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Biomedical Electronics by J. F. Khan (PDF)

Biomedical Electronics (PDF)
By J.F.Khan
Size: A4, Total pages 240
Download this book from : www.chinttanpublications.in

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Biomedical Electronics by J. F. Khan (PDF)

  1. 1. TABLE OF CONTENTS i TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 BIOMEDICAL ELECTRONIC CHARACTERISTICS AND MEASUREMENT PROBLEMS.................... [1-10] 1.1 System configuration .........................................................................................................................1-1 1.2 Basic characteristics of measuring systems..........................................................................................1-2 1.2.1 Static characteristics ..............................................................................................................1-2 1.2.2 Dynamic characteristics .........................................................................................................1-5 1.3 Second order systems ........................................................................................................................1-6 1.3.1 Frequency response ...............................................................................................................1-7 1.4 Transducers.......................................................................................................................................1-8 1.5 Problems faced when measuring a human body ...................................................................................1-9 Exercises.........................................................................................................................................1-10 2 THE BIOELECTRIC POTENTIAL.........................................................................................................[2-8] 2.1 Resting and action potentials ..............................................................................................................2-1 2.2 Propagation of action potentials ..........................................................................................................2-3 2.3 The bioelectric potentials – ECG........................................................................................................2-3 2.3.1 Electrode theory ....................................................................................................................2-4 2.3.2 The electroencephalogram (EEG)...........................................................................................2-6 Exercises...........................................................................................................................................2-8 3 TRANSDUCERS IN MEDICAL INSTRUMENTATION ..............................................................................[3-8] 3.1 Electrode transducers.........................................................................................................................3-1 3.1.1 The surface electrode.............................................................................................................3-2 3.1.2 Half-cell potential and equivalent circuit elements ...................................................................3-4 3.1.3 The needle electrodes.............................................................................................................3-6 3.1.4 Bio-signal conditioners - design considerations........................................................................3-7 Exercises...........................................................................................................................................3-8 4 BASICS OF CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEMS.........................................................................................[4-12] 4.1 The heart and cardiovascular system...................................................................................................4-1 4.2 The heart...........................................................................................................................................4-4 4.3 Blood pressure...................................................................................................................................4-7 4.4 Heart sounds .....................................................................................................................................4-9 4.5 Blood flow ......................................................................................................................................4-10 Exercises.........................................................................................................................................4-12 5 BLOOD PRESSURE AND BLOOD FLOW MEASUREMENTS .................................................................[5-16] 5.1 Measurement of blood pressure ..........................................................................................................5-1 5.2 Indirect method .................................................................................................................................5-1 5.3 Direct method of blood pressure measurement electronic manometry-catheterization method.................5-4 5.3.1 Measurement at the site..........................................................................................................5-5 5.4 Ultrasonic blood pressure measurement ..............................................................................................5-5 5.4.1 Ultrasound techniques in blood flow measurement...................................................................5-7 5.4.2 Ultrasonic blood flow meters..................................................................................................5-8
  2. 2. BIOMEDICALELECTRONICS ii 5.4.3 Magnetic blood flow meters .................................................................................................5-11 5.5 Phonocardiograph............................................................................................................................5-14 5.6 Echocardiography............................................................................................................................5-15 Exercises.........................................................................................................................................5-16 6 ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHY AND STRESS TEST SYSTEM....................................................................[6-22] 6.1 Electrocardiogram .............................................................................................................................6-1 6.2 ECG lead and waveform configurations ..............................................................................................6-2 6.3 The ECG machine .............................................................................................................................6-6 6.4 Three channel recorders.....................................................................................................................6-8 6.5 Vector electrocardiographs.................................................................................................................6-8 6.6 Stress test systems (treadmill test).......................................................................................................6-9 Exercises.........................................................................................................................................6-22 7 PACEMAKER AND DEFIBRILLATOR ................................................................................................[7-16] 7.1 Pacemakers.......................................................................................................................................7-1 7.1.1 Pacemaker classifications .......................................................................................................7-2 7.2 Ventricular synchronous demand pacemaker.......................................................................................7-3 7.2.1 Asynchronous cardiac pacemaker (free running)......................................................................7-4 7.2.2 Demand-type synchronous pacemaker ....................................................................................7-4 7.2.3 Atrial-synchronous cardiac pacemaker....................................................................................7-4 7.2.4 Programmable pacemaker......................................................................................................7-5 7.2.5 Batteries for pacemaker..........................................................................................................7-7 7.3 Defibrillators .....................................................................................................................................7-8 7.4 Defibrillator machine .......................................................................................................................7-11 7.4.1 The inverter and EHT circuit ................................................................................................7-12 7.4.2 The regulator and comparator circuit.....................................................................................7-12 7.4.3 The control circuit ...............................................................................................................7-13 7.4.4 The synchronizing circuit.....................................................................................................7-14 Exercises.........................................................................................................................................7-16 8 LABORATORY INSTRUMENTS..........................................................................................................[8-22] 8.1 Clinical laboratory equipment.............................................................................................................8-1 8.1.1 The blood..............................................................................................................................8-1 8.2 Tests on blood cells ...........................................................................................................................8-2 8.2.1 Methods of cell counting........................................................................................................8-3 8.3 Blood gas analysers ...........................................................................................................................8-6 8.3.1 Acid base balance..................................................................................................................8-6 8.3.2 Blood pH measurement..........................................................................................................8-7 8.4 Biochemical transducers ....................................................................................................................8-7 8.4.1 Measurement of gas distribution .............................................................................................8-9 8.5 Chemical tests .................................................................................................................................8-13 8.5.1 Colourimeter or filter photometer .........................................................................................8-16 8.5.2 Flame photometer................................................................................................................8-17 8.5.3 Spectrophotometer...............................................................................................................8-19 8.5.4 Autoanalysers......................................................................................................................8-20 Exercises.........................................................................................................................................8-22
  3. 3. TABLE OF CONTENTS iii 9 DISPLAY SYSTEMS ..........................................................................................................................[9-18] 9.1 Oscilloscopes for biomedical measurements........................................................................................9-1 9.2 CRO used in medical equipment-cardioscope ......................................................................................9-2 9.2.1 Non fade oscilloscopes...........................................................................................................9-2 9.3 PMMC galvanometer movements .......................................................................................................9-3 9.3.1 PMMC writing systems..........................................................................................................9-5 9.4 Instrumentation tape recorders............................................................................................................9-6 9.4.1 Recorders..............................................................................................................................9-6 9.4.1.1 Strip chart recorders................................................................................................9-7 9.4.1.2 X-Y recorders........................................................................................................9-13 9.4.1.3 Ultraviolet recorders.............................................................................................9-15 9.5 Beside and central monitoring systems..............................................................................................9-16 9.5.1 Beside monitors...................................................................................................................9-16 9.5.2 Central monitors ..................................................................................................................9-18 Exercises.........................................................................................................................................9-18 10 X-RAYS .....................................................................................................................................[10-18] 10.1 Introduction ....................................................................................................................................10-1 10.2 The X-ray tube.................................................................................................................................10-5 10.3 The nature of X-rays........................................................................................................................10-7 10.4 X-ray absorption ..............................................................................................................................10-8 10.5 Tissue contrast.................................................................................................................................10-8 10.6 Units of X-ray radiation....................................................................................................................10-9 10.7 X-ray machine .................................................................................................................................10-9 10.7.1 Fluoroscopic system .......................................................................................................... 10-11 10.8 Computer tomography (CT) ........................................................................................................... 10-13 10.8.1 Rotating type of scanners................................................................................................... 10-16 10.9 Positron emission tomography (PET).............................................................................................. 10-17 Exercises....................................................................................................................................... 10-18 11 PATIENTS SAFETY .......................................................................................................................[11-8] 11.1 Effect of electric current on the body ................................................................................................11-1 11.2 Isolated patient circuits ....................................................................................................................11-3 11.3 Procedure for electrical safety testing of medical equipments at the emergency care research institute (USA).................................................................................................................................11-6 11.3.1 Physical examination ...........................................................................................................11-7 11.3.2 Operational tests..................................................................................................................11-8 Exercises.........................................................................................................................................11-8 12 DIAGNOSTIC MEDICAL EQUIPMENTS.........................................................................................[12-14] 12.1 Introduction ....................................................................................................................................12-1 12.2 Production of ultrasound ..................................................................................................................12-1 12.3 Impedance matching........................................................................................................................12-2 12.4 Transducer selection ........................................................................................................................12-2 12.5 Absorption and attenuation of ultrasound energy ...............................................................................12-3
  4. 4. BIOMEDICALELECTRONICS iv 12.6 Scan modes of ultrasound imaging....................................................................................................12-4 12.7 Pulsed doppler systems ....................................................................................................................12-5 12.8 Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)..................................................................................................12-6 12.8.1 Magnetic resonance phenomenon .........................................................................................12-6 12.8.2 Magnetic resonance spectroscopy in-vivo..............................................................................12-7 12.8.3 Magnetic resonance imaging ................................................................................................12-8 12.8.4 Magnetic relaxation and MRI parameters...............................................................................12-8 12.8.5 Magnetic field strength and gradients.................................................................................. 12-10 12.8.6 Pulse sequences................................................................................................................. 12-11 12.8.7 Imaging processes ............................................................................................................. 12-11 12.9 The MRI machine .......................................................................................................................... 12-11 12.10 Skin temperature measurements...................................................................................................... 12-14 Exercises....................................................................................................................................... 12-14 13 LASERS IN MEDICINE ..................................................................................................................[13-8] 13.1 Introduction ....................................................................................................................................13-1 13.2 Laser classification ..........................................................................................................................13-1 13.3 Basic concepts.................................................................................................................................13-1 13.4 Types of lasers ................................................................................................................................13-3 13.4.1 Insulating solid lasers...........................................................................................................13-3 13.4.2 Insulating crystal lasers........................................................................................................13-4 13.4.3 Excimer lasers.....................................................................................................................13-5 13.4.4 Gas lasers............................................................................................................................13-5 13.4.5 Solid-state PN junction lasers...............................................................................................13-6 13.5 Applications of lasers in ophthalmology............................................................................................13-7 13.5.1 Photo thermal applications ...................................................................................................13-8 Exercises.........................................................................................................................................13-8 14 NERVOUS SYSTEM.......................................................................................................................[14-8] 14.1 Electroencephalography...................................................................................................................14-1 14.2 EEG electrodes and the 10.20 system................................................................................................14-3 14.3 EEG amplitude and frequency bands.................................................................................................14-4 14.4 The EEG system: simplified block diagram.......................................................................................14-7 Exercises.........................................................................................................................................14-8 15 HEMODIALYSIS ...........................................................................................................................[15-6] 15.1 Basic renal physiology .....................................................................................................................15-1 15.2 Renal failure....................................................................................................................................15-2 15.3 Peritoneal dialysis ..........................................................................................................................15-3 15.4 Hemodialysis ..................................................................................................................................15-3 15.5 The hemodialysis machine ...............................................................................................................15-4 Exercises.........................................................................................................................................15-6 Laboratory experiment 1 ................................................................................................................. [1-6] Laboratory experiment 2 ............................................................................................................... [1-20] Laboratory experiment 3 [Heart rate monitor laboratory]................................................................... [1-2] Laboratory experiment 4 ............................................................................................................... [1-10] Laboratory experiment 5 [study of pulse oximeter] ........................................................................... [1-5]

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