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TITLE
AN INVESTIGATION ON FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE TO
THE HIGH DROP OUT RATE OF PRIMARY SCHOOL GIRL
PUPILS FROM MASAI COMMUN...
TABLE OF CONTENT PAGE
CHAPTER ONE…………………………………………………………………...3
1.0. BACKGROUND………………………………………………………………4
1.2. OBJECTIVE OF ...
ABSTRACT
The aim of this study was to find out factors that contribute to the high drop out of girl
child from primary sch...
since they violet child’s basic right of education. Also teachers should create conducive
environment for their pupils to ...
little to give back to community once they complete their studies. As a result of this
perceived notions of western educat...
Children must at hearts of our thinking on climate change, on the
education, on the food crisis, and on the other challeng...
1.4. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY.
The findings of the study will be important in the following ways:
• To improve and even t...
• To let the Masai parents be aware for the importance of formal education in their
society.
1.3. RESEARCH QUESTIONS.
The ...
 CULTURE: Include customs, arts and social institution of a particular group of
people or nation
 FORMAL EDUCATION: This...
belief that once married, girls become part of another family, and parent investment is
lost.
Jomtien, Thailand (1990) Gen...
many parts of the world continued to be excluded from the education system of their
countries.
According to UNESCO in the ...
they drop out of school after initiation because they feel so mature to be in school with
the rest of the students.
UNICEF...
and there is no electricity or artificial light. His opinion was that the availability of
school inside the village made i...
3.0. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY.
3.1. INTRODUCTION
This chapter describes in details the place where the research wil...
5 are selecting to participate in the exercise because they are majority of population that
is vulnerable to the cultural ...
Masai language, hence it is easier for a researcher to use translator in interview than in
questionnaire and also in inter...
REFERECE:
Tumbo,Zubeida M. (1994) The Dilemma of Teenager Girls. Nordiska Africa
instituteMontreal.Unpublished Thesis .MC ...
Ole Daniel (2000), Factors influencing the enrolment of pastoralist Masai children in
early child education.
Saroni,S (198...
Standard VII
4. Parents in Masai community appreciate the need of formal education especially
primary education for their ...
Disagree ( )
Uncertain ( )
11. Parent from Masai community can be educated on importance of the girl’s child
education thr...
6. What are some of the disadvantage of educating girls?
7. Girls are source of wealth in your community?
8. A girl has no...
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A real reseach Proposal on factors which influence drop out of maasai girls in primary schoos

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The aim of this study was to find out factors that contribute to the high drop out of girl child from primary school in Masai community in Tanzania specifically at Arusha region. We considered as a case study at Arusha district. The selection of the sampling was through stratified random sampling. The data was collected through the use of questionnaires and interview. I finally analyzing at he data using frequencies and percentages. The study reveals that parent ignorance, attitudes towards girls’ education, some of the cultural values and distribution of schools in Masai land. Moreover bribes which is reserved by the teachers who are pointed to teach in the schools present in Masai land reported by some of the parents to contribute in some girls to withdraw from the school and get marriage. Some teachers reserve money or cattle from Masai parents and let them marriage.

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A real reseach Proposal on factors which influence drop out of maasai girls in primary schoos

  1. 1. TITLE AN INVESTIGATION ON FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE TO THE HIGH DROP OUT RATE OF PRIMARY SCHOOL GIRL PUPILS FROM MASAI COMMUNITY: BY BRIGHTON JUMA MWANG’ONDA ED 624/T2012 A research proposal submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of art with Education at Eckernforde Tanga University Tanzania. ………,………, 2015 SUPERVISOR NAME: JONAS MKWIZU DATE: 18-06-2015 SIGNATURE……………………………….. 1
  2. 2. TABLE OF CONTENT PAGE CHAPTER ONE…………………………………………………………………...3 1.0. BACKGROUND………………………………………………………………4 1.2. OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY ……………………………………………...5 1.3. RESEARCH QUESTIONS……………………………………………………5 1.4. LIMITATION OF THE STUDY………………………………………….….. 1.4. SIGINIFICANCE OF THE STUDY…………………………………………5 1. 5. DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY…………………………………………6 7 1.7. THEORETICAL AND COCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK……………………7 1.8. DEFINITION OF TERMS………………………………………………….…10 CHAPTER TWO…………………………………………………………………....11 2.0. LITRETU RIVIEW……………………………………………………………11 CHAPTER THREE…………………………………………………………………18 3.0. RESEARCH DESEIGN AND METHODOLOGY….....................................18 3.1. INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………………...18 3.2. RESEARCH DESIGN…………………………………………………………19 3.3. POPULATION AND SAMPLE……………………………………………….19 3.4. SAMPLING PROCEDURES AND TECHNIQUES………………………..19 3.5. DATA COLLECTION PROCEDURES……………………………………..21 3.6. DATA ANALYSIS PROCIDURES…………………………………………..21 3.7. QUESTIONNARES…………………………………………………………….21 3.8. INTERVIEW GUIDENS………………………………………………….……28 2
  3. 3. ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to find out factors that contribute to the high drop out of girl child from primary school in Masai community in Tanzania specifically at Arusha region. We considered as a case study at Arusha district. The selection of the sampling was through stratified random sampling. The data was collected through the use of questionnaires and interview. I finally analyzing at he data using frequencies and percentages. The study reveals that parent ignorance, attitudes towards girls’ education, some of the cultural values and distribution of schools in Masai land. Moreover bribes which is reserved by the teachers who are pointed to teach in the schools present in Masai land reported by some of the parents to contribute in some girls to withdraw from the school and get marriage. Some teachers reserve money or cattle from Masai parents and let them marriage. In other cases some parents are ignorant in the sense that they have never been to school hence they fail to see the need of educating their children especially girl child Cultural practices like a circumcision was found to contribute much to withdraw girl child from the school, as after initiation practices girls are regarded as mature to married. Also teachers attitude towards circumcised girls involving by them in some activities like playing punishments which considered inappropriate for adults, contribute to drop out of some girls from the school in Masai community. The research made some recommendations include: Provision of adult literacy to Masai parents through promoting girls education by including positive attitude towards formal education among the Masai community. To build more schools in Masai land so as to reduce the distance from home to school which cause many Masai parents to refuse their daughters from going to school due to insecurity on the way. In addition the research suggests that, some cultural practices such as early marriage should be discourage through executing of the laws by the Government, which aim at punishing parents who withdraw their girls from school. For teachers who reserve bribe to let some girl pupils to be marriage, the government should insert bylaws to court them 3
  4. 4. since they violet child’s basic right of education. Also teachers should create conducive environment for their pupils to learning. 1.0. BACKGROUND OF THE PROBLEM. According to Farrant (1981), drop outs in education are pupils who despite having the ability to complete an education course fail to do so. The problem is most commonly in rural areas where children form a recognized part of the family’s labor force. Unless parents see the values of schooling, they tend to give their children work in the home or on the farm that prevents their attending school. Dropout may also occur where parents unable to pay the fees charged by schools. In town drop out is more commonly caused by the factors that lead to chronic truancy such as academic failure, bullying or fear of certain teachers. Sadker (1997) claims that, students who are poor, minority or attending schools in cities are far more likely to drop out of school. Also children are more likely to drop out from the school if there are member of large families and if their parents are poorly educated or working in low paying jobs factors related to poverty. Moreover students from low income, low skills, and low education family backgrounds are several times more likely to drop out of school than students from wealthy families. In town the commonest reason for students to drop out of school are poor grades and teenage pregnancy. In Tanzania there are some communities whereby drop outs of primary pupils are severe; like in Masai community drop out of pupils from primary education is high especially for girls. Masai are pastoralist and nomadic people who reside in both Tanzania and Kenya. They are known for moving from one place to another in searching for green pasture for their animals. In Tanzania the origin place of Masai is Arusha, but they migrate to other parts of Tanzania like Tanga, Morogoro, Iringa and Kilimanjaro mostly in Arusha District and other places. These people still hold their traditional ways of life dearly until recently many Masai parents detested western education and viewed it with suspicions. The perception that western education erodes the Masai culture is still held by many Masai parents today. These parents are mostly convinced that once their children receive formal education, they would forget their Masai community and seek to live in the urban areas. The Masai parents are also convinced that some of the graduates have 4
  5. 5. little to give back to community once they complete their studies. As a result of this perceived notions of western education many Masai parents are reluctant to send their girls children to school fearing that the girls children would detach from the Masai culture and community. Though this trend is slowly changing by parents embracing the western education and its important in modern society, there is a discrepancy in the inscription of boys and girls in education. It is very difficult for a Masai family to freely allow their daughters to continue getting form education in school especially at age of eleven and above. The reluctance is two fold. First is because the elders regard the western education as a tool of distorting their culture. Second allow girls to continue with primary education and above, denies the community wealth because girls are regarded as source of wealth in terms of bride price. 1.1. STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM UN (http://www.un.org) stated that, Education is a fundamental human right: Every child is entitled to it. It is critical to our development as individuals and as societies, and it helps pave the way to a successful and productive future. When we ensure that children have access to a rights-based, quality education that is rooted in gender equality, we create a ripple effect of opportunity that impacts generations to come. Education enhances lives. It ends generational cycles of poverty and disease and provides a foundation for sustainable development. A quality basic education better equips girls and boys with the knowledge and skills necessary to adopt healthy lifestyles, protect themselves from HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases, and take an active role in social, economic and political decision-making as they transition to adolescence and adulthood. Educated adults are more likely to have fewer children, to be informed about appropriate child-rearing practices and to ensure that their children start school on time and are ready to learn. UNICEF works tirelessly to ensure that every child – regardless of gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic background or circumstances – has access to a quality education. Too many of the world’s children are out of school or receive spotty, sub-par educations. Each one of these children has dreams that may never be fulfilled, potential that may never be realized. By ensuring that every child has access to quality learning, we lay the foundation for growth, transformation, innovation, opportunity and equality. Whether in times of crisis or periods of peace, in cities or remote villages, we are committed to realizing a fundamental, non-negotiable goal: quality education for all. 5
  6. 6. Children must at hearts of our thinking on climate change, on the education, on the food crisis, and on the other challenges we are addressing on a daily basis. TETPO (1978) shows education as the basic right of a child. The major objectives of primary education are: to lay out the socio-cultural foundations which ethically and morally characterized the Tanzania citizen and nation; to prepare every citizen to continue on the unending journey of life long education training and learning process among others. From the literature reviewed it has been shown that ,there is no other research have been done concerning the factors contributing in to the high drop-out rate of girl child from Masai community in Same district. The current study aims to investigate the factors that contribute to the high drop out of girl child from primary schools in Masai community. Also the research intended to find out the possible measures that will help the Masai girls to complete their primary education. 6
  7. 7. 1.4. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY. The findings of the study will be important in the following ways: • To improve and even to eradicate the problem of high drop out of girls from primary education in Masai community and other parts of our county which face such problem, also to improve enrolment of girl pupils in our county. • To promote girls education by including positive attitude towards formal education among the Masai community, through ministry of education, the Government should set special programs in mass media to create awareness among parents on benefits of formal education. • To remove gender disparity in both access progression and accomplishment at all levels of education. This could be done by creating awareness of importance of girls’ formal education among the Masai through seminars, adult education parental association and any interested groups who are helping in promoting girls education and equality of female and male in the society. • To encourage the Government to execute by laws, which aim at punishing the parents who withdraw their girls from schools? The Government here should make sure that those parents, who involve purposely in withdrawing their girls from schools in order to marry them off, are punishing accordingly to save as a lesson to others. 1.2. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY. The main objective of the study is to investigate the factors which lead to the high drop out rate of Masai girls from primary schools. The specific objectives of this study are: • To find out the attitude of the Masai parents towards girls education • To find out the possible measures towards challenges of the Masai girls education. • To examine Masai culture towards girls education. 7
  8. 8. • To let the Masai parents be aware for the importance of formal education in their society. 1.3. RESEARCH QUESTIONS. The research will be guided by the following research questions:  How do Masai parents consider girls education?  What are cultural practices among the Masai that hinder girl education?  What measures can be taken help to encounter the challenges of the Masai girl’s education?  What are the factors which contribute to the drop out of Masai girls from primary school?  What are the problems Masai girls might face in their future life if they can not complete primary education? 1.4. LIMITATION OF THE STUDY. The problem that the researcher will may face are:-  Transport. This because Masai in Same district found in remote areas and their home stead is scattered.  The researches may face the problem of shortage of resources like fund and time as a result she/he would not extend her study to other places of Tanzania which Vface the same problem  Language problem .The researcher may face the problem of language barrier during data collection and this problem it may course inadequate information. 1.5. DEFINITION OF THE KEY CONCEPT AND TERMS  GENDER: It may be described as a term which refers to the cultural construction of male and female identities  SOCIETY: This is a particular community of people who share the same customs, laws, culture and other common things. 8
  9. 9.  CULTURE: Include customs, arts and social institution of a particular group of people or nation  FORMAL EDUCATION: This implies education that occurs within academic institution like schools, colleges and what is taught in carefully structured by means of syllabus.  GIRL CHILD: According to the right of the child (CRC) Girl child is a female person from birth to 18 Years 1.6. LITERATURE REVIEW: 2.1. INTRODUCTION. The chapter provides the review of literature concerning the factors that contribute to the high drop out of girl child from primary school among the Masai community. The review related literature was done so as to examine the gaps in knowledge concerning the factors contribute to the high drop out of girl child from primary education. The factors based on two parts. Cultural practices and Geographical factors Ole T (2000) in his study observes that, parents’ low level of education and altitudes towards girls’ education is another problem. This low level of education means that they are not well informed on the importance of education for their children. The same findings further asserts that some parents seem to be ignorant of the issue of education for girls which is shown by the fact that they would rather have married off their girls to get more cattle from their dowry than letting them complete school. Chege and Sifuna (2006) reported that, some parent believe that boys are more intelligent that they perform better in school and that they are better in educational investment than girls. They went further to add that a factor that is often ignored in patrilineal inheritance system is the prime beneficiaries of family assets; boys are favored in human capital investment decision. In addition, parents worry about wasting money on the education of girls who are likely to get pregnant or married before completing their schooling. There is also the strong 9
  10. 10. belief that once married, girls become part of another family, and parent investment is lost. Jomtien, Thailand (1990) Gender discrimination against girls, Notes from the world conference on education to all, the discrimination in girls; access to education persists in many areas occurring due to inadequate and gender biases, teaching and educational materials and lack of adequate accessibility of schooling facilities. The same finding notes that in some countries, many parents do not send their daughters to school if they feel that the curriculum is promoting ideas that are not odds with prevailing social norms. In Guinea for instance parents perceived subjects such as home economic, childcare, sewing, gardening and handcraft as important for girls and criticized their absence from school curriculum. UNICEF (2006), in the state of the world’s children acknowledges that gender gaps in secondary education are even more pronounced. The UNESCO’s survey in developing countries reported that, only 22 out of 75 countries were on course to meet MDG1’3 target of gender partially at secondary school level, while 25 were far from the goal. Girls exclusion from education in comparison to boys especially in south Asia, Sub- Saharan Africa the middle East and North Africa is one of the clearest statically indicators of gender discrimination. The same Survey- indicates that, gender plays major parts in determining which children and up being excluded from essential service and is therefore most risk of missing out the millennium agenda. The forth, world conference on women which held in Beljing Chence 4-15 September (1995) reported that, educational process including curriculum, educational, reinforce existing gender inequalities. The same report notes that, although the number of educated children has grown in the past 20 Years, in same countries boys have been proportionately favored much well than girls. Same Africa (1997) reports that, despite the increasing recognition at the international and national level of benefits of female education but to the national as whole, girls in 10
  11. 11. many parts of the world continued to be excluded from the education system of their countries. According to UNESCO in the GCWD (1997), study indicates that, illiteracy level are higher in several key groups, such is in rural areas and among the indigenous women. These groups are mostly disadvantaged because of social – economic and cultural factors, which place their reference in educating boys as girls are confronted with cultural and economic constraints, which hinder them from completing their education. Gender tales from Africa (2001) conducted interview among girls who dropped out from school due to forced marriage. The girls reported how their parents force them out of school in order to get married. One of the girl reported that her mother come to school and told her that there was a rich man in their village who wanted to marry her and the parent had already accepted three cows as part of the dowry. In that case, she had no choice than dropping from school. FAWE (1996) notes that, Masai culture considers women and girls as inferior sex, Educated women are seven as a threat to man’s absolute authority. The same repot notes that there are some parents who fear that the educated females will feel superior and thus undermine the authority and that of their chauvinistic husband. The study also reveals that once a Masai girl gets circumcised she is considered to be mature for both sex and marriage. Masai cultural is so permissive that once a girl circumcised she may be approached by any man on sexual terms. Girls normally are circumcised the age of 9 – 12 and therefore most of them do not go back to school after the practice. This culture therefore is a great hindrance to girls’ education. According to Rosaine (2002) circumcision is an important rite of passage to Masai people and it involves both the male and female 90% of students’ respondents supported this point. The girls under go initiation into adulthood which leads to early married hence 11
  12. 12. they drop out of school after initiation because they feel so mature to be in school with the rest of the students. UNICEF (2004) in the state of the world’s children, reports that girls are kept at home to help with domestic tasks. Girls may also be dropped from school because they have to fetch waters from traditional well or remote water pump. The same finding reports that in Ethiopia, Guinea and the United Republic of Tanzania, girls specialized in domestic work such as looking as siblings, preparing and cooking food, cleaning the house and fetching water and fire wood. In this case girls help their families more than boys. FAWE (1994) indicates that the schools careers of many girls are short because they are expelled from school on becoming pregnant, pre-marital pregnancy among girls is stigmatized in Africa communities even though its determining factors remain un addressed. In Guinea, Malawi and Tanzania where girls are now encouraged to return to school after pregnancy, few girls do so, partly because of parental fears, that they would become pregnant again and partly because girls are afraid of ridicule. Maglad (1994) employs the distance to school as a means of the price of schooling. He gives an example of society like Masai who require land recourses to their cattle, their villages are constructed far a part each other. As the results one school must serves several villages typically within a 15 – 20 Kilometers radices. There are no cars, buses, Horses or even Bicycles available to Masai children, so they must walk this great distance. Many girls are denied on education solely because of parental concerns for their safety during these long walks. Even for those who make it to school, the long walks undermine education. The same findings added that, teachers report that children who have spent two to five hours walking to school in the morning, often without having had anything to eat are tired and their ability to concentrate is imparted. Also it is of tern when children arrive home of tern such long walks, and they still required doing chores. Even if still have the desire and energy to study offer they are finished with responsibility at home it is often too dark 12
  13. 13. and there is no electricity or artificial light. His opinion was that the availability of school inside the village made it possible for children to attend school at low indirect costs. Creighton (1995) notes that the average distance from homes declines as the expansion of primary and secondary system proceeds. However, remote habitations and dispersed population continued to suffer disadvantages based on the back of physical access and this remain problem particular at secondary level in many countries, hence distance is a factor and girls feel the effect more severely. The same finding discovers that, some parents are reluctant to send girls to school far from home. Reasons cited were that girls were considered weaker than boys hence were, unable to expend the energy required to walk to and from school. A more fundamental concern however was for their safety enroot. Tumbo (1994) explain bride wealth as a commonest form of marriage transaction in Africa. It resources the movement of which correspond to movements of rights over spouseless usually women, She further explains that basically bride wealth consists of circulating pool resource which goes to bride male kin typically brothers in order that they can themselves take wives. Thus a man is dependent (Upon Sisters) for bringing the wealth and father for distributing it. Tumbo shows pride wealth as a major factor which cause dropping out of girl child primary schools. Goody and Tambiah (1973) say that bride wealth as a kind of rational system. What goes out for a bride has to come in for a sister? Hence a father has to ensure that the bride wealth he gets for a daughter will be enough to get him a daughter – in –low. This circulation tends to reinforce the authority of the sister. In case of Masai culture that is polygamous, a man’s wealth is determined by the number of cattle and children he has. Daughter’s marriage increase the wealth of Masai girls’ family through combined cattle and husbands’ family upon marriage is also worsened by the increasing poverty of the Masai people, which leads Masai to marry their daughters at increasingly young ages. 13
  14. 14. 3.0. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY. 3.1. INTRODUCTION This chapter describes in details the place where the research will be conducted, population sampling technique and how the information obtained from the field. It also provides methods and techniques which will be used during data analysis and provide the adequate reasons as to why methods and techniques are used. 3.2 RESEARCH DESEIGN The research design employed in this study will be survey design. The survey designs used to carry out the research because qualitative data is collected by the use of questionnaires for the teachers and pupils and interview will be given to the parents. 3.3. POPULATION AND SAMPLE. The population taken will be five schools which contain Masai pupils among the primary schools present in Same district. The participants in research will consist pupils, teachers and parents from sampled schools throughout Same district. 3.4. SAMPLING PROCEDURES AND TECHNIQUES The sampling techniques that will be used in the research selected are stratified samples sampling techniques whereby it ensures that different groups in population are represented in the sample. The population taken will be five primary schools which have Masai pupils. The researcher will take sample from standard 4, 5 and 7 from each school. Standards 4 and 14
  15. 15. 5 are selecting to participate in the exercise because they are majority of population that is vulnerable to the cultural factors that affects education in the Masai community. This is because the parents view them as having a long way before they complete their education. Standard seven will be selected because the researcher wants to know how many Masai girls succeed to complete standard seven per year in the Masai land in Same district. Twelve pupils will be taken from each school as a sample, this means four pupils from each class under research, involving two male and two female pupils from Masai community. The aim is to get view from both male and female pupils. The pupils will be randomly sampled because they are homogeneous. Three class teachers from each sampled school will be taken as a sample using stratified sampling the class teachers are given priority because they interact closely with the pupils from the respect classes. Thus they are aware of some of the problems which face girl pupil so as not to complete standard seven then contribute the number of Masai pupils to be few in secondary schools. Also ten parents will be taken as sample using stratified sampling from the population that is one female and one male from each school. The purpose of this is to get view from both fathers and mothers from Masai community. 3.5.0. DESCRIPTION OF INSTRUMENTS. 3.5.1. QUESTIONNARES The researcher will prepare two questionnaires, one for teachers and the second for pupils. The questionnaires will compose of both open ended and closed ended questions. Open ended questions will give respondents freedom on their opinions while closed ended questions restrict the respondents to choose from the available answers on which they think is the most appropriate for each question. The aim of questionnaires for pupils and teachers is to collect precise and sufficient information for the study. 3.5.2. INTERVIEW GUIDE The researcher also will prepare interview for the parents. Structural oral interview guide questions which will involve a face-to-face approach will help to obtain responses from the informants about the problem under the study. The aim of the interview for the parents is because most of them do not know how to read and write and some speak only 15
  16. 16. Masai language, hence it is easier for a researcher to use translator in interview than in questionnaire and also in interview immediate feedback will quarantined. 3.6 DATA COLLECTION PROCEDURE. The researcher will appoint one assistant from each school sampled to carry out the distribution of the questionnaires to the selected respondents. The source of data collected will be from both primary source such as questionnaires answers and interview responses and secondary source such as information obtained from the literature reviewed. The primary information will be obtained from the field through the use of questionnaires, interviews and researcher own experience under the study. The secondary data is from related literature reviewed on the topic done elsewhere and in particular on factors contribute to the high drop out of girls in primary education. 3.6. DATA ANALYSIS PROCEDURE. Descriptive statistic will be used in analyzing the findings of this study. It divided into six areas mean, median, standard deviation, percentile, frequency and percentage. The findings are then presented in frequency and percentage tables, whereby frequency and percentage will calculate from the data obtained for table drawing ABBREVIATION ECWD –Early Childhood and Women Development UNESCO-United Nations Educational Science and Cultural Organization FAWE-Forum for Africa Women Education UN- United Nations 16
  17. 17. REFERECE: Tumbo,Zubeida M. (1994) The Dilemma of Teenager Girls. Nordiska Africa instituteMontreal.Unpublished Thesis .MC Gill University Rosaine P. (2003), Can equality in Education be Attained? Evidence from Ethiopia, background paper for EFA Global Monitoring Reporty.2003)/2004 Social Change UNICEF (2006),The State of World Children. New The Gender and York. UNICEF Chege,F. N and Sifuna, N.D (2006), Girl Child and Women’s Education in Africa. Gender perspective and trends FAWE (1997),The News Magazine about Girls and Women Education in Africa. Volume No1: FAWE Goody, Jack and Tambiah, S. J Pride wealth and dowry. Cambridge University press Jomtien Thailand, (1990),The World Declaration on Education for all. Meeting Basic learning Needs,Jmtien,Thailand 5-9 March. Maglad, N. (1994), School Supply: Family Background and Gender- Student Enrollments and Attainments in Sudan. “East Africa Social Sciences Research Specific Schools Review” 17
  18. 18. Ole Daniel (2000), Factors influencing the enrolment of pastoralist Masai children in early child education. Saroni,S (1986), Pastoralists Education participation and social change among the Masai. Unpublished PhD Dissertation, MoGill University UNESCO (2003), Education for All lead to Equality, UNESCO publishing http:// www.un.org/ cyberschoolbus/humanrights/about/history.asp RESEARCH TOOLS Please fill the required information. DATE……………………………………… NAME OF THE SCHOOL……………….. SEX: MALE ( ) FEMALE ( ) Please answer all questions Respond by a tick (√) in the bracket or by stating your answers in the space provided. 1. Are all pupils in your school from Masaai community? Yes ( ) No ( 2. What percentage of pupils in your school from Masai community? 3. How is the ratio between boys and girls pupils from Masaai community in your school? CLASS BOYS GIRLS Standard I Standard II Standard III Standard IV Standard V Standard VI 18
  19. 19. Standard VII 4. Parents in Masai community appreciate the need of formal education especially primary education for their girls? Agree ( ) Disagree ( ) Uncertain ( ) 5. Girls participation in domestic affairs is highly recognized by parents than taking up primary education? Agree ( ) Disagree ( ) Uncertain ( ) 6. Girls primary education is greatly supported by;- a) Teachers ( ) b) Parents ( ) c) Government ( ) d) Name others……………………………………………………………………………… …….. 7. Masai parents have been the main obstacles of girl’s access to primary education? Agree ( ) Disagree ( ) Uncertain ( ) 8. Parents co-ordinate with teacher to monitor girl’s progress and performance in school? Agree ( ) Disagree ( ) Uncertain ( ) 9. Parental illiteracy is a major contribution of few girls in primary education from Masai community? Yes ( ) No ( ) 10. Cultural values greatly contribute towards early marriage among girls in Masai community? Agree ( ) 19
  20. 20. Disagree ( ) Uncertain ( ) 11. Parent from Masai community can be educated on importance of the girl’s child education through. a) Seminar ( ) b) Adult literacy ( ) c) Workshop ( ) d) Name others……………………………………………………………………….. 12. Girl child education can be promoted in our schools through the following ways. a) Parents and teachers association ( ) b) Human Rights groups ( ) c) Effort from the Government ( ) d) Many female teachers. 13. What are the factors that contribute to girls from Masai community dropping out of school before finishing their primary education? (a)…………………………………………………………………………………….. (b)……………………………………………………………………………………… (c)……………………………………………………………………………………. (d)………………………………………………………………………………………. INTERVIEW SCHEDULE FOR PARENTS 1. What is the level of your education? 2. How many children have been to school from your family? 3. Given a chance to educate in your family, between boy and girl child whom you prefer most? 4. Give reasons for your choose above. 5. State benefits you can get from girls when she finishes her, school. 20
  21. 21. 6. What are some of the disadvantage of educating girls? 7. Girls are source of wealth in your community? 8. A girl has no say to whom to marry and when? 9. What is the position of a Masai family which has 7 – 14 daughters’ in terms of bride wealth? 10. And what is the position of a Masai family which has no daughter? 11. At what age is a girl given in marriage to a man in a Masai community? 12. What happen to Masai girls if she finishes her students at the age of 26 – 30 before marriage? 13. It is a prestigious to marry a very young girl about 14 – 17 years in Masai culture? 14. What do you think is wrong in the education of girls in the present education system? 15. What quality do you expect in an educated Masai girl? 16. As parents can you give some suggestion on how to help Masai girls to obtain primary education? 17. Give some suggestions on how you would like the education system to be improved? 4. O. PRESENTATION OF THE FINDING 4.1. INTRODUCTION This chapter presents data analysis from the questionnaires that were given to the thirty pupils and fifteen teachers also the responses from the interview given to ten parents. Fourteen teachers and twenty eighty pupils were returned their questionnaire. Ten parents were interviewed and the responses recoded Sampled Schools School Standard 1V Standard V Standard V11 Total pupil Girls Boys Emuguri Lesirwai Ruvu Ngama Kitamri 21

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