3. WHAT IS EIA ?
A decision making tool
To predict the effect of a proposed
activity/project on the environment
To compare various alternatives for a project
To identify best combination of economic,
environmental and social costs and benefits
4. HISTORY OF EIA IN INDIA
In India, EIAs of development projects were first started in 1977-78 when the
Department of Science and Technology took up environmental appraisal of
river valley projects.
In 1994 when EIA was made mandatory in India under the Environmental
Protection Act of 1986. Establishment of EIA Authority under the MOEFCC.
public consultation have been made compulsory component of EIA by an
amendment dated April 10, 1997.
In September, 2006 new EIA Notifications was drafted.
5. TYPES OF EIA
Quick assessment for predicting adverse impact.
Data collection for only one seasons.
Applicable for large project.
Data collection through a year.
Screening is the process of identifying whether an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is
necessary or not.
As per MOEFCC some A category projects – mining of minerals with area >100ha, River valley
project, Thermal power plant with capacity >500MW, Nuclear power plant, oil and gas
Consideration of issues and impacts for EIA can be defined as a scoping stage.
This stage is very wide and extensive because consultations, discussions,
experts opinions etc. are very important, useful and essential at this stage.
A process of interaction between governments agencies and project
TOR are prepared here which include project description (i.e., type,
magnitude, location, alternative all are discussed.
Making a plan
10. WHO CAN PARTICIPATE IN SCOPING STAGE
11. BASELINE STUDY IN EIA
It means the collection of all relevant information on the current status of the
environment in terms of water, air, soil quality etc.
Collection of background information on the biophysical, social and economic
of proposed project area.
Impact of the project can change
over time so needs to be
measured over the lifetime of
the project, construction phase
to operations and even after
closure. Ex. Nuclear power
12. IMPACT PREDICTION
It involves forecasting the likely changes in the environment that will occur as
a result of the development.
Several techniques can be used in predicting the impacts.
Professional judgment with adequate reasoning and supporting data.
Experiments or tests.
Numerical calculations & mathematical models.
Physical or visual analysis.
Geographical information systems.
13. MITIGATION AND MANAGEMENT
Mitigation process in EIA involves taking
necessary measures to reduce or remove
adverse environmental impacts.
Action during design ,
construction, operation to
Alternative site or technology to eliminate
14. MITIGATION AND MANAGEMENT
Construction of Highways with roadside plantations to reduce noise pollution in
neighboring areas, limit the dust and increase the green cover which further
helps in maintaining the better air quality.
India’s First Animal Bridges In Delhi-Mumbai Expressway To Protect Animals From
15. PUBLIC HEARING
Public hearing provides an opportunity to
the directly affected people to express
their concerns and brings transparency in
the environmental clearance system.
This provides a legal space for people of
an area to come face-to-face with the
project proponent and the government
and express their concerns.
16. Exemption from public hearing
Public Hearing is applicable for all Category ‘A’ and Category B1 projects,
except the following:-
modernization of irrigation projects.
all projects or activities located within industrial estates or parks
approved by the concerned authorities.
expansion of Roads and Highways which do not involve any further
acquisition of land.
All Building /Construction projects/Area Development projects and
All projects or activities concerning national defense and security or
involving other strategic considerations as determined by the Central
17. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT(EIS)
List of references
Appendices including reference
documents, photographs and data
Terms of Reference
Consulting team composition
Notes from public consultation
Policy, legal and administrative
Description of proposed project
Significant environmental impacts
Identification and analysis of
An ideal content of EIS should have the following
18. REVIEW OF EIS
Assess the adequacy and quality of the report.
Consider public comments.
Determine if the information is sufficient for a
final decision to be made.
Identify any deficiencies that must be
addressed before the report can be submitted.
Licensing is the outcome
of the review process and
it is the final step.
An EIA process balances developmental and environmental aspects.
In absence of EIA process, many harm could be done to environment and
indigenous population. An EIA ensures right protection to society and
A proper implementation of EIA process, identifying impacts and following
suitable mitigation measures ensures sustainable growth and benefits to
Published in the Gazette of India, Extraordinary, Part-II, and Section 3, Sub-
MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT, FOREST AND CLIMATE CHANGE.
Ogola (2007). Environmental Impact Assessment General Procedures. Lake
Naivasha: UNU-GTP and KenGen.
H. Naber. Environmental Impact Assessment. Washington, DC: World Bank,
J. Glasson, R. Therival and A. Chadwick. Introduction to Environmental
Impact Assessment. London: London UCL Press, 1994.
WB. (2006). Bangladesh: Country Environmental Analysis. Washington, DC:
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