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Kubernetes #4 volume & stateful set

Kubernetes
Disk, Volume, Persistent Volume & StatefulSet

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Kubernetes #4 volume & stateful set

  1. 1. Kubernetes #4. Volume & StatefulSet 조대협 (http://bcho.tistory.com)
  2. 2. Agenda ● Volume ● PersistentVolume and PersistentVolumeClaim ● StatefulSet
  3. 3. Volume
  4. 4. Volume is ● Disk resource which is described as a part of Pod ● It can be shared across containers in Pod ● It must be mounted to container which wants to access the volume ● Life cycle is managed by Pod Volume is created when Pod is started and deleted when Pod is deleted. (Not along with container)
  5. 5. Volume type Temp Local Network emptyDir hostPath GlusterFS gitRepo NFS iSCSI gcePersistentDisk AWS EBS azureDisk Fiber Channel Secret VshereVolume
  6. 6. Volume type - empyDir ● A simple empty directory used for storing transient data ● It is good for ephemeral storage and good for file sharing across container emptyDir can use Memory as a disk
  7. 7. Volume type - hostPath ● It posts to a specific file or directory on the node’s file system ● Pods running on same node and using the same path in their volume ● hostPath volume is not deleted when Pod is torn down (If new Pod is started, the files in the hostPath volume will be remained) Node Pod Pod /mydirectory/ Node Pod /mydirectory/ If you’re thinking of using a hostPath volume as the place to store a database’s data directory, think again. Because the volume’s contents are stored on a specific node’s filesystem, when the database pod gets rescheduled to another node, it will no longer see the data.
  8. 8. Pod Volume type - gitRepo ● A gitRepo volume is basically an emptyDir volume ● It gets populated by cloning a Git repository and checking out a specific revision when the pod is starting up (but before its containers are created) ● Useful to provisioning static (HTML) data or script source from git Container gitRepo <<emptyDir>> Clone apiVersion: v1 kind: Pod metadata: name: gitrepo-volume-pod spec: containers: - image: nginx:alpine name: web-server volumeMounts: - name: html mountPath: /usr/share/nginx/html readOnly: true ports: - containerPort: 80 protocol: TCP volumes: - name: html gitRepo: repository: https://github.com/luksa/kubia-website-example.git revision: master directory: .
  9. 9. PersistentVolume & PersitentVolumeClaim
  10. 10. PersistentVolume ● PersistentVolume Life cycle is managed by k8s cluster (not pod) Admin can create PersistentVolume (Static provisioning) and developer just use the volume thru PersistentVolumeClaim without understanding of infrastructure (It is more common to use dynamic volume provisioning instead of volume provisioning by admin) Pod Container Volume Bind PersistentVolu meClaim PersistentVolume <<Created by admin>> create admin Select Physical disk create
  11. 11. PersistentVolume ● PersistentVolume ● Capacity : Storage size In future it will include IOPS,throughput etc ● VolumeMode (from 1.9) : Filesystem(default) or rawblock device ● Reclaim Policy ○ Retain – manual reclamation ○ Recycle – basic scrub (rm -rf /thevolume/*) ○ Delete – associated storage asset such as AWS EBS, GCE PD, Azure Disk, or OpenStack Cinder volume is deleted ● Mount Option Additional mount options for when a Persistent Volume is mounted on a node Currently, only NFS and HostPath support recycling. AWS EBS, GCE PD, Azure Disk, and Cinder volumes support deletion.
  12. 12. PersistentVolume ● AccessModes ○ ReadWriteOnce (RWO)– the volume can be mounted as read-write by a single node ○ ReadOnlyMany (ROX) – the volume can be mounted read-only by many nodes ○ ReadWriteMany (RWX) – the volume can be mounted as read-write by many nodes A volume can only be mounted using one access mode at a time, even if it supports many. For example, a GCEPersistentDisk can be mounted as ReadWriteOnce by a single node or ReadOnlyMany by many nodes, but not at the same time. RWO를 여러 Pod에 붙일려고 하면 에러가 남
  13. 13. PersistentVolume Phase ● Available - a free resource that yet is not bound to a claim ● Bound - the volume is bound to a claim ● Released - the claim has been deleted but the resource is not yet reclaimed by the cluster ● Failed - the volume has failed its automatic reclamation
  14. 14. Lifecycle of volume and claim Provisioning ● Static ● Dynamic : Dynamically create volume with storage class. Binding ● Bind PV to PVC Using ● Bind PVC to Pod and starts to use Reclaiming
  15. 15. PersistentVolumeClaim (PVC) Claiming a PersistentVolume is a completely separate process from creating a pod, because you want the same PersistentVolumeClaim to stay available even if the pod is rescheduled (remember, rescheduling means the previous pod is deleted and a new one is created apiVersion: v1 kind: PersistentVolumeClaim metadata: name: mongodb-pvc spec: resources: requests: storage: 1Gi accessModes: - ReadWriteOnce storageClassName: "" List PersistentVolume List PersistentVolumeClaim 쿠버네티스 인액션 예제 Nobody else can claim the same volume until you release it.
  16. 16. PersistentVolumeClaim (PVC) https://kubernetes.io/docs/concepts/s torage/persistent- volumes/#persistentvolumeclaims ● accessMode : same as volume ● VolumeMode : same as volume ● Resource : Claims, like pods, can request specific quantities of a resource. In this case, the request is for storage. The same resource model applies to both volumes and claims. ● Selector : Claims can specify a label selector to further filter the set of volumes. Only the volumes whose labels match the selector can be bound to the claim All of the requirements, from both matchLabels and matchExpressions are ANDed together – they must all be satisfied in order to match
  17. 17. Using PVC in Pod 쿠버네티스 인액션 예제 Google Cloud Kubernetes example
  18. 18. Recycling ● When a user is done with their volume, they can delete PVC object which allows reclamation of the resource ● Reclaim policy for PersistentVolume tell the cluster what to do with the volume after it has been released of its claim ● Reclaim policy ○ Retain (remain / cannot reuse) After PVC is deleted, PV still exists and volume is marked as “released”. It cannot be reused by other PVC. (it needs to delete manually) ○ Delete Delete volume as well as associated storage asset in external infrastructure ○ Recycle (remain / can reuse) Perform basic scrub (rm -f /thevolume/*) on volume and makes it available again for a new claim The Recycle reclaim policy is deprecated. Instead, the recommended approach is to use dynamic provisioning.
  19. 19. Volume retaining test Change Reclaim policy from DELETE to Retain Recreat PVC & POD Delete Pod and PVC
  20. 20. Dynamic Provisioning From k8s 1.6. Without manual provisioning of PersistentVolume. Kubernetes can dynamically create volume based on PersistentVolumeClaim (and storage class) Pod Container Volume Bind PersistentVolu meClaim PersistentVolume <<DynamicVoume>> k8s Dynamically created Instead of admin to create PV manually, admin can deploy Persistent volume provisioner and define one or more storage class object to let users choose type of PV. PersistentVolume <<DynamicVoume>> Dynamically created Request Volume with storage class
  21. 21. Dynamic Provisioning apiVersion: storage.k8s.io/v1 kind: StorageClass metadata: name: fast provisioner: kubernetes.io/gce- pd parameters: type: pd-ssd zone: europe-west1-b apiVersion: v1 kind: PersistentVolumeClaim metadata: name: mongodb-pvc spec: storageClassName: fast resources: requests: storage: 100Mi accessModes: - ReadWriteOnce
  22. 22. Storage Class Example
  23. 23. Storage Class Get default storage class
  24. 24. StatefulSet
  25. 25. Replicating stateful pod ● With ReplicaSet All pod will refer same PVC and same PV ● Option : Create RS per Pod
  26. 26. Statefulset ● To support stateful application (like database) ● It is supported from k8s 1.9(GA) ● Pod Naming : ${Stateful set name}-${ordinary index} It is not that the pods having a predictable name and hostname. It is better to use service for naming. ● When Pod (under statefulset) is restarted (by crash), Pod name will not be changed. Cf. in case of RS, the Pod name is changed to new one.
  27. 27. StatefulSet specification example apiVersion: apps/v1 kind: StatefulSet metadata: name: web spec: selector: matchLabels: app: nginx # has to match .spec.template.metadata.labels serviceName: "nginx" replicas: 3 # by default is 1 template: metadata: labels: app: nginx # has to match .spec.selector.matchLabels spec: terminationGracePeriodSeconds: 10 containers: - name: nginx image: k8s.gcr.io/nginx-slim:0.8 ports: - containerPort: 80 name: web volumeMounts: - name: www mountPath: /usr/share/nginx/html volumeClaimTemplates: - metadata: name: www spec: accessModes: [ "ReadWriteOnce" ] storageClassName: "my-storage-class" resources: requests: storage: 1Gi
  28. 28. StatefulSet Pod to PV mapping ● Each pod will get its own PVC and PV ● The PVC will be created “Volume claim template” in StatefulSet specification POD-1 PVC-1 PV-1 POD-2 PVC-2 PV-2 POD-3 PVC-3 PV-3 Volume claim template Pod Template Create Create
  29. 29. Scale in & out ● Scale in POD-1 PVC-1 PV-1 POD-2 PVC-2 PV-2 PVC-3 PV-3 POD-1 PVC-1 PV-1 POD-2 PVC-2 PV-2 POD-3 PVC-3 PV-3 POD-3 is removed by scale in , But PVC-3 and PV-3 are not deleted ● Scale out POD-3 is added by scale out. It is attached previous PVC-3 and PV-3 It enables POD connect to same PVC and PV and it POD to retain same stateful information in disk Because of this reason, PVC and PV are not automatically deleted. To delete PVC and PV, admin needs to manually delete the PVC and PV
  30. 30. Pod management policies ● .spec.podManagementPolicy ○ OrderedReady (default) : start and terminate Pod sequential. ○ Parallel : start Pod and terminate in parallel
  31. 31. End of document

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