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Visual appeal of handouts and self-    made classroom materials:         Does it matter?                  Cameron Romney  ...
Agenda• Introduction• Typography• Page Layout• Graphics
ConnectTheory and Practice        with  ‘Best Practices’
Do you know anything about typography/         page layout/graphics? Do you think it (they) are important?          Why or...
“Unfortunately, most of the materials made athome, no matter how good in content, areatrocious in terms of layout. In my e...
Visual design effects                  on readers•   Motivation    Smiley (2004); Misanchuk (1992); Bell & Sullivan (1981)...
“...more easily perceiving ... text on apage ... less attentional resources arerequired for the process of reading. Moreat...
Does the visual appealof a classroom handout         matter?       YES!
Typeface i.e. font
“The font is the cookiecutter, and the typeface   is the cookie.” (p. 29)                      Felici (2003)
What fonts do you know?Which ones do you use? Why? How?    What’s your favorite font?        Why do you like?
Categories of Fonts    Style                     Purpose                   Historical•   Old-style             •   Text   ...
Serif and Sans-serifBowley (2009), Bringhurst (2004), Craig (1990), Felici (2003), Kirsanov (1998),Lupton (2004), Madison ...
EM EM
Legibility vs. Readability
Common Problems      for  L2 Learners
LC l and UC I
LC d, b, q and p
Lowercase i and j
Lowercase c and o
Lowercase f and t
Double story minuscules      Images from Wikipedia
Best Practice #1Use the font students are FAMILIAR with
“people most easily read materialprinted in the typefaces withwhich they are most familiar.” (p. 32)                  Hoen...
Copyright page
Identifont & WhatTheFont www.identifont.com   http://new.myfonts.com/WhatTheFont                              (includes an...
Bonus Best Practiceset the typeface at a    LARGER size
• Less skilled readers benefit from larger text                      Carter, Day & Meggs (2006); Petterson (1989)• 9-12 pt ...
Bonus Best PracticeUse a font with good    LEGIBILITY
“...serifed typefaces are easier toread than san serif”                            Felici (2003)
Bonus Tip   Don’t forget thePRINTING & COPYNG
Best Practice #2 Use typography tosignal sections of the      document
Example
Recommended                Typefaces    Serif                    Sans Serif•   Georgia              •   Verdana•   Lucida ...
GeorgiaImage from Identifont
Lucida Bright Image from Identifont
Bembo Schoolbook   Image from Identifont
VerdanaImage from Identifont
TahomaImage from Identifont
Helvetica Textbook   Image from Identifont
Page Layout
Best Practice #3Use INCREASED  line spacing       and WHITE space
Theory“...the reader has an effortlessreturn path to the left edge ... forthe next line.” (p. 115)                        ...
Theory“Space attracts readers bymaking the page look accessible,unthreatening, and manageable”                        Whit...
Best Practice #4Use lines & shapes toORGANIZE the page
Theory“...directing the readers eyearound the page, drawing attentionto specific parts... breaking copyinto sections” (p.86...
Bonus Best PracticeUse MULTIPLE columns withSHORTER lines
Theory“When long lines are set...thereis a tendency of the reader toread the same line twice” (p. 86)                     ...
Line Length Guides• 50 - 60 characters (White 2002)• 2 times the alphabet (Craig 1990)• 27 characters minimum, 40 optimum,...
Graphics
Do you use images in your materials?         Why or why not?  Do images help students? How?
Levin’s (1981) Typology of images Decoration         Increase attractiveness Remuneration       Increase sales Motivation ...
Levin’s (1981) Typology of images Decoration         Increase attractiveness Remuneration       Increase sales Motivation ...
Best Practice #5Only use graphics with INSTRUCTIONAL       purpose
“If instructional facilitation is nothighly probable, then ... graphicsshould not be used in instructionalmaterial.” (p. 2...
TheoryGraphics can be a distraction       Evans, Watson and Willows (1987); Peeck (1987)          Clark & Lyons (2011); Ro...
Putting it all together A Before and After
Thank Youromney.cameron@gmail.com        LinkedInTwitter: @CameronRomney  CameronRomney.com
Visual appeal of handouts and self-made classroom materials: Does it matter?
Visual appeal of handouts and self-made classroom materials: Does it matter?
Visual appeal of handouts and self-made classroom materials: Does it matter?
Visual appeal of handouts and self-made classroom materials: Does it matter?
Visual appeal of handouts and self-made classroom materials: Does it matter?
Visual appeal of handouts and self-made classroom materials: Does it matter?
Visual appeal of handouts and self-made classroom materials: Does it matter?
Visual appeal of handouts and self-made classroom materials: Does it matter?
Visual appeal of handouts and self-made classroom materials: Does it matter?
Visual appeal of handouts and self-made classroom materials: Does it matter?
Visual appeal of handouts and self-made classroom materials: Does it matter?
Visual appeal of handouts and self-made classroom materials: Does it matter?
Visual appeal of handouts and self-made classroom materials: Does it matter?
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Visual appeal of handouts and self-made classroom materials: Does it matter?

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Slides for presentation at 20th annual Korea TESOL International Conference, Seoul Korea. October 21, 2012.

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Visual appeal of handouts and self-made classroom materials: Does it matter?

  1. 1. Visual appeal of handouts and self- made classroom materials: Does it matter? Cameron Romney Center for Foreign Language Education Momoyama Gakuin University (St. Andrew’s University) October 21, 2012
  2. 2. Agenda• Introduction• Typography• Page Layout• Graphics
  3. 3. ConnectTheory and Practice with ‘Best Practices’
  4. 4. Do you know anything about typography/ page layout/graphics? Do you think it (they) are important? Why or why not?
  5. 5. “Unfortunately, most of the materials made athome, no matter how good in content, areatrocious in terms of layout. In my experienceswith both publishers and students, I have cometo the conclusion that layout is just as important as...no, even more important than...content” Curtis Kelly, 1998
  6. 6. Visual design effects on readers• Motivation Smiley (2004); Misanchuk (1992); Bell & Sullivan (1981)• Comprehension Gasser, Boeke, Haffernan, & Tan (2005); Romney (2004); Smiley (2004); Walker (2001), Hoener, Salend & Kay (1997); Garofalo (1988), Lewis & Walker (1989)• Recall Gasser, Boeke, Haffernan, & Tan (2005); Smiley (2004); Lewis & Walker (1989)• Efficiency/Speed Smiley (2004); Hoener, Salend & Kay (1997)
  7. 7. “...more easily perceiving ... text on apage ... less attentional resources arerequired for the process of reading. Moreattentional resources can then bedevoted to attending to the message inthe text, which results in deeperprocessing and an easier recall of theinformation presented.” (p. 185) Gasser, Boek, Haffernan & Tan (2005)
  8. 8. Does the visual appealof a classroom handout matter? YES!
  9. 9. Typeface i.e. font
  10. 10. “The font is the cookiecutter, and the typeface is the cookie.” (p. 29) Felici (2003)
  11. 11. What fonts do you know?Which ones do you use? Why? How? What’s your favorite font? Why do you like?
  12. 12. Categories of Fonts Style Purpose Historical• Old-style • Text • Renaissance• Modern • Display • Baroque• Slab serif • Decorative • Neoclassical• Sans serif • Romantic• Script • Realist• Decorative Williams (2008) Felici (2003) • Modernist Bringhurst (2004)
  13. 13. Serif and Sans-serifBowley (2009), Bringhurst (2004), Craig (1990), Felici (2003), Kirsanov (1998),Lupton (2004), Madison (2003), Miller (2002), Misanchuk (1992), Romney (2004),Walker & Reynolds (2003),White (2002), Williams (2008), etc.
  14. 14. EM EM
  15. 15. Legibility vs. Readability
  16. 16. Common Problems for L2 Learners
  17. 17. LC l and UC I
  18. 18. LC d, b, q and p
  19. 19. Lowercase i and j
  20. 20. Lowercase c and o
  21. 21. Lowercase f and t
  22. 22. Double story minuscules Images from Wikipedia
  23. 23. Best Practice #1Use the font students are FAMILIAR with
  24. 24. “people most easily read materialprinted in the typefaces withwhich they are most familiar.” (p. 32) Hoener, Salend & Kay (1997)
  25. 25. Copyright page
  26. 26. Identifont & WhatTheFont www.identifont.com http://new.myfonts.com/WhatTheFont (includes an iPhone app)
  27. 27. Bonus Best Practiceset the typeface at a LARGER size
  28. 28. • Less skilled readers benefit from larger text Carter, Day & Meggs (2006); Petterson (1989)• 9-12 pt is standard for adults Carter, Day & Meggs (2006)• 18 pt for 1st grade, 14 pt for 3rd grade, 11 pt for 6th grade Hoener, Salend & Kay (1997)
  29. 29. Bonus Best PracticeUse a font with good LEGIBILITY
  30. 30. “...serifed typefaces are easier toread than san serif” Felici (2003)
  31. 31. Bonus Tip Don’t forget thePRINTING & COPYNG
  32. 32. Best Practice #2 Use typography tosignal sections of the document
  33. 33. Example
  34. 34. Recommended Typefaces Serif Sans Serif• Georgia • Verdana• Lucida Bright • Tahoma• (Bembo) Schoolbook • Helvetica Textbook
  35. 35. GeorgiaImage from Identifont
  36. 36. Lucida Bright Image from Identifont
  37. 37. Bembo Schoolbook Image from Identifont
  38. 38. VerdanaImage from Identifont
  39. 39. TahomaImage from Identifont
  40. 40. Helvetica Textbook Image from Identifont
  41. 41. Page Layout
  42. 42. Best Practice #3Use INCREASED line spacing and WHITE space
  43. 43. Theory“...the reader has an effortlessreturn path to the left edge ... forthe next line.” (p. 115) White (2002)
  44. 44. Theory“Space attracts readers bymaking the page look accessible,unthreatening, and manageable” White (2002)
  45. 45. Best Practice #4Use lines & shapes toORGANIZE the page
  46. 46. Theory“...directing the readers eyearound the page, drawing attentionto specific parts... breaking copyinto sections” (p.86) Dabner (2004)
  47. 47. Bonus Best PracticeUse MULTIPLE columns withSHORTER lines
  48. 48. Theory“When long lines are set...thereis a tendency of the reader toread the same line twice” (p. 86) Craig (1990)
  49. 49. Line Length Guides• 50 - 60 characters (White 2002)• 2 times the alphabet (Craig 1990)• 27 characters minimum, 40 optimum, 70 maximum (Felici 2003)
  50. 50. Graphics
  51. 51. Do you use images in your materials? Why or why not? Do images help students? How?
  52. 52. Levin’s (1981) Typology of images Decoration Increase attractiveness Remuneration Increase sales Motivation Increase interest Reiteration Additional exposures Representational Make more concrete Organization Make more integrated Interpretation Make more comprehensible Transformation Make more memorable
  53. 53. Levin’s (1981) Typology of images Decoration Increase attractiveness Remuneration Increase sales Motivation Increase interest Reiteration Additional exposures Representational Make more concrete Organization Make more integrated Interpretation Make more comprehensible Transformation Make more memorable
  54. 54. Best Practice #5Only use graphics with INSTRUCTIONAL purpose
  55. 55. “If instructional facilitation is nothighly probable, then ... graphicsshould not be used in instructionalmaterial.” (p. 239) Misanchuk (1992)
  56. 56. TheoryGraphics can be a distraction Evans, Watson and Willows (1987); Peeck (1987) Clark & Lyons (2011); Romney & Bell (2011)
  57. 57. Putting it all together A Before and After
  58. 58. Thank Youromney.cameron@gmail.com LinkedInTwitter: @CameronRomney CameronRomney.com

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