Contenu connexe



  1. Renewable Energy Systems 1
  2. Module 1 Renewable energy sources. World energy scenario. Overview of conventional energy sources and limitations. Need of renewable energy and its development. Renewable energy in INDIA. An overview of types of renewable energy system (wind power, hydro power, solar energy, biomass, biofuel, geo thermal heat energy) 2
  3. INTRODUCTION  The word ‘energy 'itself is derived from the Greek word ‘en-ergon’, which means ‘in-work’ or ‘work content’.  The work output depends on the energy input. The capability to do work depends on the amount of energy one can control and utilize.  Energy is the most basic infrastructure input for economic growth and development of a country. 3
  4. INTRODUCTION cntd.. Energy consumption sectors of a nation can be broadly divided into  1. Domestic sector (houses and offices including commercial buildings)  2. Transportation sector  3. Agriculture sector  4. Industry sector 4
  5. CLASSIFICATION OF ENERGY RESOURCES  1. Based on usability of Energy a. Primary resources • These resources are available in nature prior to undergoing any human made conversion or transformations. • Eg :- coal, crude oil, sunlight, wind, running rivers, vegetation, uranium etc. • These are located, explored, extracted, processed and are converted to a form as required by the consumer. • Some energy is required in making the resource available to the user in usable form. 5
  6. CLASSIFICATION cntd….  b. Intermediate resources • These are obtained from primary energy by one or more steps of transformation. Eg:- electricity and hydrogen  c. Secondary resources • The form of energy which is finally supplied to a consumer for utilization. Eg:- electrical energy, thermal energy, chemical energy etc. 2. Based on Traditional use. a. Conventional energy resources – energy resources which are being traditionally used for many decades are called conventional energy resources. Eg:-fossil fuel, nuclear and hydro resources. b. Non-Conventional energy resources – Energy resources which are considered for large scale use after the oil crisis of 1973. eg:-solar, wind, biomass etc. 6
  7. CLASSIFICATION cntd….  3. Based on Long term availability a. Non-renewable- Resources which are finite and do not get replenished after their consumption . Eg :- fossil fuels, uranium etc. b. Renewable Resources – Resources which are renewed by nature and their supply is not affected by the rate of their consumption. Eg:- solar, wind, biomass, ocean, geothermal, hydro etc.  4.Based on Origin • Mechanical Energy ,Potential Energy, Kinetic Energy, Thermal Energy Magnetic Energy , Radiation Energy , Nuclear Energy 7
  8. World energy scenario  To meet the energy needs, the world community currently depends heavily on fossil fuels that are non renewable and unfriendly to the environment.  More than half of the global energy is used by the industrial sector (54.6%) , followed by the transportation sector with 25.6%, the residential sector with 12.7% , and the commercial sector with 7.1 %. 8
  9. World energy scenario  Energy use expected to increase worldwide, driven mainly by industry, but this will mostly take place in developing countries with strong economic growth.  Total global energy supply in 2017 was 589 Quad Btu, which is equivalent to 5.6x 1017 kJ.  Fossil fuels accounted for 82.7 % ( 27.1 % coal, 33.4 % oil, 22.2 % natural gas) of this total energy production. 9
  10. World energy scenario  Total installed capacity of electricity in the United Sates in 2016 was 1074 GW, and the U.S power plants generated 4077 TWh (4.077x 1012 kWh) of electricity that year.  • Approximately 83.9 % electricity was generated by coal, natural gas and nuclear power plants.  • The remaining 16.1 % was generated mostly by renewable sources including hydro (6.5%) and wind (5.5 %). The remaining generation was due to biomass, solar, and geothermal 10
  11. World energy scenario  A comparison of U.S electricity production data to global electricity generation data shows that the share of renewable electricity in the United States is considerably less than that in the world. • Therefore, great potential exists to increase the share of renewable in the U.S. energy mixture.  In 2000, only 9 % of electricity came from renewables, and EIA (2018) projections indicate that renewables will constitute 18% of electricity generation by 2040. • Coal and nuclear based electricity generation is expected to increase due to additional shale gas reserves.  Total generation by renewables was about 640 billion kWh in 2017. This is projected to increase to more than 1.6 trillion kWh by the year 2050. • Renewable electricity generation is 2017 is dominated by hydropower and wind, but solar electricity increased at the highest rate among all energy sources. 11
  12. World energy scenario  Energy use expected to increase worldwide, driven mainly by industry, but this will mostly take place in developing countries with strong economic growth. 12
  13. Energy scenario in INDIA 13
  14. Energy scenario in INDIA 14
  15. Conventional energy sources Those energy sources which has been traditionally used for many decade and were in common use around oil crisis of 1973 are called conventional energy sources Eg: Fossil Fuel Nuclear hydro Resources 15
  16. Fossil Fuel- Coal, Petroleum, Oil, Gas.  Coal: • These are formed by the decomposition of the remains of dead plants and animals buried under the earth for a long time. • These are non-renewable sources of energy, which if exhausted, can not be replenished in a short time. • Their reserves are limited and are considered very precious. • These are also contributing to the global environmental pollution. 16
  17. COAL • Since the advent of industrialization coal has been most common source of energy. • In the last three decades, the world switched over from coal to oil as a Major source of energy because it is simpler and cleaner to obtain useful energy from oil. • Coal is a complex mixture of compounds of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Small amounts of nitrogen and Sulphur compounds are also present in coal. 17
  18. COAL • It is mainly available in Bihar, West Bengal, Orissa and Madhya Pradesh. • The big coal mines in our country are at Jharia and Bokaro in Bihar and at Raniganj in West Bengal. • It is considered as the backbone of the energy sector for its use in industry, transportation and electric power generation. 18
  20. Petroleum or Oil • It is a dark coloured, viscous and foul smelling crude oil. • The petroleum means rock oil. • It is normally found under the crust of earth trapped in rocks. • The crude oil is a complex mixture of several solid liquid gaseous hydrocarbons mixed with water, salt and earth particles. • It is a natural product obtained from oil wells. Some of the crude oil producing locations in our country are: • Ankleshwar and Kalol in Gujarat, Rudrasagar and Lakwa in Assam, and Bombay 20
  21. Petroleum or Oil • The oil wells of Bombay high are producing about 22 million tons of crude petroleum oil per year, which is little less than half of the total requirement of the country. • The crude petroleum is refined by the process of fractional distillation to obtain more useful petroleum products. • The crude petroleum is heated to a temperature of about 400oC in a furnace and vapors thus formed are passed into a tall fractioning column from near its bottom. • As the mixture of hot vapours rises in the column, it starts getting cooled gradually. 21
  22. The products obtained from crude petroleum • Petroleum gas (below 40oC) used as LPG. • Petrol (40oC to 170oC) for light vehicles. • Kerosene (170 to 250oC) for household and industrial use. • Diesel oil (250 to 350oC) for heavy vehicles. • Residual oil ; (a) Lubrication oils (b) paraffin wax and (c) asphalt • Fuel oil (350 to 400oC) for boilers and furnaces. 22
  23. Nuclear energy • According to modern theories of atomic structure, matter consists of minute particles known as atoms. • Heavier unstable atoms such as U235, Th239, liberate large amount of heat energy. • The energy released by the complete fission of one Kg of Uranium (U235), is equal to the heat energy obtained by burning 4500 tonnes of coal (or) 220 tons of oil. 23
  24. Nuclear energy • The heat produced by nuclear fission of the atoms of fissionable material is utilized in special heat exchangers for the production of steam which is then used to drive turbo generators as in the conventional power plants. • However there are some limitations in the use of nuclear energy namely high capital cost of nuclear power plants, limited availability of raw materials, difficulties associated with disposal of radio active waste and shortage of well trained personnel to handle the nuclear power plants. 24
  25.  However there are some limitations in the use of nuclear energy namely • high capital cost of nuclear power plants. •Limited availability of raw materials, difficulties associated with disposal of radio active waste and shortage of well trained personnel to handle the nuclear power plants. • The Uranium reserves in the world at present are small. • These reserves are recoverable but are expensive. 25 Nuclear energy
  26. Nuclear energy  The presently working power plants are: • Tarapur atomic power station in Maharashtra • Ranapratap sagar atomic power station near Tota, Rajasthan • Kalpakkam atomic power station near Madras, Tamilnadu. • Narora atomic power station in U.P. • About 3% of the energy produced in India is obtained from nuclear power plants. 26
  27. ADVANTAGES OF CONVENTIONAL ENERGY RESOURCES ADVANTAGES: • Coal: as present is cheap. • Security: by storing certain quantity, the energy availability can be ensured for a certain period. • Convenience: it is very convenient to use. 27
  28. DISADVANTAGES OF CONVENTIONAL ENERGY RESOURCES • DISADVANTAGES: • Fossil fuels generate pollutants: CO, CO2, Particulate matter & heat. The pollutants degrade the environment, pose health hazards & cause various other problems. • Coal: it is also valuable petro-chemical & used as source of raw material for chemical, pharmaceuticals & paints, industries, etc. From long term point of view, it is desirable to conserve coal for future needs. 28
  29. Consequences of Fossil Fuel Combustion  Fossil fuels have been powering industrial development and amenities of modern life since the 1700 s.  • Pollutants emitted during the combustion of fossil fuels are responsible for smog, acid rain, and numerous other adverse effects on the environment.  • Environmental pollution has reached such high levels that it has become a serious threat to vegetation, wildlife, and human health  A rise of this magnitude may cause severe changes in weather patterns with storms, heavy rains and flooding in some parts and draught in others, major floods due to the melting of ice at the poles, loss of wetlands and coastal areas due to rising sea levels, variations in water supply, changes in the ecosystem due to inability of some animal and plant species to adjust to the changes. 29
  30. Consequences of Fossil Fuel Combustion  • The combustion of fossil fuels produces the following undesirable emissions CO2- primary greenhouse gas – contribute global warming NOx and HC – Cause smog CO- Toxic SO2- Causes acid rain Particulate matter (PM)- causes adverse health effects .  • The concern over the depletion of fossil fuels and pollutant and greenhouse emissions associated with their combustion can be tackled by essentially two methods: 1. Using renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, hydroelectric, biomass, and geothermal to replace fossil fuels. 2. Implementing energy efficiency practices in all aspects of energy production, distribution, and consumption so that less fuel is used to obtain the same useful output. 30
  31. • Renewable energy Sources  Solar  Wind  Hydro  Geothermal  Biomass  Ocean (OTEC, Wave, tidal) 31
  32. • Renewable energy Sources  An energy source is called renewable if it can be renewed and sustained without any depletion or significant effect on the environment. It is also called alternative, sustainable, or green energy source.  • The best known renewable source is solar energy. Although solar energy is sufficient to meet the energy needs of the entire world, currently it is not used as extensively as fossil fuels because of the low concentration of solar energy on earth and relatively high capital cost of harnessing it.  • The conversion of the kinetic energy of wind into electricity via wind turbines represents wind energy, and it is one of the fastest growing renewables as wind turbines are installed all over the world 32
  33. Renewable energy Sources  • Hydro or water energy represents the greatest amount of renewable electricity production, and its supplies most of the electricity needs of the countries.  • Geothermal energy refers to the heat of the earth. High temperature underground geothermal fluid found in some locations is extracted, and the energy of the geothermal fluid is converted to electricity or heat.  Geothermal energy is mostly used for electricity generation and district heating. Organic renewable energy is referred to as biomass, and a variety of sources (agriculture, forest, residues, crops etc.) can be used to produce biomass energy. 33
  34. Renewable energy Sources  Wave and tidal energies are renewable energy sources , and they are usually considered to be part of ocean energy since they are available mostly from oceans.  Thermal energy of oceans due to absorption of solar energy by ocean surfaces is also considered to be part of ocean energy, and this energy can be utilised using the OTEC system. Downloaded from Renewable Energy 34
  35. Hydraulic energy (or) Water power • Water power is developed by allowing water to fall under the force of gravity. • It is used almost exclusively for electric power generation. • Potential energy of water is converted into Mechanical energy by using prime moves known as hydraulic turbines. • Water power is quite cheap where water is available in abundance. • Although capital cost of hydro electric power plants is higher as compared to other types of power plants • but their operating Costs are quite low, as no fuel is required in this case 35
  37. Hydraulic energy (or) Water power The development rate of hydropower is still low, due to the following problems: • In developing a project, it will take about 6-10 years time for planning, investigation and construction. • High capital investment is needed, and some parts of the investment have to be designed from foreign sources. • There are growing problems on relocation of villages, involved, compensation for damage, selecting the suitable resettlement area and environmental impact. 37
  38. Hydraulic energy (or) Water power In order to reduce the cost of development several Measures have been considered as follows: • Development of low cost turbines and generators. • Participation of villages in the development and operation of the project. • Using the appropriate technology and tolerable substandard requirement and project civil work component at the beginning stage. 38
  39. MICRO HYDRO ELECTRIC POWER PLANT  Micro-hydro power is a type of Hydro electric power that typically produced up to 100 kW of electricity using the natural flow of water.  These type of power plant can provide power to an isolated home or a small community. 39
  40. MICRO HYDRO ELECTRIC POWERPLANT  There are many of these installations around the world, particularly in developing nations as they can provide an economical source of energy without the purchase of fuel.  Micro hydro is frequently accomplished with a pelton wheel for high head, low flow water supply.  The installation is often just a small dammed pool, at the top of a waterfall, with several hundred feet of pipe leading to a small generator housing. 40
  41. MINI HYDRO ELECTRIC POWERPLANTS  A mini-hydroelectric power plant converts the energy stored in water into electricity by exploiting the difference in elevation between two points at different heights. Mechanical energy is obtained from a hydraulic turbine which, with the help of a generator, is transformed into electrical energy.  They are power plants of less than 10MW that make it possible to take advantage of small water currents and are ideal for supplying electricity to rural or isolated areas.  Mini-hydroelectric power plants can supply energy to rural areas, areas isolated from the electricity grid or any other facility with access to a stream of water 41
  42. MINI HYDRO ELECTRIC POWER PLANTS FLOWING WATER PLANT DAM FOOT POWER PLANT 42 Part of the water is diverted from the river, turbined and once the electricity is obtained, it is returned to its natural course. It may be necessary to build a small dam to secure the water intake. If the topography permits, a reservoir is built, which makes it possible to regulate electricity production according to the needs of the consumer.
  47. Geothermal energy Direct use Indirect use 47
  50. 50