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FROM BOUTROS FINIANOS
TO DR RAWAD EL HAGE
PHED366 ASSESSMENT AND
DEVELOPMENT OF FORCE-VELOCITY
MASTER IN PHYSICAL CONDITIONING
University of Balamand
Several exercise methods are commonly used by fitness
practitioners to increase muscle strength and body mass.
Pre-exhaustion (PE) is a strength training method
of combining two exercises, in which a single-joint
exercise first then a multi-joint exercise
Post-exhaustion (PO) The purpose of such
techniques is to take the muscle beyond the point of
failure. Muscular failure is the point in which performing
another repetition in good form becomes.
For advanced trainers targeting muscular hypertrophy, it is
recommended that the majority of training be devoted to
6-12 repetitions at moderate loading (70-85% 1 RM) for
multiple sets, performed to or close to momentary muscle
There are many training technique that can be used after
Rest pause repetition
Descending sets (drop sets)
A- studies about the forced reps
A study talked about the Acute hormonal and
neuromuscular responses and recovery to
forced vs maximum repetitions multiple
Acute hormonal and neuromuscular responses and
recovery were examined during the maximum
repetitions (MR) and forced repetitions (FR)
resistance exercise protocols in 16 male athletes
three days after the exercises
4 sets of leg presses,
2 sets of squats
2 sets of knee
(with 12 RM) with a 2-
min recovery between
the sets and 4 min
between the exercises
In FR the initial load was chosen to be higher than in
MR so that the subject could not lift 12 repetitions
per set by himself
After each set to failure the subject was assisted to
perform the remaining repetitions to complete the 12
repetitions per set. Thus the exercise intensity was
greater in FR than in MR
in serum testosterone
and free testosterone,
in cortsiol and GH
in serum testosterone
and free testosterone,
The decrease of 56.5 % (p < 0.001) in maximal
isometric force in FR
was greater (p < 0.001)
than that of 38.3 % in MR (p < 0.001) and force
remained lower (p < 0.01) during the recovery in FR
compared to MR.
The larger decrease in isometric strength in FR than
in MR was also associated with the decreased
maximal voluntary EMG of the loaded muscles.
The data indicate that the forced repetition exercise
induced greater acute hormonal and
neuromuscular responses than a traditional
maximum repetition exercise system
and therefore it may be used to manipulate acute
resistance exercise variables in athletes.
-Greater decreases in muscular force production and
EMG activity after FR may be due to the initial
increased load(i.e., 8RMversus 10–12RM)
B-Another study about forced reps
Aim: investigate acute hormonal and neuromuscular
responses and recovery.
Strength athletes versus nonathletes
During heavy resistance exercise performed with the
forced and maximum repetitions training
Eight male strength
athletes (SA) with several
years of continuous
and 8 physically active
but non-strength athletes
(NA) volunteered as
The experimental design comprised two loading
maximum repetitions (MR)
and forced repetitions (FR).
MR included 12-RM squats for 4 sets with a 2-min
recovery between sets.
In FR the initial load was higher than in MR so that
the subject could lift approximately 8 repetitions by
himself and 4 additional repetitions with assistance
Before and after the loading protocols,
blood samples were drawn to determine serum
testosterone, free testosterone, cortisol and growth
hormone concentrations, and blood lactate.
Maximal voluntary isometric force and EMG activity
of the leg extensors was measured before and after
the loading as well as 24 and 48 hrs after the loading
The concentrations of the hormones measured
increased significantly (p < .01-.001) after both
loadings in both groups.
The responses tended to be higher in FR than the
Both loading protocols in both groups also led to
observable with significant acute decreases in
isometric strength by 32-52% (p < .001)
and in maximal iEMG (p < .05-01)
associated with large increases in blood lactate.
These data suggest that, at least in experienced
strength athletes, the forced-repetition protocol is a
viable alternative to the more traditional
maximum-repetition protocol and may even
be a superior approach
C-Another research on forced reps:
Acute neuromuscular responses to maximum versus
forced repetition (FR were examined in 4 male
strength athletes (SAs) and 4 nonathletes).
knee extension resistance exercises (4 sets of 12
repetitions [reps] with a 2-minute recovery between
Maximum repetition (MR) sets were performed to
voluntary exhaustion (12 repetition maximum
whereas in the FR sets, the load was greater (8RM)
and the set was continued after voluntary fatigue
with 4 additional assisted reps
Maximal isometric force
and (EMG) activity of the
knee extensors were
During the actual
after the exercise,
as well as 2 recovery
days after the exercise
Both loading protocols in both groups led to
decreases in isometric force,
EMG activity increased in both groups throughout
the MR sets when compared with the first repetitions
of the sets.
Only in SAs, EMG activity decreased significantly at
the end of the FR sets
The results suggest that experienced SAs were capable to
activate their muscles to a greater extent than their non-
strength-trained counterparts indicated by neural
fatigue during the FR exercise.
Greater motor unit activation in SAs than in nonathletes
may be due to training-induced neural adaptation, which
manifested during fatiguing exercise.
The present study suggests that FRs are an efficient
training protocol to overload the neuromuscular system
especially in SAs.
D- another study:
The purpose of this study is to compare the
metabolic and mechanical responses among seven
different RTM reported in the literature. The RTM
were compared with regard to blood lactate, time
under tension (TUT) and total loading (TUT x
load) in recreationally trained young men
All RTM were performed in a knee extension
RTM analyzed in this study were:
1) 10 maximum repetition method (TEN): Normal
lift at 10RM load conduced until concentric failure is
2) 6RM maximum repetition method (SIX): Normal
lift at 6RM load conduced until concentric failure is
3) Breakdown method (BD) or dropsets : Repetitions
were performed at 6RM load until concentric failure.
After failure, load was reduced by 5.0 kg and exercise
continued, the procedure was repeated until 15
repetitions were reached.
4) Forced repetitions method (FR): A set was
conduced at 6RM load until concentric failure was
reached. After failure, four more repetitions were
performed with assistance. Assistance was given only
at the concentric phase and the same exercise
technologist assisted all subjects.
5) Functional isometrics method (FI): Normal lifts
were conduced at 10RM load until concentric failure.
In each repetition a five seconds isometric
contraction at maximal knee extension was executed.
6) Adapted vascular occlusion (VO): A 20-seconds
maximal isometric contraction at 10RM load was
immediately followed by a normal lifts at 10RM load
until concentric failure.
7) Super-slow method (SL): It was performed one set
comprising one 60-second repetition with 30
seconds for both eccentric and concentric phases. To
control velocity, time was informed every five
All RTM produced significant increases in blood
with no difference among them.
The BD method elicited higher TUT and total
loading compared to the other RTM tested
In practical terms, when the training goal is to
provide metabolic stimuli, all RTM seems to be
If the purpose is to induce greater mechanical stress,
BD seems to be the more indicated
E- a study on tri-sets
The study evaluate the acute immune responses
to an upper body tri-set resistance training (RT)
session in RT trained individuals.
Eighteen young trained men (22·0 ± 1·8 years)
divided to 2 groups
Control group (CG; n = 9)
The exercise group (EG; n=9)completed an acute tri-
set RT protocol using two combinations of three
exercises for the same muscle group with six to eight
repetitions at 75% of one repetition maximum (1RM)
for each exercise
The results suggest that the tri-set RT session did not
aggravate the acute inflammatory response
and might be a good option for variations in RT
methods for trained individuals.
F-Another study on tri-sets
The purpose of this study was to compare the effects
of multiple-set (MS) and tri-set (TS) RT approaches
on muscle strength and body composition following
a 12 week program in trained women (> 1 year of RT
Both RT protocols increased strength, with no effect
on body composition.
E-Another study on the rest-pause principle.
The purpose of the study is :
To compare muscle recruitment,
and rate of force development changes
following different resistance exercise protocols with
a constant volume-load.
fourteen (n=14) resistance trained male participants
completed three different resistance exercise
protocols involving a total of 20 squat repetitions,
prescribed at 80% of 1-repetition-maximum
Protocol A consisted of 5 sets of 4 repetitions with 3
min inter-set rest intervals
protocol B was 5 sets of 4 repetitions with 20 s inter-
set rest intervals
the rest-pause method was an initial set to failure
with subsequent sets performed with a 20 s inter-set
All protocols elicited similar decreases (p<0.05) in
maximal force and rate of force development (RFD)
immediately upon completion (IP), with full recovery
at 5 min 5P
Increased motor unit recruitment was observed
during the rest-pause method compared to both
protocols A and B for all muscles measured
As a result of the increased EMG during exercise and
no greater post-exercise fatigue,
it was concluded that the rest-pause method may be
an efficacious training method for resistance-trained
F-Another research on super sets
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects
of a traditional multi-set weight-training regime
and a super-set weight-training regime
on body fat,
lean body mass,
and aerobic fitness
upon observation the super-set group displayed
greater improvements in body fat loss and aerobic
fitness while there were no observable differences
between groups on lean body mass and muscular
Pre-exhaustion (PreEx) training is advocated on the
principle that immediately preceding a compound
exercise with an isolation exercise can target
stronger muscles to pre-exhaust them to obtain
greater adaptations in strength and size. However,
research considering PreEx training method is
A- study on pre- exhaustion
Thirty-nine trained participants (male = 9, female =
30) completed 12 weeks of resistance training in 1 of
a group that performed PreEx training ( n = 14),
a group that performed the same exercise order with
a rest interval between exercises ( n = 17),
and a control group ( n = 8) that performed the same
exercises in a different order (compound exercises
prior to isolation).
No significant between-group effects were found for
strength in chest press, leg press, or pull-down
exercises, or for body composition changes.
PreEx training offers no greater benefit to
performing the same exercises with rest between
them compared with exercises performed in an order
that prioritizes compound movements.
B- study on pre-exhaustion:
Aim : investigate the
effect of pre exhaustion
exercise on lower-
activation during a leg
Seventeen healthy male subjects performed 1 set of a
leg press exercise with and without pre-exhaustion
which consisted of 1 set of a knee extension exercise.
Both exercises were performed at a load of 10
repetitions maximum (10RM).
Electromyography (EMG) was recorded from the
rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, and gluteus maximus
muscles simultaneously during the leg press exercise
The activation of the rectus femoris and the vastus
lateralis muscles during the leg press exercise was
significantly less when subjects were pre-exhausted
(p < 0.05)
No significant EMG change was observed for the
gluteus maximus muscle
When in a pre-exhausted state, subjects performed
significantly (p < 0.001) less repetitions of the leg
The findings do not support the popular belief of
weight trainers that performing pre-exhaustion
exercise is more effective in order to enhance muscle
activity compared with regular weight training.
Conversely, pre-exhaustion exercise may have
disadvantageous effects on performance, such as
decreased muscle activity and reduction in strength,
during multijoint exercise.
Post exhaustion methods are more beneficial than
pre exhaustion methods for muscle damage and
All post exhaustion methods :
-have the same aim: stimulate considerably and
intensively the muscles which lead to their
hypertrophy during the recuperation phase.
-Increase TUT and total load in order to shock the
body and to break the routine increase
A Brief Review of Forced Repetitions for the Promotion of Muscular Hypertrophy Daniel A. Hackett, PhD and Theban Amirthalingam, BHSc (Hons) Discipline of
Exercise and Sport Science, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12905088 Acute hormonal and neuromuscular responses and recovery to forced vs maximum repetitions
multiple resistance exercises.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19528869 Strength athletes are capable to produce greater muscle activation and neural fatigue during high-
intensity resistance exercise than nonathletes.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17685709 Increased number of forced repetitions does not enhance strength development with resistance
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15507691 Acute hormonal responses to heavy resistance exercise in strength athletes versus nonathletes.
http://www.scielo.br/pdf/rbme/v12n6/en_a01v12n6.pdf The acute effects of varied resistance training methods on blood lactate and loading
characteristics in recreationally trained men
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com.ezsecureaccess.balamand.edu.lb/doi/10.1111/cpf.12066/full Immune responses to an upper body tri-set resistance
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/cpf.12192/abstract Comparison between the multiple-set plus 2 weeks of tri-set and traditional
multiple-set method on strength and body composition in trained women: a pilot study
http://journals.lww.com/nsca-jscr/abstract/2003/05000/effect_of_pre_exhaustion_exercise_on.32.aspx Effect of Pre-Exhaustion Exercise on Lower-
Extremity Muscle Activation During a Leg Press Exercise.
http://journals.lww.com/nsca-jscr/Abstract/2010/08000/Effects_of_Different_Strength_Training_Methods_on.38.aspx Effects of Different Strength
Training Methods on Postexercise Energetic Expenditure
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21940213 Acute neuromuscular and fatigue responses to the rest-pause method.
36db33360b9f%40sessionmgr4004&vid=0&hid=4107&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZSZzY29wZT1zaXRl#AN=99044765&db=a9h The effects of pre-
exhaustion, exercise order, and rest intervals in a full-body resistance training intervention.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3282595/ Exercise order affects the total training volume and the ratings of perceived exertion in
response to a super-set resistance training session