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Hao wm 20150708_1730_upmc_jussieu_-_amphi_24

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Hao wm 20150708_1730_upmc_jussieu_-_amphi_24

  1. 1. Arctic Deposition of Black Carbon from Biomass Burning in Northern Eurasia: 2002 − 2013 W. M. Hao1, A. Petkov1, B. Nordgren1, R. Corley1, R. Silverstein1, S. Urbanski1, N. Evangeliou2,3, Y. Balkanski2 1U.S. Forest Service, RMRS Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, Montana, USA 2Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement (LSCE), CEA-UVSQ- CNRS UMR 8212, Institut Pierre et Simon Laplace, Gif sur Yvette Cedex, France 3Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Kjeller, Norway
  2. 2. Why Black Carbon in Northern Eurasia? Develop a Mitigation Policy for BC Emissions Global • the 2nd most important species for climate forcing • Short lifetime: ~ a week • Sources: industry 64% , biomass burning 36% Northern Eurasia • Reducing surface albedo • Absorbing solar radiation that leads to accelerated ice melting in the Arctic • Sources: biomass burning and industries (?) • Deposition efficiency: % (?) of emitted BC deposited on the Arctic
  3. 3. Objectives • Develop high spatial (500 m x 500 m) and temporal (daily) distribution of black carbon emissions from fires in Northern Eurasia from 2002 to 2013 • Identify the major sources of fires in different ecosystems: forest, grassland, shrubland, savanna, and agriculture • Analyze seasonal and inter-annual variability of sources, transport, and deposition of black carbon from fires in Northern Eurasia to Arctic ice
  4. 4. Computation E = A × FL × α × EF E: amount of emitted black carbon at any spatial and temporal scales A: area burned FL: fuel loading, or the amount of fuel to be burned α: combustion completeness, or % of biomass burned EF: emission factor of black carbon
  5. 5. Northern Eurasia 2003 Burned Area by Months and Land Cover Type January-March April-June July-September October-December Months Forest Shrubland Savanna Grassland Land Cover Type
  6. 6. Fuel Loading • Fuel loading of coarse woody debris, duff, shrub, lower layers in Northern Eurasia at a 500 m x 500 m resolution • Data Sources: − MODIS land cover map (MOD12, v5) − 2010 land cover map at a 250 m resolution for Russian Federation provided by the Space Research Institute (SRI) of the Russian Academy of Sciences − 2010 dominant forest species map at a 250 m resolution over Russian Federation provided by SPI − 2003 Forestry Inventory Survey of Russian Federation − IPCC Tier-1 Global Biomass Carbon Map for 2000
  7. 7. Fuel Loading of CWD, Duff, Litter, and Non-Forest
  8. 8. MODIS Burned Area 2012 Trans-Siberian Railway Label BC Emissions kg/day/pixel 0 - 250 250 - 500 500 - 1000 1000 - 2000 2000 - 3000 3000 - 6625 Label BC Emissions kg/day/pixel 0 - 250 250 - 500 500 - 1000 1000 - 2000 2000 - 3000 3000 - 6625 Black Carbon Emissions 2002 Label BC Emissions kg/day/pixel 0 - 250 250 - 500 500 - 1000 1000 - 2000 2000 - 3000 3000 - 6625 Black Carbon Emissions 2004 Black Carbon Emissions 2005 Label BC Emissions kg/day/pixel 0 - 250 250 - 500 500 - 1000 1000 - 2000 2000 - 3000 3000 - 6625 Black Carbon Emissions 2003
  9. 9. Label BC Emissions kg/day/pixel 0 - 250 250 - 500 500 - 1000 1000 - 2000 2000 - 3000 3000 - 6625 Black Carbon Emissions 2006 Black Carbon Emissions 2007 Label BC Emissions kg/day/pixel 0 - 250 250 - 500 500 - 1000 1000 - 2000 2000 - 3000 3000 - 6625 Label BC Emissions kg/day/pixel 0 - 250 250 - 500 500 - 1000 1000 - 2000 2000 - 3000 3000 - 6625 Black Carbon Emissions 2008 Black Carbon Emissions 2009 Label BC Emissions kg/day/pixel 0 - 250 250 - 500 500 - 1000 1000 - 2000 2000 - 3000 3000 - 6625
  10. 10. Label BC Emissions kg/day/pixel 0 - 250 250 - 500 500 - 1000 1000 - 2000 2000 - 3000 3000 - 6625 Black Carbon Emissions 2010 Black Carbon Emissions 2011 Label BC Emissions kg/day/pixel 0 - 250 250 - 500 500 - 1000 1000 - 2000 2000 - 3000 3000 - 6625 Label BC Emissions kg/day/pixel 0 - 250 250 - 500 500 - 1000 1000 - 2000 2000 - 3000 3000 - 6625 Black Carbon Emissions 2012 Black Carbon Emissions 2013 Label BC Emissions kg/day/pixel 0 - 250 250 - 500 500 - 1000 1000 - 2000 2000 - 3000 3000 - 6625
  11. 11. Daily Black Carbon Emissions in Northern Eurasia: 2002 to 2013 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 J F F M A M J J A S O N D BCEmissions(Gg/Day) Month 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
  12. 12. 0 200 400 600 800 1 000 1 200 1 400 1 600 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 BlackCarbonEmissions(106kg) Year Forest Grassland Shrubland Savanna Black Carbon Emissions in Northern Eurasia by Land Cover: 2002 to 2013
  13. 13. Comparisons of BC Emissions from FEI-NE, GFED4, GFED3 FEI-NE is about 3.5 times higher than GFED4 Forest: FEI-NE > 2.5 GFED4 Non-forest: FEI-NE 3.2 Tg vs. GFED4 0.5 Tg
  14. 14. Transport & Deposition • Biomass burning source in Northern Eurasia: this study • Anthropogenic and biomass burning sources for other regions: MACCity • 3-D Global Chemistry-Aerosol- Climate Model: LMDz-OR-INCA
  15. 15. Comparisons of modeled atmospheric BC concentrations with BC measurements at monitoring stations in the Arctic during the period of 2002 ˗ 2013
  16. 16. Conclusions • BC emissions from fires over Northern Eurasia varied enormously • An average of 0.82±0.50 Tg from 2002 to 2013 (n=12) • Account for ~11% of the global BC sources, or 30% of the total biomass burning source Deposition • ~31% of the emitted BC from biomass burning in Northern Eurasia was deposited in the Arctic • Account for 40 -73% of the BC deposited from all possible sources • BC deposition on the Arctic estimated by FEI-NE was 28% higher than GFED3 estimates
  17. 17. Sources • 68% of BC emissions occurred from fires in forests, followed by grassland (15%) • 83% of BC emissions from forest fires occurred in Russia • Central and Western Asia is the major region for BC emissions from grassland fires (53%), followed by Russia (35%) • Peak years of emissions: 2003, 2008, 2012 • The majority of BC emissions from fires occurred in March – May • Overall, Russia contributed 83% of the total BC emissions from fires in Northern Eurasia

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