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The pre civil war south ppt

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The pre civil war south ppt

  1. 1. BELL RINGER • Based on what you have learned, describe the differences between the North and the South during the 1800’s.
  2. 2. THE PRE-CIVIL WAR SOUTH ESSENTIAL QUESTION: HOW DID THE ECONOMY, CULTURE, AND PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY OF THE SOUTH INFLUENCE EVENTS PRIOR TO THE CIVIL WAR?
  3. 3. EXPANSION TO THE DEEP SOUTH • The South’s economy was almost entirely based on agriculture • By 1850, the population had spread inland into the Deep South (GA, SC, AL, MS, LA, and TX) • Slavery was growing in the South and eliminated in the North • The Upper South relied on tobacco, hemp, wheat, and vegetables • The Deep South relied on cotton, rice, and sugarcane
  4. 4. EXPANSION TO THE DEEP SOUTH- REVIEW • 1. What states make up the Deep South? • 2. Contrast the difference between agriculture in the Upper South and the Deep South.
  5. 5. COTTON IS KING • In colonial times, Southern planters grew rice, indigo, and tobacco • European textile mills were demanding more cotton • Cotton labor was difficult and tedious- workers had to remove seeds from the fibers • Slave labor was used for this difficult job
  6. 6. COTTON IS KING- REVIEW • 3. Explain how Europe influenced an increase in cotton production in the Deep South. • 4. Describe why plantation owners felt the need to use slave labor for cotton farming.
  7. 7. ELI WHITNEY AND THE COTTON GIN • In 1793, Whitney invented the cotton gin for the purpose of making removing seeds easier. • With this invention, productivity increased • Cotton farmer were able to harvest 50 times more cotton with the cotton gin • The cotton gin lead to an increase in the demand for slave labor • Slavery spread across a larger area of the South
  8. 8. ELI WHITNEY AND THE COTTON GIN- REVIEW • 5. What was the purpose of the cotton gin? • 6. What effect did the cotton gin have on the number of slaves in the South? • 7. Why did it have this effect?
  9. 9. THE DOMESTIC SLAVE TRADE • “Domestic”- within the United States • Atlantic Slave Trade was banned in 1808, even though some illegal trading occurred after that • Slave trading within the U.S. became big business in the Deep South where cotton, rice, and sugarcane were the primary crops • Slaves were bought and sold at auctions and families were often split apart
  10. 10. DOMESTIC SLAVE TRADE- REVIEW • 8. Describe the domestic slave trade.
  11. 11. INDUSTRY IN THE SOUTH • Industry never caught on in the South • Factories were expensive and farmers would have to sell slaves to build them • The majority of the Southern population was poor or enslaved, therefore they could not afford to buy manufactured goods • Successful industry in the South included textiles in GA and SC and iron in AL • Industry was still not very typical in the South
  12. 12. SOUTHERN INDUSTRY- REVIEW • 9. List some reasons why industry never really caught on in the South. • 10. What type of industry became successful in South Carolina and Georgia? • 11. What type of industry became successful in Alabama?
  13. 13. SOUTHERN TRANSPORTATION • Farmers and the few manufacturers used natural waterways to transport goods • Towns were located along rivers because canals were scarce and roads were poor • South had fewer railroads than the North therefore Southern cities grew more slowly
  14. 14. SOUTHERN TRANSPORTATION- REVIEW • 12. How were goods transported in the South? • 13. Why were towns located along natural waterways? • 14. What effect did the lack of railroads have on the South?
  15. 15. MEMPHIS: THE COTTON CAPITAL OF THE SOUTH • Memphis was an important commercial city in the cotton industry • Located on the eastern bank of the Mississippi River • Close to fertile Mississippi River delta and flatlands- suitable for cotton farming • Farmers and planters would take cotton to Memphis where it could be sold and transported to textile manufacturers in the North and other parts of the world
  16. 16. MEMPHIS: THE COTTON CAPITAL OF THE SOUTH- REVIEW • 15. Why was Memphis considered the “cotton capital of the South?” • 16. Why did farmers send their cotton to Memphis?
  17. 17. SMALL FARMERS AND THE RURAL POOR • Most whites in the South were yeoman farmers- small farms of 50-200 acres • These farmers lived mostly in the Upper South and the hilly areas of the Deep South • They did not use plantation agriculture, instead they grew crops for themselves and local trade • Tenant farmers worked on rented land from landowners • The rural poor were stubborn, independent, and looked down upon by others. However, they were proud to be able to provide for their families. • Some free African-Americans owned slaves like plantation owners while others bought their own family members to free them
  18. 18. SMALL FARMERS AND THE RURAL POOR- REVIEW • 17. Most whites in the South were _______________ farmers who owned small farms. • 18. Explain the difference between small farming and plantation farming. • 19. Some whites were __________________ farmers who worked on rented land. • 20. Describe the rural poor of the South.
  19. 19. PLANTATION OWNERS • Plantation owners measured wealth by number of slaves • In 1860, only 4% of slaveowners had 20 or more slaves • Plantations had fixed costs year after year even though cotton prices changed • Changes in cotton prices meant the difference between a good and bad year • Owners traveled to do business while wives would look over the plantation and keep financial records • Some slaves on plantations would do household chores or specialized jobs while others were field hands • Overseers were in charge of supervising slave labor
  20. 20. PLANTATION OWNERS- REVIEW • 21. How did plantation owners measure wealth? • 22. What percentage of slaveowners owned 20 or more slaves in 1860? • 23. Why could changes in cotton prices result in the difference between a successful or unsuccessful year? • 24. Some slaves did household chores, while others were _____________________. • 25. Who was in charge of the day-to-day supervision of slave labor?
  21. 21. AFRICAN-AMERICAN FAMILY LIFE • Laws did not recognize slave marriage • Slaves still married in their own ceremonies and raised families • Families were often separated • African-Americans relied on a network of extended relative members to take care of family members if families were separated
  22. 22. AFRICAN-AMERICAN FAMILY LIFE- REVIEW • 26. Why did slaves have their own marriage ceremonies? • 27. Why were extended family members important for enslaved African-Americans?
  23. 23. AFRICAN-AMERICAN CULTURE • By 1860, most slaves had been born in the U.S. • African-Americans tried to preserve African customs • Traditional folk stories were passed down to children • African-American music was uniquely rhythmic with call-and- response • The beat of the music set the tempo of their work in the fields
  24. 24. AFRICAN-AMERICAN CULTURE- REVIEW • 28. Even though most slaves had been born in the U.S. (by 1860), they still tried to preserve ________________________. • 29. What connection did African-American music have to slave labor?
  25. 25. AFRICAN-AMERICAN RELIGION • Some slaves kept traditional African religious practices • Others accepted Christianity • Slaves expressed themselves through spirituals, or religious folk songs
  26. 26. AFRICAN-AMERICAN RELIGION- REVIEW • 30. Which two religions were followed by most slaves? • 31. How did slaves express religious beliefs and emotions?
  27. 27. SLAVE CODES • Laws in Southern states aimed at controlling African-American slaves • Meant to prevent slave rebellions • Slaves could not meet in large groups, leave property without written permission, or learn how to read and write
  28. 28. SLAVE CODES- REVIEW • 32. What were slave codes? • 33. What were some examples of slave codes?
  29. 29. FIGHTING BACK • Some slaves, like Nat Turner, decided to rebel • Turner taught himself to read and write, led a group of followers on a brief rampage in Virginia, and ended up killing at least 55 whites • Turner was captured and hanged • Following Nat Turner’s rebellion, dozens of African-Americans were hanged by white mobs, even though most had nothing to do with Turner’s rebellion • Violent slave revolts were rare because slaves felt like they had no chance of winning • Slave resistance consisted of breaking tools, faking illness, working slowly, setting fires, etc.
  30. 30. FIGHTING BACK- REVIEW • 34. What happened during Nat Turner’s Rebellion? • 35. Why were slave revolts rare? • 36. How did slaves resist without rebelling?
  31. 31. SOUTHERN CITIES AND EDUCATION • Even though the South was primarily agricultural, major cities popped up along waterways and railroad crossings • Free African-Americans made their homes in these cities • Some states started public education by the mid-1800’s but the South still lagged behind in literacy • Southerners believed education was a private matter
  32. 32. SOUTHERN CITIES- REVIEW • 37. Where did major cities develop in the South? • 38. Who made their home in these cities? • 39. How did Southerners feel about education?

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