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Tiani am 20150708_1500_upmc_jussieu_-_room_307

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Tiani am 20150708_1500_upmc_jussieu_-_room_307

  1. 1. THINKING beyond the canopy Implementing REDD+ and adaptation to climate change in the Congo Basin Anne Marie Tiani, Charlotte Pavageau Our Common Future under Climate Change. Paris, 7 – 10 July 2015 Review of projects, initiatives and opportunities for synergies
  2. 2. Context  Definitions  Methods REDD+ and adaptation initiatives and activities  International initiatives for adaptation and mitigation  REDD+ initiatives, activities and projects in the Congo Basin  Adaptation initiatives and projects Potential for synergies between adaptation and mitigation Based on a working paper published by CIFOR (Pavageau and Tiani, 2014) Plan
  3. 3.  Two main types of strategies — mitigation and adaptation  In the CB, adaptation policies and projects are having difficulties emerging. Moreover, in debates on national adaptation policy, forests and forest communities are rarely taken into consideration (Bele et al. 2011).  Few experience on REDD+; However, subnational governments and local stakeholders (municipalities, private property owners, indigenous groups, NGOs, etc.) have high expectations regarding the potential of REDD+ to promote forest conservation and bring sustainable development activities to communities (Peach Brown et al. 2011).  In the other side, many authors argue the importance of mainstreaming adaptation–mitigation links into forest or climate change policies (e.g. Klein et al. 2005; Locatelli et al. 2011) to optimize co-benefits, create new opportunities and design more efficient projects.  Reason why many adaptation and especially REDD+ activities are going on at various levels, from national to local. Time to assess. Context of the Congo basin
  4. 4. This report provides an overview of ongoing REDD+ and adaptation activities in 6 countries of the Congo Basin. It aims to address the following questions: 1. What is the current progress of REDD+ and adaptation processes in the Congo Basin? 2. What is the structure of actual climate change responses? 3. What are the potential synergies between the two processes? 4. Particularly among REDD+ projects and initiatives, what are the potential opportunities and challenges for implementing adaptation? Research questions and methods
  5. 5. Methods: Comparative analysis REDD+ activities = those with explicit carbon goal in their objectives REDD+ readiness activities = measures and mechanisms that are necessary to establish an enabling framework for REDD+ deals: land tenure reforms, MRV, research, awareness raising, capacity building, governance, institutions, community rights, livelihoods, participation and financing REDD+ (Wertz-Kanounnikoff and Kongphan-apirak 2009). REDD+/carbon forest demonstration activities. These activities aim to reduce the deforestation and forest degradation trends in a limited area. They have explicit carbon targets and should be valorized through a compensation mechanism based on results Preparation activities for future REDD+ projects that could enter in a global carbon deal (IUCN, 2009) Adaptation activities broadly; when references to climate are made in the project objectives. Adaptation initiatives =initiatives that support national adaptation strategies and policies. Ex: impacts and vulnerability assessments, identification of country priorities, planning for adaptation, implementing large adaptation programs, monitoring and evaluating adaptation interventions, and capacity building. Activities for demonstration of adaptation. These activities aim to reduce the vulnerability of local populations to climate change and variability, and to set up concrete adaptation strategies. Methods and Definitions
  6. 6. Cameroon Congo, Rep Equatorial Guinea Gabon CAR DRC Adaptation EquatorialGuinea Gabon Cameroon CAR Congo, Rep DRC Mitigation R-PIN R-PP REDD Strategy EquatorialGuinea Cameroon CAR Congo, Rep DRC Gabon National Communications NC1 NC2 NC3 NC4 NAPA National Adaptation Strategy REDD+ and adaptation initiatives and activities UNFCCC related initiatives National communication. Each non-Annex I Party of the Kyoto Protocol shall submit its initial communication (GEF). NAPAs, the LDCs identify and communicate their most urgent adaptation needs, and prioritize actions to respond to them” (Pramova et al. 2012 R-PIN and R-PP. In addition to the UNFCCC framework, countries participating in the FCPF Readiness Mechanism are encouraged to submit strategy documents known as R-Pin and R-PP = synthesis of current policies, governance context, studies and preparatory activities, and modalities of implementation of activities.
  7. 7. 46 REDD+ projects on the ground REDD+initiatives and projects 48 Mitigation and REDD+ readiness activities 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Numberofreadinessactivities 0 5 10 15 20 25 REDD+ projects Potential REDD+ projects REDD+ projects in preparation Other mitigation projects Numberofprojects Regional Eq. Guinea Congo Gabon DRC CAR Cameroon Large scale mitigation initiatives 1)FCPF, 2) REDD+ Partnership, 3) UN-REDD Program; 4) CBFF; 5) FIP
  8. 8. 4 National initiatives * Implementation of NAPAs (GEF); only DRC and CAR * Africa adaptation programme (AAP) .UNDP in Cameroon, Congo and Gabon ; * CCAA Cameroon, CAR and DRC * National adaptation initiatives target agriculture, costal zone management, energy and water management ; Few are related to forest (Congo and EG) Adaptation initiatives and projects Demonstration of adaptation activities and political priorities Fores try En erg y Coa stal He alth Agric . FS Wa ter Fish erie s Wast e mngt URB AN DRC P P P P A P P P CAR P P P A P Cmr A A P A P A A P P Cong o A P A A P P P Gab A P P EG A P A P A P A P A P A P A P A= National adaptation activities P =adaptation priority sectors identified in national official documents
  9. 9. Potential for synergies adaptation - mitigation Synergies in global frameworks and policy processes Expected benefits from REDD+ projects Rational and links with adapta goals Watershed protection The protection of the forests will secure watersheds Environmental benefits REDD+ activities will reduce soil erosion mitigate water loss from runoff, avoide b fires … Local capacities and alternative incomes Alternative employments (forest manag staff, tree nurseries; introduce long-term income enhancement mechanisms Support to local communities so they ca manage the forest in a sustainable way Improved agricultural productivitiy and resilience Integrated management system at the fa scale, improved farming techniques and agroforestry plantation Adoption of good practices by local administration and land manage (agricultural, forestry, governance). This better planification. Infrastructure Improved access of villages and new 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% %ofinitiatives National or regional programs of adaptation REDD+ readiness initiatives
  10. 10. Set of similar interventions in adaptation and REDD+ projects :  Based on historical approaches (Integrated conservation and development projects (Sunderlin and Sills, 2012))  No definitive framework for REDD+ and adaptation activities Benefits + Reduce uncertainties and risks + Diversify fund raising + Potentials for synergies between A&M Challenges  Funds diverted into more general conservation and development activities  Fail to realize adaptation and mitigation goals  No planned integration of adaptation and mitigation Specific to adaptation:  No long term financial mechanism for adaptation  No integrative approach for reducing societal vulnerabilities Emergence of hybrid approaches
  11. 11.  94 REDD+ related activities against 11 adaptation (2011 – 2013)  While Forestry sector neglected in national adaptation activities, it has been set as priority sector  Synergy A – M possible but not clear at the policy level, already implemented in the site level, demonstration activities should inform policy, but need to be well planned and documented  NBC as an additional opportunity Conclusion
  12. 12. Thank you www.cifor.cgiar.org/cobam