line   with  or  without   indentaBon.     (Example:  Regular  and   Block  Quote)    
  12. 12. 1/06/15   12   What  is  Paraphrasing?   •  RestaBng  informaBon  using  different  words.     •  It  is  simply  changing  the  key  words  and   grammaBcal  format  of  the  original  text.   •  Paraphrasing  aims  to  rewrite  the  informaBon   by  drawing  on  different  words  and  phrases.   •  Before  paraphrasing,  the  authors’  needs  to   develop  idea  and  use  the  idea  to  frame  the   paraphrase.     What  is  Paraphrasing?   •  Write  down  or  paste  a  photocopy  of  the   passage.  Underline  the  author's  main  points.   •  List  some  key  ideas,  concepts,  and  phrases   from  the  passage.   •  Where  possible,  note  down  alternaBve   phrases  or  synonyms  for  each  of  these.   •  Rewrite,  using  those  alternaBve  words  and   phrases.   •  Summarizing  involves  selecBng  out  some  key   features  and  then  using  those  to  create  a   shortened  version  of  the  other  author's  work.   •  This  may  be  achieved  by  simplifying  the  ideas,   as  well  as  using  a  different  sentence  structure   or  sentence  order  to  present  those  ideas.     •  Should  not  alter  the  meaning  of  informaBon   significantly.   What  is  Summarizing?   Wri7ng  Style   •  Three  aspects  should  be  considered  for   wriBng  the  best  research  paper   •  there  should  be  proper  wriBng  language   •  the  punctuaBon  and  grammar  should  be   accurate     •  the  paper  should  be  properly  formased    
  13. 13. 1/06/15   13   Wri7ng  Style   •  TradiBonally,  wrisen  in  a  formal   style,  avoiding  first  person   possessive  pronoun   •  passive  voice  was  used  widely.   •  APA  6th  ediBon  accepts  use  of  the   first  person  possessive  pronoun  and   acBve  voice.   Wri7ng  Style     •  Font  size  should  be  12  at  Times  New  Roman  with   double  spacing.     •  The  margin  should  be  1  inch  each  on  all  sides.     •  The  first  line  of  the  paragraph  is  always  indented   except  abstract,  block  quote  and  heading.     •  Only  the  lea  hand  margin  of  the  text  should  be   jusBfied,  and  the  right  hand  margin  should  end   unevenly.     •  Separate  rules  apply  for  use  of  numbers   (example)   Title  Page     •  contains  a  running  head,  Btle  and  author’s   name.     •  page  number  (in  Arabic  format)  is  on  the  Btle   page  in  the  upper  right-­‐hand  corner  and  on   each  page.   •  running  head  should  be  no  more  than  50   characters;  all  characters  should  be  capitalized   and  should  not  be  boald  .     Abstract   • usually  150  to  250  words  and   typed  on  a  separate  page.     • The  word  “Abstract”  should   appear  on  the  first  line,  centered.     • Normally  an  abstract  should   consist  of  only  one  paragraph.      
  14. 14. 1/06/15   14   Introduc7on  and  Literature  Review     •  The  introducBon  page  should  be  started   on  a  fresh  page.     •  The  word  “IntroducBon”  is  never  typed   at  the  top  of  the  introductory  page.     •  Replaced  with  the  Btle  of  manuscript,   centered  lea  to  right.     •  Should  be  wrisen  in  upper  and  lower   case.   Introduc7on  and  Literature  Review     The  secBon  contains  following  informaBon:   •  General  introducBon  to  the  topic  under   invesBgaBon  and  populaBon  at  risk.     •  Findings  of  previous  studies  relevant  to  the   present  study.     •  Effect  of  study  on  the  pracBce   •  Purpose  of  the  present  study  with  jusBficaBon.   •  PredicBon  of  study  in  line  with  stated  problem   Method     •  ParBcipants  or  Subjects  or  Research  Units   •  Design   •  Experimental  ManipulaBons/IntervenBons/ InstrumentaBon     •  Data  CollecBons   •  Data  Analysis  Plan   •  Ethical  ConsideraBon  (Human  Subject   ProtecBons)   •  Bias   •  LimitaBons   Result   •  oaen  helpful  to  use  tables  and  figures,   especially  when  there  is  a  lot  of  data  to   report.   •  Each  table  is  put  on  a  separate  page,  with   the  first  table  following  the  footnotes   •  The  first  line  of  each  table  page  is  “Table   n,”     •  The  next  line  is  the  Btle  of  the  table,  in   upper  and  lower  case,  italic  font  
  15. 15. 1/06/15   15   Sta7s7c  in  APA   •  staBsBcal  symbols  are  never  italicized  except  for   Greek  symbols.   •  parentheses  to  enclose  staBsBcal  values  (p  =   1.33).     •  Degree  of  freedom  is  always  enclosed  in   Parenthesis:  t(45)  =  4.35   •  Square  brackets  are  used  to  enclose  limits  of   confidence:  95%  CIs  [3.45,  2.7],  [-­‐6.0,  3.89],  and   [-­‐7.23,  1.89]   •  N  as  total  parBcipant  in  a  sample,  n  as  proporBon   of  sample.     Sta7s7c  in  APA   Correla7on       r(45)  =  .56,  p  =  .04        (Note:  45  is   the  N)   Means  and  standard   deviaBon     (M  =  21.41,  SD  =  10.35)   T-­‐test     t(60)  =  5.41,  p  =  .03        (Note:  60  =   df)   ANOVA  results       F(2,  45)  =  8.90,  p  =  .02    (Note:   2,45  are  the  df  for  the  F)   Chi-­‐Square     Χ2  (4,  N  =  90)  =  10.51,  p  =  .21         (Note:  4  is  the  df)   Discussion   •  RelaBon  of  results  with  research  hypothesis.   •  Difference  between  result  of  the  study  and   those  with  others.     •  LimitaBon  of  the  study   •  ImplicaBon  of  findings  on  findings  to  theory   and  pracBce.     •  Call  for  addiBonal  research   •  RecommendaBon  in  logical  order.     References     •  All  sources  cited  should  be  listed  in  the   reference  secBon.     •  The  reference  page  is  on  a  separate  page   •  Must  be  one-­‐to-­‐one  correspondence  between   the  reference  list  and  the  citaBons  in  the  body   of  the  manuscript.   •  each  item  in  the  reference  list  must  be  cited  in   the  body  of  the  textat  least  once.    
  16. 16. 1/06/15   16   Appendix   •  If  there  is  an  appendix,  it  starts  on  a  new   page  following  the  last  page  of  the   references.     •  The  first  line  of  the  first  page  “Appendix”   is  centered.    On  the  next  line,  Btle  of  the   appendix  is  typed.     •  Appendix  is  numbered  alphabeBcally  and   Is  capitalized     List  of  References     American  Psychological  AssociaBon.  (2012).  The  basics  of   APA  style.  Retrieved  from   hsp://www.apastyle.org/learn/tutorials/basics-­‐ tutorial.aspx     Harring  ,&  Edelman  .  (2009).  Summary  of  APA  style  for   wriBng  research  reports  Retrieved  from   www.lcsc.edu/bchristenson/NEWResearchOutline.dot     La  Trobe  University  Library.  (2012,  August,  17).  Referencing   at  La  Trobe  (academic  referencing  modles):APA  6   referencing  module.  Retrieved  from     hsp://latrobe.libguides.com/content.php?pid=145852       List  of  References     La  Trobe  University  Library.  (2012,  August,  17).   Referencing  style  guide.  Retrieved  from   hsp://www.lib.latrobe.edu.au/help/style-­‐guides.php     Massey  University.  (n.d.).  APA  Interac(ve  .  Retrieved   from   hsp://owll.massey.ac.nz/referencing/apa-­‐ interacBve.php     Massey  University.  (n.d.).  Introduc(on  to  referencing.   Retrieved  from     hsp://owll.massey.ac.nz/referencing/introducBon-­‐ to-­‐referencing.php     List  of  References     The  WriBng  Lab,  The  OWL  at  Purdue  &  Purdue  University.   (n.d.).  Purdue  online  wri(ng  lab:  APA  style.  Retrieved   from  hsp://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/secBon/2/10/     Scribe,  A.  (2012).  APA  lite  for  collage  papers  Retrieved   from  hsp://www.docstyles.com/apacrib.htm     The  University  of  Queensland  Library  Australia.  (2012).   References/Bibliography  APA:  Based    on  “The   Publica(on  Manual  of  the  American  Psychological   Associa(on”  6th  edi(on.  Retrieved  from   hsp://www.library.uq.edu.au/training/citaBon/apa_6   df    
  17. 17. 1/06/15   17   List  of  References     University  of  North  Carolina  School  of  Social   Work.  (n.d.).  The  portable  editor:  Tips  for   improving  your  wri(ng.  Retrieved  from   hsp://ssw.unc.edu/files/web/pdf/Current %20Students/ThePortableEditor5final.pdf     Wuensch,  K.  L.  (2011).  Wri(ng  an  APA-­‐style   research  report.  Retrieved  from   hsp://www.core.ecu.edu/psyc/wuenschk/ docs2210/Research  WriteUp.docx