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FROM BOUTROS FINIANOS
TO DR RAWAD EL HAGE
COURSE NAME:
PHED366 ASSESSMENT AND
DEVELOPMENT OF FORCE-VELOCITY
QUALITIES
MAST...
INTRODUCTION
 Several exercise methods are commonly used by fitness
practitioners to increase muscle strength and body ma...
For advanced trainers targeting muscular hypertrophy, it is
recommended that the majority of training be devoted to
6-12 r...
TRAINING TECHNIQUES:
 There are many training technique that can be used after
reaching MMF
 Forced repetition
 Rest pa...
A- studies about the forced reps
 A study talked about the Acute hormonal and
neuromuscular responses and recovery to
for...
DESCRIPTION
 Acute hormonal and neuromuscular responses and
recovery were examined during the maximum
repetitions (MR) an...
 MR included
 4 sets of leg presses,
 2 sets of squats
 2 sets of knee
extensions
 (with 12 RM) with a 2-
min recover...
DESCRIPTION
 In FR the initial load was chosen to be higher than in
MR so that the subject could not lift 12 repetitions
...
RESULTS
 FR
in serum testosterone
and free testosterone,
in cortsiol and GH
concentrations
 MR
in serum testosterone
and...
Results
 The decrease of 56.5 % (p < 0.001) in maximal
isometric force in FR
was greater (p < 0.001)
than that of 38.3 % ...
Conclusion:
 The data indicate that the forced repetition exercise
system
 induced greater acute hormonal and
neuromuscu...
B-Another study about forced reps
Aim: investigate acute hormonal and neuromuscular
responses and recovery.
Who?
Strength ...
DESCRIPTION
 Eight male strength
athletes (SA) with several
years of continuous
resistance training
experience
 and 8 ph...
DESCRIPTION:
 The experimental design comprised two loading
sessions:
 maximum repetitions (MR)
 and forced repetitions...
DESCRIPTION
 Before and after the loading protocols,
 blood samples were drawn to determine serum
testosterone, free tes...
Results:
 The concentrations of the hormones measured
increased significantly (p < .01-.001) after both
loadings in both ...
RESULTS
 Both loading protocols in both groups also led to
neuromuscular fatigue
 observable with significant acute decr...
Conclusion:
 These data suggest that, at least in experienced
strength athletes, the forced-repetition protocol is a
viab...
C-Another research on forced reps:
 Acute neuromuscular responses to maximum versus
forced repetition (FR were examined i...
DESCRIPTION
 knee extension resistance exercises (4 sets of 12
repetitions [reps] with a 2-minute recovery between
the se...
DESCRIPTION
 Maximal isometric force
and (EMG) activity of the
knee extensors were
measured
 During the actual
concentri...
Results:
 Both loading protocols in both groups led to
decreases in isometric force,
 EMG activity increased in both gro...
Conclusion:
 The results suggest that experienced SAs were capable to
activate their muscles to a greater extent than the...
D- another study:
The purpose of this study is to compare the
metabolic and mechanical responses among seven
different RTM...
DESCRIPTION
 All RTM were performed in a knee extension
machine.
RTM analyzed in this study were:
 1) 10 maximum repetition method (TEN): Normal
lift at 10RM load conduced until concentr...
2
 2) 6RM maximum repetition method (SIX): Normal
lift at 6RM load conduced until concentric failure is
reached
3
 3) Breakdown method (BD) or dropsets : Repetitions
were performed at 6RM load until concentric failure.
After failure,...
4
 4) Forced repetitions method (FR): A set was
conduced at 6RM load until concentric failure was
reached. After failure,...
 5) Functional isometrics method (FI): Normal lifts
were conduced at 10RM load until concentric failure.
In each repetiti...
 6) Adapted vascular occlusion (VO): A 20-seconds
maximal isometric contraction at 10RM load was
immediately followed by ...
 7) Super-slow method (SL): It was performed one set
comprising one 60-second repetition with 30
seconds for both eccentr...
Results:
 All RTM produced significant increases in blood
lactate,
 with no difference among them.
 The BD method elici...
Conclusion:
 In practical terms, when the training goal is to
provide metabolic stimuli, all RTM seems to be
equally effi...
E- a study on tri-sets
 The study evaluate the acute immune responses
to an upper body tri-set resistance training (RT)
s...
Results:
 The results suggest that the tri-set RT session did not
aggravate the acute inflammatory response
 and might b...
F-Another study on tri-sets
 The purpose of this study was to compare the effects
of multiple-set (MS) and tri-set (TS) R...
Results:
 Both RT protocols increased strength, with no effect
on body composition.
E-Another study on the rest-pause principle.
 The purpose of the study is :
 To compare muscle recruitment,
 maximal fo...
DESCRIPTION:
 fourteen (n=14) resistance trained male participants
completed three different resistance exercise
protocol...
DESCRIPTION
 Protocol A consisted of 5 sets of 4 repetitions with 3
min inter-set rest intervals
 protocol B was 5 sets ...
RESULTS:
 All protocols elicited similar decreases (p<0.05) in
maximal force and rate of force development (RFD)
immediat...
Conclusion:
 As a result of the increased EMG during exercise and
no greater post-exercise fatigue,
 it was concluded th...
F-Another research on super sets
 The purpose of this study was to examine the effects
of a traditional multi-set weight-...
Results:
 upon observation the super-set group displayed
greater improvements in body fat loss and aerobic
fitness while ...
Pre exhaustion:
 Pre-exhaustion (PreEx) training is advocated on the
principle that immediately preceding a compound
exer...
A- study on pre- exhaustion
 Thirty-nine trained participants (male = 9, female =
30) completed 12 weeks of resistance tr...
Results:
 No significant between-group effects were found for
strength in chest press, leg press, or pull-down
exercises,...
Conclusion:
PreEx training offers no greater benefit to
performing the same exercises with rest between
them compared with...
B- study on pre-exhaustion:
 Aim : investigate the
effect of pre exhaustion
exercise on lower-
extremity muscle
activatio...
Description
 Seventeen healthy male subjects performed 1 set of a
leg press exercise with and without pre-exhaustion
exer...
Results :
 The activation of the rectus femoris and the vastus
lateralis muscles during the leg press exercise was
signif...
Conclusion:
 The findings do not support the popular belief of
weight trainers that performing pre-exhaustion
exercise is...
Finally
 Post exhaustion methods are more beneficial than
pre exhaustion methods for muscle damage and
hypertrophy.
 All...
References:
A Brief Review of Forced Repetitions for the Promotion of Muscular Hypertrophy Daniel A. Hackett, PhD and Theb...
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  1. 1. FROM BOUTROS FINIANOS TO DR RAWAD EL HAGE COURSE NAME: PHED366 ASSESSMENT AND DEVELOPMENT OF FORCE-VELOCITY QUALITIES MASTER IN PHYSICAL CONDITIONING FALL 2015-2016 University of Balamand
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION  Several exercise methods are commonly used by fitness practitioners to increase muscle strength and body mass.  Pre-exhaustion (PE) is a strength training method of combining two exercises, in which a single-joint exercise first then a multi-joint exercise  Post-exhaustion (PO) The purpose of such techniques is to take the muscle beyond the point of failure. Muscular failure is the point in which performing another repetition in good form becomes.
  3. 3. For advanced trainers targeting muscular hypertrophy, it is recommended that the majority of training be devoted to 6-12 repetitions at moderate loading (70-85% 1 RM) for multiple sets, performed to or close to momentary muscle failure (MMF)..
  4. 4. TRAINING TECHNIQUES:  There are many training technique that can be used after reaching MMF  Forced repetition  Rest pause repetition  Negative reps  Descending sets (drop sets)  Partial reps
  5. 5. A- studies about the forced reps  A study talked about the Acute hormonal and neuromuscular responses and recovery to forced vs maximum repetitions multiple resistance exercises
  6. 6. DESCRIPTION  Acute hormonal and neuromuscular responses and recovery were examined during the maximum repetitions (MR) and forced repetitions (FR) resistance exercise protocols in 16 male athletes three days after the exercises
  7. 7.  MR included  4 sets of leg presses,  2 sets of squats  2 sets of knee extensions  (with 12 RM) with a 2- min recovery between the sets and 4 min between the exercises DESCRIPTION
  8. 8. DESCRIPTION  In FR the initial load was chosen to be higher than in MR so that the subject could not lift 12 repetitions per set by himself  After each set to failure the subject was assisted to perform the remaining repetitions to complete the 12 repetitions per set. Thus the exercise intensity was greater in FR than in MR
  9. 9. RESULTS  FR in serum testosterone and free testosterone, in cortsiol and GH concentrations  MR in serum testosterone and free testosterone, cortisol, GH concentrations
  10. 10. Results  The decrease of 56.5 % (p < 0.001) in maximal isometric force in FR was greater (p < 0.001) than that of 38.3 % in MR (p < 0.001) and force remained lower (p < 0.01) during the recovery in FR compared to MR.  The larger decrease in isometric strength in FR than in MR was also associated with the decreased maximal voluntary EMG of the loaded muscles.
  11. 11. Conclusion:  The data indicate that the forced repetition exercise system  induced greater acute hormonal and neuromuscular responses than a traditional maximum repetition exercise system  and therefore it may be used to manipulate acute resistance exercise variables in athletes.  -Greater decreases in muscular force production and EMG activity after FR may be due to the initial increased load(i.e., 8RMversus 10–12RM)
  12. 12. B-Another study about forced reps Aim: investigate acute hormonal and neuromuscular responses and recovery. Who? Strength athletes versus nonathletes When? During heavy resistance exercise performed with the forced and maximum repetitions training protocol
  13. 13. DESCRIPTION  Eight male strength athletes (SA) with several years of continuous resistance training experience  and 8 physically active but non-strength athletes (NA) volunteered as subjects
  14. 14. DESCRIPTION:  The experimental design comprised two loading sessions:  maximum repetitions (MR)  and forced repetitions (FR).  MR included 12-RM squats for 4 sets with a 2-min recovery between sets.  In FR the initial load was higher than in MR so that the subject could lift approximately 8 repetitions by himself and 4 additional repetitions with assistance
  15. 15. DESCRIPTION  Before and after the loading protocols,  blood samples were drawn to determine serum testosterone, free testosterone, cortisol and growth hormone concentrations, and blood lactate.  Maximal voluntary isometric force and EMG activity of the leg extensors was measured before and after the loading as well as 24 and 48 hrs after the loading
  16. 16. Results:  The concentrations of the hormones measured increased significantly (p < .01-.001) after both loadings in both groups.  The responses tended to be higher in FR than the MR loading
  17. 17. RESULTS  Both loading protocols in both groups also led to neuromuscular fatigue  observable with significant acute decreases in isometric strength by 32-52% (p < .001)  and in maximal iEMG (p < .05-01)  associated with large increases in blood lactate.
  18. 18. Conclusion:  These data suggest that, at least in experienced strength athletes, the forced-repetition protocol is a viable alternative to the more traditional maximum-repetition protocol and may even be a superior approach
  19. 19. C-Another research on forced reps:  Acute neuromuscular responses to maximum versus forced repetition (FR were examined in 4 male strength athletes (SAs) and 4 nonathletes).
  20. 20. DESCRIPTION  knee extension resistance exercises (4 sets of 12 repetitions [reps] with a 2-minute recovery between the sets)  Maximum repetition (MR) sets were performed to voluntary exhaustion (12 repetition maximum [RM]),  whereas in the FR sets, the load was greater (8RM) and the set was continued after voluntary fatigue with 4 additional assisted reps
  21. 21. DESCRIPTION  Maximal isometric force and (EMG) activity of the knee extensors were measured  During the actual concentric phase  before and  after the exercise,  as well as 2 recovery days after the exercise
  22. 22. Results:  Both loading protocols in both groups led to decreases in isometric force,  EMG activity increased in both groups throughout the MR sets when compared with the first repetitions of the sets.  Only in SAs, EMG activity decreased significantly at the end of the FR sets
  23. 23. Conclusion:  The results suggest that experienced SAs were capable to activate their muscles to a greater extent than their non- strength-trained counterparts indicated by neural fatigue during the FR exercise.  Greater motor unit activation in SAs than in nonathletes may be due to training-induced neural adaptation, which manifested during fatiguing exercise.  The present study suggests that FRs are an efficient training protocol to overload the neuromuscular system especially in SAs.
  24. 24. D- another study: The purpose of this study is to compare the metabolic and mechanical responses among seven different RTM reported in the literature. The RTM were compared with regard to blood lactate, time under tension (TUT) and total loading (TUT x load) in recreationally trained young men
  25. 25. DESCRIPTION  All RTM were performed in a knee extension machine.
  26. 26. RTM analyzed in this study were:  1) 10 maximum repetition method (TEN): Normal lift at 10RM load conduced until concentric failure is reached
  27. 27. 2  2) 6RM maximum repetition method (SIX): Normal lift at 6RM load conduced until concentric failure is reached
  28. 28. 3  3) Breakdown method (BD) or dropsets : Repetitions were performed at 6RM load until concentric failure. After failure, load was reduced by 5.0 kg and exercise continued, the procedure was repeated until 15 repetitions were reached.
  29. 29. 4  4) Forced repetitions method (FR): A set was conduced at 6RM load until concentric failure was reached. After failure, four more repetitions were performed with assistance. Assistance was given only at the concentric phase and the same exercise technologist assisted all subjects.
  30. 30.  5) Functional isometrics method (FI): Normal lifts were conduced at 10RM load until concentric failure. In each repetition a five seconds isometric contraction at maximal knee extension was executed.
  31. 31.  6) Adapted vascular occlusion (VO): A 20-seconds maximal isometric contraction at 10RM load was immediately followed by a normal lifts at 10RM load until concentric failure.
  32. 32.  7) Super-slow method (SL): It was performed one set comprising one 60-second repetition with 30 seconds for both eccentric and concentric phases. To control velocity, time was informed every five seconds
  33. 33. Results:  All RTM produced significant increases in blood lactate,  with no difference among them.  The BD method elicited higher TUT and total loading compared to the other RTM tested
  34. 34. Conclusion:  In practical terms, when the training goal is to provide metabolic stimuli, all RTM seems to be equally efficient.  If the purpose is to induce greater mechanical stress, BD seems to be the more indicated
  35. 35. E- a study on tri-sets  The study evaluate the acute immune responses to an upper body tri-set resistance training (RT) session in RT trained individuals.  Eighteen young trained men (22·0 ± 1·8 years) divided to 2 groups  Control group (CG; n = 9)  The exercise group (EG; n=9)completed an acute tri- set RT protocol using two combinations of three exercises for the same muscle group with six to eight repetitions at 75% of one repetition maximum (1RM) for each exercise
  36. 36. Results:  The results suggest that the tri-set RT session did not aggravate the acute inflammatory response  and might be a good option for variations in RT methods for trained individuals.
  37. 37. F-Another study on tri-sets  The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of multiple-set (MS) and tri-set (TS) RT approaches on muscle strength and body composition following a 12 week program in trained women (> 1 year of RT experience)
  38. 38. Results:  Both RT protocols increased strength, with no effect on body composition.
  39. 39. E-Another study on the rest-pause principle.  The purpose of the study is :  To compare muscle recruitment,  maximal force,  and rate of force development changes  following different resistance exercise protocols with a constant volume-load.
  40. 40. DESCRIPTION:  fourteen (n=14) resistance trained male participants completed three different resistance exercise protocols involving a total of 20 squat repetitions, prescribed at 80% of 1-repetition-maximum
  41. 41. DESCRIPTION  Protocol A consisted of 5 sets of 4 repetitions with 3 min inter-set rest intervals  protocol B was 5 sets of 4 repetitions with 20 s inter- set rest intervals  the rest-pause method was an initial set to failure with subsequent sets performed with a 20 s inter-set rest interval.
  42. 42. RESULTS:  All protocols elicited similar decreases (p<0.05) in maximal force and rate of force development (RFD) immediately upon completion (IP), with full recovery at 5 min 5P  Increased motor unit recruitment was observed during the rest-pause method compared to both protocols A and B for all muscles measured (p<0.05).
  43. 43. Conclusion:  As a result of the increased EMG during exercise and no greater post-exercise fatigue,  it was concluded that the rest-pause method may be an efficacious training method for resistance-trained individuals.
  44. 44. F-Another research on super sets  The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a traditional multi-set weight-training regime  and a super-set weight-training regime  on body fat,  lean body mass,  muscular endurance  and aerobic fitness
  45. 45. Results:  upon observation the super-set group displayed greater improvements in body fat loss and aerobic fitness while there were no observable differences between groups on lean body mass and muscular endurance
  46. 46. Pre exhaustion:  Pre-exhaustion (PreEx) training is advocated on the principle that immediately preceding a compound exercise with an isolation exercise can target stronger muscles to pre-exhaust them to obtain greater adaptations in strength and size. However, research considering PreEx training method is limited.
  47. 47. A- study on pre- exhaustion  Thirty-nine trained participants (male = 9, female = 30) completed 12 weeks of resistance training in 1 of 3 groups:  a group that performed PreEx training ( n = 14),  a group that performed the same exercise order with a rest interval between exercises ( n = 17),  and a control group ( n = 8) that performed the same exercises in a different order (compound exercises prior to isolation).
  48. 48. Results:  No significant between-group effects were found for strength in chest press, leg press, or pull-down exercises, or for body composition changes.
  49. 49. Conclusion: PreEx training offers no greater benefit to performing the same exercises with rest between them compared with exercises performed in an order that prioritizes compound movements.
  50. 50. B- study on pre-exhaustion:  Aim : investigate the effect of pre exhaustion exercise on lower- extremity muscle activation during a leg press exercise
  51. 51. Description  Seventeen healthy male subjects performed 1 set of a leg press exercise with and without pre-exhaustion exercise,  which consisted of 1 set of a knee extension exercise.  Both exercises were performed at a load of 10 repetitions maximum (10RM).  Electromyography (EMG) was recorded from the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, and gluteus maximus muscles simultaneously during the leg press exercise
  52. 52. Results :  The activation of the rectus femoris and the vastus lateralis muscles during the leg press exercise was significantly less when subjects were pre-exhausted (p < 0.05)  No significant EMG change was observed for the gluteus maximus muscle  When in a pre-exhausted state, subjects performed significantly (p < 0.001) less repetitions of the leg press exercise
  53. 53. Conclusion:  The findings do not support the popular belief of weight trainers that performing pre-exhaustion exercise is more effective in order to enhance muscle activity compared with regular weight training.  Conversely, pre-exhaustion exercise may have disadvantageous effects on performance, such as decreased muscle activity and reduction in strength, during multijoint exercise.
  54. 54. Finally  Post exhaustion methods are more beneficial than pre exhaustion methods for muscle damage and hypertrophy.  All post exhaustion methods : -have the same aim: stimulate considerably and intensively the muscles which lead to their hypertrophy during the recuperation phase. -Increase TUT and total load in order to shock the body and to break the routine increase hypertrophy
  55. 55. References: A Brief Review of Forced Repetitions for the Promotion of Muscular Hypertrophy Daniel A. Hackett, PhD and Theban Amirthalingam, BHSc (Hons) Discipline of Exercise and Sport Science, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12905088 Acute hormonal and neuromuscular responses and recovery to forced vs maximum repetitions multiple resistance exercises. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19528869 Strength athletes are capable to produce greater muscle activation and neural fatigue during high- intensity resistance exercise than nonathletes. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17685709 Increased number of forced repetitions does not enhance strength development with resistance training http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15507691 Acute hormonal responses to heavy resistance exercise in strength athletes versus nonathletes.  http://www.scielo.br/pdf/rbme/v12n6/en_a01v12n6.pdf The acute effects of varied resistance training methods on blood lactate and loading characteristics in recreationally trained men http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com.ezsecureaccess.balamand.edu.lb/doi/10.1111/cpf.12066/full Immune responses to an upper body tri-set resistance training session  http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/cpf.12192/abstract Comparison between the multiple-set plus 2 weeks of tri-set and traditional multiple-set method on strength and body composition in trained women: a pilot study  http://journals.lww.com/nsca-jscr/abstract/2003/05000/effect_of_pre_exhaustion_exercise_on.32.aspx Effect of Pre-Exhaustion Exercise on Lower- Extremity Muscle Activation During a Leg Press Exercise.  http://journals.lww.com/nsca-jscr/Abstract/2010/08000/Effects_of_Different_Strength_Training_Methods_on.38.aspx Effects of Different Strength Training Methods on Postexercise Energetic Expenditure  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21940213 Acute neuromuscular and fatigue responses to the rest-pause method. http://web.a.ebscohost.com.ezsecureaccess.balamand.edu.lb/ehost/detail/detail?sid=a4f73cbf-d20a-4efe-910b- 36db33360b9f%40sessionmgr4004&vid=0&hid=4107&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZSZzY29wZT1zaXRl#AN=99044765&db=a9h The effects of pre- exhaustion, exercise order, and rest intervals in a full-body resistance training intervention. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3282595/ Exercise order affects the total training volume and the ratings of perceived exertion in response to a super-set resistance training session
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