3. WHAT IS TECHNICAL WRITING?
•Technical writing is used to inform, instruct or
direct a specific audience through maximum clarity
and precision with specific tangible goal in mind.
•In rare occasions/reason when technical writing is
used to persuade, the persuasion is direct through
informing, instructing or directing.
Examples of technical writing
•Factual/real data statistics
5. How technical writing likes other writing?
Writing process : brainstorming/prewriting, drafting, revision, and editing
are still expected through they may vary slightly
Time/effort: short doesn’t easy or fast(knowing what should have to be
Strong language skills: grammar, punctuation, spelling, sentence structure
and word choice are still necessary
Eg.#1 “A woman without her man is nothing”
“A woman without her man is nothing”
#2 “Kill him not leave him”
“Kill him not leave him”
Research : if you don’t already completely understand your audience
,topics, and purpose ,you must thoroughly(carefully/ in list) research the
topic you are writing about too.
Rules: most technical; writing projects will require expertise in and use of
the field’s writing conventions and/or a style guide
6. How technical writing is unique?
Audience: highly specific. Usually professionals in a
field with a specific role. Often only accessible to those
Presentation: simpler and clear organization. Favors
visual accessible and clarity over flow and transition
.visuals: graphics are encouraged and commonly used
to better explain the information
Knowledge : you are the expert and do not needed to
prove your reliability or knowledge
Information: 100% objective. 100% factual, true, and
accurate. Never ambiguous. Emotion or opinion is
Language: highly specialized and jargon-heavy (if
Examples: not common ,but may be included
(concisely) when necessary for better understanding.
7. Rules for technical writing
Remember the purpose of the finished product:
informing ,instructing ,proposing ,or persuading? Shape
content to purpose and make goals clear.
Understand and remember audience: concerns,
background and attitude towards your purpose? Existing
,experience ,or novice users? Will the content be online
Know the topics or product and its particular
requirements: what more can you learn ? Instructing and
explaining required a deeper understanding than
otherwise needed. All data must be accurate ,up-to –date
8. Rules for technical writing …. Cont….
Be consistent : use style sheet. Use the same words,
punctuation styles ,etc.
Write precisely :concise(short and brief) writing
enhances understanding by avoiding information
that doesn’t directly further the intended goal. keep
Write clearly: information is as possible with no
ambiguities ,misinterpretation, or question
Make good use visuals: use them effectively , not
just to have a visual. Remember content design and
9. What is a Report ?
The word Report, comes from Reportare, which means to
Description of an event where you are not present.
A report is a document that presents information in an
organized format for a specific audience and purpose.
Types of reports include memos, minutes, lab reports,
book reports, progress reports, justification reports,
annual reports, and policies and procedures.
A formal communication written for a specific purpose it
includes a description of a procedure followed by
collection and analysis of data, significance, conclusion
and then recommendation if required.
”A report is like a bathing suit, It covers everything that
has to be covered but nothing more”
11. Structure of Reports
Report can be divided into three major parts and total
of 17 elements
Table of contents
Lists of illustrations
Synopsis or executive summary
15. 1.Abstract/Executive Summary
Always comes first
Is brief (one paragraph-one page)
States research problem or main objective
Indicate the methodology used
Presents the main findings and conclusions
Abstract of the report, tells in concentrated
form what the report is about.
Introduction Method Results Discussion
The extension of the sunspot number series backward in
time is of considerable importance for dynamo theory.
We have applied a physical model to records of the 10Be
concentration in polar ice to reconstruct sunspot number
between the year 850 and the present. The reconstruction
shows that the period of high solar activity during the
last 60 years is unique throughout the past 1150 years.
This nearly triples the interval of time for which such a
statement could be made.
Explains the research problem and its context
Explains importance of the problem (why does it
Applications of the experiment or theory
Explains reason and goals for study
Offers a good starting point say what is report is
Scope of study, specifying its limitations and relevance.
Method of collecting data and their resources.
Definitions of special terms and symbols.
Is in past tense and passive voice (3rd person)
Do not use “We”, “I”, or “You”
Describes the experimental procedure and data
Included a schematic/diagram of the apparatus
Write in complete sentence
“The tank was filled with 5 L of water”
NOT “Fill tank with 5L of water”
Incomplete sentence and present tense
State the results in the text before presenting any
graphs, figures or tables.
Text points out the most significant portions of
Indicates key trends or relationships
Highlights expected and/or unexpected findings
Visual representation of results:
Graphs, tables or figures
Included error analysis
Past tense (these are results you measured, calculated
Why did you observed what you observed?
Explanation for Results:
Comments on unexpected results, offering
hypothesis for them
Comparison to literature
Does your research confirm previous studies?
Deviate from them?
22. 7.Conclusion and recommendation
What was learned through research
Strengths and weakness of study
Possible applications of study (how it can be used)
What would you do differently?
Any changes would you recommend for the
Suggested future course of action, give only if
expected to do or the nature of the reports demands it
Decided on two factors:
1. Whether it contains the theme and form the integral
part of report.
2. Whether it interrupts the train of reader’s thought if
included in the main body.
24. List of references
Example: Alan Warner, A short guide to English style,
Oxford University Press London, ELBS edition, 1964, pp.
Example: Warner Alan, A short guide to English style,
ELBS edition, London: Oxford University press, 1964.
List of technical word in the report and their explanation.
Entries in the alphabetical order and cross referenced. All
page numbers should be mentioned.
25. Visual Design
Should be used to illustrate specific points
Should be incorporated in a way that is natural to
Should be explained fully in text using references
such as “Fig. 1 shows….”
Should be cited if taken from a source
Textual information should come before graphics
26. Visual Design
2.70 9.44 um Host
2.70 9.09 um Host
Silica 2.65 20 nm Guest
Carbon black 2.00 50 nm Guest
Titania 4.23 21 nm Guest
Table 1: Properties of the Raw Materials
27. Visual Design
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5
Dispersion Pressure (bar)
Uncoated 0.5:1 magnet ratio
1:1 magnet ratio 2:1 magnet ratio
Figure 1: show the mean particle size of uncoated and surface modified Micronized APAP as a
function of dispersion pressure. The plot shows the effects of magnet ratio on attrition.
28. Language and Vocabulary
•Reports should be easily accessible
Be straightforward and concise
Use simple terms, not jargon
Keep sentences short and simple (20 words max)
No common phases (be technical)
“in the ballpark”
Be specific and not general
Not “close” or “like” or “pretty” or “roughly”
Courtesy: Purdue Writing Lab
29. Source Documentation
Cite sources whenever you are quoting, paraphrasing, or
summarizing work that is not your own
Quote directly is discouraged
DO NOT COPY
Journal, magazine, or newspaper articles