⦿ Leadership style defines the collaboration, involvement, and participation of
workers in solving problems and making decisions (Wexley and Nemeroff 448)
⦿ Participative leadership style involves:
⌾ Accommodating the input of all workers.
⌾ Encouraging stakeholders to be part of the decision-making processes
(Hayat Bhatti et al. 4).
⌾ Empowering workers to undertake roles and duties that are critical to
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
⦿ The participative leadership style can be classified into 4 levels:
⌾ Consensus participative leadership – Leadership decisions are made based
on agreement between the leader and subordinates
⌾ Collective participative leadership – Team progress shared equally among
members, and they are all responsible for the process and results
(Akpoviroro et al. 48).
⌾ Democratic participative leadership – subordinates offer suggestions, but
the leader makes the final decision.
⌾ Autocratic participative leadership – Leader influences the outcome of
the final decision
⦿ Participative leadership helps employees develop their interpersonal skills since it
encourages the utilization of group discussions.
⦿ Participative leadership impacts job satisfaction through:
⌾ Enhancing workers' morale
⌾ Creating a sense of ownership among employees
⌾ Making the work environment conducive and attractive to all workers
⦿ Participative leadership style, in particular, creates employee commitment to
embrace innovative work behavior (Odoardi et al., 104).
⦿ Participative Leadership has its limitations including: Delayed decision-making,
Counterarguments that can result in conflicts, Diminished expert contributions,
and overdependence on employee participation.
⦿ The project collected data from secondary sources only including peer-reviewed
journals, and textbooks
⦿ Secondary data collection methods were chosen due to:
⌾ Time economy cost-effectiveness.
⌾ Cleaned and well structured Secondary data
⦿ The credibility of secondary sources was assessed based on accuracy of research
data and logical, coherent interpretations of the empirical results (Watkins 38)
ANALYSIS AND CONCLUSION
⦿ This study established the following:
⦿ Participative leadership style allows people to make collective decisions or share
decision-making influence between leaders and their subordinates.
⦿ It seeks to address the relationship between workers and leaders at all levels of
decision-making in firms
⦿ Participative leaders:
⌾ Allow workers to feel psychologically empowered
⌾ Create self-driven employees that act within the company’s standard operating procedures, while
going the extra mile, to ensure goal attainment.
⌾ Assist workers in formulating realistic goals and objectives, attainable performance measures, and
give appropriate rewards
⌾ Delegate jobs based on one’s talent and promote career development programs designed to
improve an employee’s capacity to innovate, perform, and deliver company goals and objectives
⦿ Participative leaders must create appropriate rewards that will drive employee
performance, which will eventually translate to company growth and
⦿ Managers should provide workers with vital information to facilitate effective
decision-making and make them feel included
⦿ Leaders should promote employee autonomy and build trust. It becomes
beneficial to the organization in the long-term because of its capacity to create
⦿ Employees need resources (financial and human), which should be provided by
the senior leadership
⦿ Participative leaders should focus on encouraging and motivating people to
deliver beyond the bare minimum. Typically, people are the center of
participative leadership and not the task.
Akpoviroro, Kowo Solomon, et al. “Effect of Participative Leadership Style on Employee’s
Productivity.” International Journal of Economic Behavior, vol. 8, June 2018, pp. 47–60.
DOI.org (Datacite), https://doi.org/10.14276/2285-0430.1927.
Hayat Bhatti, Misbah, et al. “Impact of Participative Leadership on Organizational Citizenship
Behavior: Mediating Role of Trust and Moderating Role of Continuance Commitment:
Evidence from the Pakistan Hotel Industry.” Sustainability, vol. 11, no. 4, Feb. 2019, pp. 1-21.
DOI.org (Crossref), https://doi.org/10.3390/su11041170.
Odoardi, Carlo, et al. “Affective Commitment, Participative Leadership, and Employee
Innovation: A Multilevel Investigation.” Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, vol.
35, no. 2, July 2019, pp. 103–13. journals.copmadrid.org, https://doi.org/10.5093/jwop2019a12.
Watkins, Daphne C. Secondary Data in Mixed Methods Research. SAGE Publications, 2022.
Wexley, Kenneth N., and Wayne F. Nemeroff. “Effectiveness of Positive Reinforcement and
Goal Setting as Methods of Management Development.” Journal of Applied Psychology, vol.
60, no. 4, 1975, pp. 446–50. DOI.org (Crossref), https://doi.org/10.1037/h0076912.
Notes de l'éditeur
The business environment today is extremely hostile and turbulent. Everything changes rapidly, internally and externally, which calls upon employees and leaders to create meaningful relationships to survive and thrive.
While this is the case, leaders play a crucial role in forging sound and robust relationships. They apply different approaches in leading subordinates.
That is why a leadership style is a vital factor in enhancing employee-employer relationship.
It defines the collaboration, involvement, and participation of workers in solving problems and making decisions (Wexley and Nemeroff 448).
The participative leadership style is one of the commonly used models in some of contemporary organizations that involve the input of all workers.
A participative leader encourages other stakeholders to be part of the decision-making processes
The participative leadership style is characterized by varying levels of leaders’ involvement, which results in its classification into four types.
First, it is consensus participative leadership, where the leader is at the same level as other members. Here, the decision is made based on what has been agreed by everybody (Al Khajeh 3).
Second, it is collective participative leadership, where the progress of the team is equally shared among members, and they are all responsible for the process and results (Akpoviroro et al. 48).
Third, it is democratic participative leadership, where members give their suggestions, and the leader makes the final decision.
Fourth, it is autocratic participative leadership, where the leader influences the outcome of the final decision (Al Khajeh 5).
Organizations can utilize a combination of several of the above-stated leadership approaches to motivate and promote high-performance among workers (Al Khajeh 4).
This study focuses on the role of participative leadership in promoting high employee performance and innovation in organization.
To establish the impact of participative the leadership style on employee performance.
To ascertain the effect of the participative leadership style on worker innovation.
Impact of Participative leadership on Employee Behavior.
Participative leadership helps employees develop their interpersonal skills since it encourages the utilization of group discussions.
Members engage each other regularly by sharing their views before sending their collective feedback to the leader (Chen et al. 743). Thus, they learn how to communicate and develop lasting relationships with their peers.
Effect of Participative Leadership on Job Satisfaction.
Participative leadership impacts job satisfaction in the following ways. Firstly, it enhances workers' morale. Participative leadership provides a voice to every employee. As workers learn that their views matter, they become increasingly active and motivated to undertake their duties (Hayat Bhatti et al. 4). They become engaged in the company's progress because they are satisfied with their input. Secondly, participative leaders create a sense of ownership among employees. Participative leadership makes workers proud of their contributions, motivating them to be committed and increase their productivity to meet the set targets (Wexley and Nemeroff 449).
The Relationship between Participative Leadership and Innovation.
The 21st century has witnessed a massive transformation in the way organizations operate. Globalization, technological advancement, and the hostile market environment are some of the factors that have compelled organizations to center on innovation (Wexley and Nemeroff 441). However, it is important to note that leadership promotes innovation in organizations. Participative leadership style, in particular, creates employee commitment to change; typically, such an employee is working under positive leadership
Data Collection Methods.
The project collected data from secondary sources only. In this case, the research centers only on published data in undertaking the research process. The research utilized peer-reviewed journals, and textbooks.
Academic articles were ideal because they are normally subjected to rigorous third-party scrutiny. (Watkins 37) The independent evaluators are usually experts in the field so the authors of the peer-reviewed journals will be expected to meet the high standards of their subject and respond to meaningful research questions.
They will also avoid disseminating erroneous research data or unacceptable interpretations that may mislead students (Watkins 38).
Typically, peer-reviewed articles are a trusted form of study and communication. In addition, books provide the depth on topics covered. Publishing companies also review books before publishing so they are highly reliable sources.
Reasons for the Choice of the Data Collection Method.
Secondary data collection methods save time and effort and are cost-effective. It was less complex to gather data for research because it was readily available on online libraries such as EbscoHost and Google Scholar.
Therefore, the focus was on analysis without having to look for primary sources of data collection. Besides, secondary data collection is less costly than organizing interviews and sending questionnaires.
The data is readily available and easily accessible from the school library and other online academic platforms (Morris and Largan 41). Thus, even when the information is inadequate, it is still cost-effective than gathering data from the field.
In any organization, poor leadership results in reduced commitment, employee stress, disillusionment, reduced creativity, high turnover, distrust, and low levels of productivity.
It terminates the human spirit necessary to promote effectiveness in the organization. As established in this study, the participative leadership style allows people to make collective decisions or share decision-making influence between leaders and their subordinates.
Today, it has become increasingly critical for organizational leaders – the final decision-making unit, to promote high productivity and performance. However, holding the role alone does not signify strength that workers will respect.
That is why participative leadership seeks to address the relationship between workers and leaders at all levels of decision-making in firms.
Employee participation is a critical element in gaining employee commitment because it discounts the need to utilize power, threats, authority, and pressure to promote employee performance and innovation.
Through participative leadership, workers feel psychologically empowered. Empowerment is a form of intrinsic motivation that drives workers to deliver organizational objectives as it catalyzes self-determination, competence, and meaning.
Leaders communicate the big picture of the company to the employees, for example, performance results that should be prioritized as well as appropriate rewards. The self-driven employees then act within the company’s standard operating procedures, while going the extra mile, to ensure goal attainment.
Gone are the days when leaders were supposed to be dictatorial. Today, leaders are encouraged to be visionaries, facilitators, and coaches.
Such behaviors encourage innovation, high performance, and employee commitment. Managers can promote participative leadership by not doing and not doing a series of things:
Leaders should fully involve workers in creating realistic goals and objectives, which will deliver results. They should also create appropriate rewards that will drive employee performance, which will eventually translate to company growth and development.
Managers should not withhold vital information from workers and treat their workers like an isolated entity. Information is vital in critical decision-making and it also makes workers feel part of the firm.
Leaders cannot simply tell workers their expectation and hope that employees will deliver. Performance calls for worker support. Leaders should promote employee autonomy and build trust. It becomes beneficial to the organization in the long-term because of its capacity to create organizational leadership.
Leaders should not set up workers for failure by failing to provide the needed support. Employees need resources (financial and human), which can only be availed by the senior leadership. Refusing to provide the much-needed support, even with participative leadership, is setting up workers for failure.
Participative leaders should not create competition among workers and only focus on the assignment at hand. That becomes task-oriented leadership used centuries ago. Instead, they should center on encouraging and motivating people to deliver beyond the bare minimum. Typically, people are the center of participative leadership and not the task