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ELECTRONIC
INSTRUMENT
&
PRODUCT DESIGN
Prof. S.B.Dhonde
B.E. Electronics and Telecommunications
M.E. Electronics
Assistant...
First Indian Edition 2007
This Book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded resources. Reprinted ...
FOREWORD
The various universities conduct the courses in different branches of Electronics & Instrumentation technology.
T...
PREFACE
AIMS
Education is a piecemeal process of collecting and synthesizing information. Electronics has become a
growing...
OVERVIEW
Reasonable efforts have been taken to make this book clear, focused and precise yet retaining the
thorough covera...
System performance and documentation: System simulation using virtual instrumentation,
troubleshooting and documentation. ...
ACKNOWLEGMENTS
My sincere thanks to Dr. A.D.Shaligram (Reader, Electronic Science Department, University of Pune), for
giv...
Editing:
Mr.Chintan Dewalia
D.I.E.
(Institute of Polytechnic Engg,Lonere,
Dr.Babasaheb Ambedkar University)
B. E. Instrume...
Dedicated to …
the Students
and
Practicing Engineers
TABLE OF CONTENTS 1
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1 BASIC CONCEPT OF INSTRUMENT DESIGN...................................................
ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENT AND PRODUCT DESIGN2
2.5.4 ESD induced effects in electronic circuit....................................
TABLE OF CONTENTS 3
 Review questions ......................................................................................
ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENT AND PRODUCT DESIGN4
4.3 PCB sizes......................................................................
TABLE OF CONTENTS 5
4.8.9 Multilayer artwork method .........................................................................
ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENT AND PRODUCT DESIGN6
5.7.2 Selection of cable...........................................................
TABLE OF CONTENTS 7
 Answers ...............................................................................................
ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENT AND PRODUCT DESIGN8
8.4.5 Other considerations ........................................................
TABLE OF CONTENTS 9
10 ANALOG SYSTEM DESIGN GUIDELINES AND APPLICATION ............... {225-264}
10.1 Analog design guidel...
ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENT AND PRODUCT DESIGN10
10.6.4 Characteristics............................................................
TABLE OF CONTENTS 11
11.7.2 Circuit description..............................................................................
ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENT AND PRODUCT DESIGN12
13.1.1.2 Software specification...................................................
Electronic Instrument and Product Design
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Electronic Instrument and Product Design

Electronic Instrument and Product Design (Paperback) (2007 Edition)
By Dhonde and Shenvi
Size : B5, Pages: 368; Price : Rs. 390.00
Buy this book from : www.chinttanpublications.in

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Electronic Instrument and Product Design

  1. 1. ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENT & PRODUCT DESIGN Prof. S.B.Dhonde B.E. Electronics and Telecommunications M.E. Electronics Assistant Professor in Electronics engg. department, AISSMS Institute of Information Technology, Pune. Mr. Nitin M.Shenvi Bsc.(Physics) BSc. (Applied) Advanced Electronics P.G.D.C.A. MSc.(Electronic Science ) CHINTAN PUBLICATIONS 4/8, Anandnagar, Paud Road, Kothrud, Pune-411038.
  2. 2. First Indian Edition 2007 This Book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded resources. Reprinted Material is quoted with permission, and resources are indicated. A wide variety of references are listed. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and the publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or for the consequences of their use. Neither this book nor any part may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording or by any information storage or retrieval system, without prior permission in writing from the publisher. The consent of Chintan Publications does not extend to copying for general distribution, for promotion, for creating new works, or for resale. Specific permission must be obtained in writing from Chintan Publications for such copying. Direct all enquiries to Chintan Publications: 8888101055 and 9226269333 or to the distributors listed in our catalogue. Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation, without intent to infringe. Visit our web site at www.chinttanpublications.in The Indian Edition: Rs. 390/- ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENT & PRODUCT DESIGN By Prof. S.B.Dhonde and Mr. N.M.Shenvi © 2007, Chintan Publications ISBN 81-89-194-10-0 Published by Chintan Publications, 4/8, Anandnagar, Paud Road, Kothrud , Pune – 411038.Mobile: 8888101055,9226269333. E-mail: chinttanpublications@gmail.com and Printed At: Sandip Printers, Pune.
  3. 3. FOREWORD The various universities conduct the courses in different branches of Electronics & Instrumentation technology. These courses have attracted the attention of engineers working in industries, R & D laboratory as well as educational institutions. The instructional material required for these courses is not readily available. Therefore, Chintan Publications has brought out this material in book form. Over 25 courses covering these topics have been brought out so far and they are popular both inside and outside. Recognizing the usefulness of these topics in engineering education, Chintan Publications has seriously considered how best to make them available to the engineering public at a comparatively low price. As a first step, revised and updated version of the Electronic Instrument & Product Design under the supervision of an Editorial Board. I am certain that this book will be of use to students in the colleges & universities and to all working engineers. Dr. A.D.Shaligram Reader, Electronic Science Department , University of Pune. EDITOR'S NOTE Electronic System Designing is certainly the most important element in the Electronic equipment. It is the design of instruments system that determines many of the limiting properties with respect to noise immunity, as well as to fast-pulse, high frequency and low-level characteristics of the equipment. High-power PCBs in their turn require a special design strategy. This book gives specific electronic system design guidelines for all these cases. Designing of the electronic equipment determines to a large extent the price and reliability of the equipment. A common target aimed at is the fabrication of small series of highly-reliable, professional-quality instruments, products and projects with low investment cost. This target becomes especially important for custom-tailored equipment in the area of industrial electronics. It is also important for R&D laboratories in telecommunication and biomedical electronics. The present volume tries to give practical tips on how to set-up and operate such a system designing process. This can be considered to be a model in the education of engineering students. Prof. S.B.Dhonde working at AISSMS’s I.O.I.T. and Mr. N.M.Shenvi working at E.S.D.,University of Pune within the framework of Indian curriculum, along with many of his colleagues and associated industries played a key role in setting this book for its usefulness. It is the crowning achievement of their job to bring out this book. I am personally quite sure that this book will be of great use to practicing engineers and advanced students in various countries. Mr.Chintan Dewalia D.I.E. (Institute of Polytechnic Engg,Lonere, Dr.Babasaheb Ambedkar University) B. E. Instrumentation Engg. (Dr.D.Y.Patil College of Engg., Pune)
  4. 4. PREFACE AIMS Education is a piecemeal process of collecting and synthesizing information. Electronics has become a growing influence in our daily lives. Considering all possibilities of applying electronics in a useful and responsible manner, we recognise that the so-called 'electronics age' is still in its infancy. Among the various discoveries and developments to bring electronics to the level it has reached until now. The field of Electronic system designing combines a wide range of disciplines, such as mechanics, chemistry, production and process management, etc. Such widespread constraints may be the reason why only little literature on the subject has become available so far. This book is therefore an attempt to bridge a few of these gaps at the engineer's and engineering student's level. Special emphasis has been given to an industrial and technological environment as typically existing and further developing in a country like India: The basic design procedures and production processes are not only dealt with in sufficient depth and details but latest developments are also included. The views expressed in this book generally represent the personal views of the authors of the particular chapter. Although every care has been taken while preparing the book, it is not possible to assume any liability for its contents. This equally applies for data and process details given. This book is written in simple and easy to understand language, so the reader will grasp the concepts completely. Each chapter contains simple theory, carefully selected examples to ensure clear understanding of the concept and its applications in the Electronic instruments and products. Often the application of newly acquired knowledge is left haphazardly to the student. This book attempts to fill the gap by providing an integrated picture of the electronic system design process. The material connects engineering curriculum to the practical applications from the overall view of an electronic system design. The book introduces the basic concepts of reliability and quality of the electronic instrument and product and then discusses the various modes and causes of failure. The book contains a discussion on the hierarchical system; reliability and cost models are illustrated. Gives a comprehensive and simple treatment to the study of reliability which is considered essential for the correct utilisation and maintenance of electronic equipments and systems. This book provides an in-depth understanding of the technology and designed of Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs). It is a complete reference on how to design various kinds of highly reliable, professional quality PCBs with low investment costs. Illustrations have been used to explain: • Layout, planning and generation of artwork • Material selection and planning • Automation and computers in PCB design The approach adopted in the book places a lot of emphasis on the current trends in the Industry and seeks to induce creativity in circuit designers to search for new electronic interconnecting techniques. The book provides a framework for developing electronic system designing, from handheld electronic products and instruments to consoles of electronic equipment. It gives practical design guidelines and methods and noise, reliability, hardware and software testing encountered and then uses specific details or case studies as examples. The guidelines may be applied to single prototypes, instruments or product as well as mass-produced electronic products. The applications are technology independent, so the topics and examples given will be useful for years and will be updated by the next generation of hardware or software design and testing. The focus is on students and practicing engineers who manage and participate in small projects in small or medium-scale industries, but many of the methods apply to large projects as well.
  5. 5. OVERVIEW Reasonable efforts have been taken to make this book clear, focused and precise yet retaining the thorough coverage of all the topics and sufficient mathematical treatment. The first chapter is of an introductory nature. In this chapter, basic concepts of Instrument design are explained and various standards and specifications are discussed. Chapter 2 presents a general procedure for enclosure of an instrument and product design guidelines are discussed. A number of techniques those are available to improve the enclosure protection and testing. Chapter 3 surveys the basic concepts of Noise in electronic circuits, its effect with respect to EMI and EMC etc. A good working knowledge of which is necessary for any practical application of an electronic system design. In Chapter 4 and 5 discusses the Printed circuit board (PCB) designs guidelines and methods to minimize noise and various other interferences. Characteristics of PCB components are discussed. Sufficient mathematical treatment is analysed. Automation in PCB design and various component assembly and testing techniques are discussed. Chapters 6 deals with reliability of systems and its improvement. Redundancy and repair, the most important methods of enhancing system reliability and quality are considered in more detail with sufficient mathematical treatment. Chapter 7 discusses Instrument performance evaluation and various functional models. Chapter 8 is devoted to instrument system design with Data Acquisition System and Noise budgeting while Chapter 9 presents safety aspect, documentation and quality management in electronic system designing. Chapter 10 and 11 deal with Analogue and Digital design guidelines with various IC used in electronic circuits. Finally the Chapter 12 and 13 discusses the Hardware and Software design guidelines and testing of electronic Instruments, products. Relevant charts and tables are given throughout the book and other information in the appendices. SCOPE Basic concepts of instrument design: Functional requirements and specifications, Operational environment, NEMA, BIS, DIN and ANSI standards with special reference to packaging standards – IP34, 54, 57. Guidelines for enclosure, components and accessories: Grounding and shielding techniques, noise in electronic circuits, EMI/EMC, protection against EMI, ESD, Selection of cables, connectors, types of knobs, mechanical fixtures, PCB holders, clamps, control panel layout, ergonomics, types of gear boxes and drives. Printed circuit board design guidelines: general components layout scheme, PCB size and mechanical stress, design rules for analog and digital circuit PCB, single multilayer and SMD boards, artwork CAD packages, soldering techniques. PCB design: General layout considerations for analog and digital circuits. Power and ground traces routing for better decoupling, Recommendations for decoupling and bypassing, Layout considerations for mixed signal circuits, Component mounting considerations: Study of packages for Discrete devices and ICs, Calculation of parasitic elements in PCB, High-speed, EMI reduction methods in PCB designing, Cross talk, reflections and terminations, Transmission line effects in high-speed PCBs, Mounting in presence of vibration. SMD assemblies, testing of assembled PCBs. Product design and Development An overview of product development stages: Study of techno- commercial feasibility of specifications (Case study), R & D prototype, Assessment Of reliability (case study), Ergonomic and aesthetic design considerations, Pilot Production batch, QA testing of, products (verification of specifications), Packaging and storage. Estimating power supply requirement (power supply sizing), Study of power supply protection devices: Line filters, Transzorbs, MOVs, Fuses and Suppressor capacitors, Noise reduction, grounding, shielding and guarding techniques, Thermal management.
  6. 6. System performance and documentation: System simulation using virtual instrumentation, troubleshooting and documentation. Reliability and testing, Calibration methods and traceability standards. PCB documentation; Assembly and fabrication related documentation; Laminate grade, Drilling details, Plating, Bare board testing etc. Product documentation: Bill Of Materials, Production test specifications, Interconnection diagrams, Front and rear panel diagrams, Instruction. User manual, Service/Maintenance manual, Software documentation standards, and practices. Analog system design guidelines and application: single chip devices–instrumentation amplifiers AD524 or equivalent, log antilog amplifiers AD538 or equivalent, linear optoisolator HCNR201 or equivalent, V to I converters XTR110 or equivalent, signal conditioners AD594, 595 or equivalent. Digital system design guidelines and application: single chip devices – Phase Locked Loop CD4046 or equivalent, programmable counters ICM 7217 or equivalent, multidigit counters with display drivers 74C926 or equivalent, digital panel meters 7107 or equivalent, optoisolator MCT2E or equivalent, power drivers ULN2803 or equivalent, microcontroller MCS-51 or equivalent. Use of Logic analyzer, Digital Storage Oscilloscope (DSO), Mixed Signal Oscilloscope (MSO) and Digital Phosphor Oscilloscope (DPO) for hardware testing, Signal integrity issues, Use and limitations of different types of analyses- DC or Operating point analysis, AC analysis, Transient analysis, Monte- Carlo analysis. Software design methods: Top-down and Bottom-up approaches, ASM / FSM method of design, Decision to use assembly and / or high-level language for software development. Use of assemblers, compliers and cross compilers in developing product software, Software testing using simulators, in- circuit emulators. Environmental testing: Dry heat, Vibration, Temperature cycling, Bump, and Humidity tests as specified in IS standards, EMI/EMC compliance testing, Standardization required for UL and CE certification of industrial electronic products. GENERAL APPROACH Developed from real-world experience, the book outlines some general methods of electronic system designing and engineering and then handles individual issues. It gives more general topics first, followed by more specific topics. Examples are used frequently, but the material does not examine every possible electronic instrument and product. Main purpose is to provide an introduction to specific topics; the references point to in-depth materials on each topic. INTENDED READER The book covers the major portion of Electronic System Design related part of the Diploma / Bachelors/Masters Degree in Electronics & Telecommunication Engineering, Instrumentation Engineering, and Instrument Technology. It is also seen as being of value to students of MSc, BSc, Electronics, Electronic Science and Instrumentation Science. It can also be used by senior students and practicing engineers. BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE ASSUMED A basic knowledge of science and mathematics has been assumed. The science required is basic physical science. Key elements of science are developed in appropriate chapters. The mathematics required is just the ability to handle the numbers, integration, summation, interpret graphs and in a few instances, handle simple algebraic equation. It is assumed that the reader is acquainted with elementary differential equations and fundamental concepts of probability law. The material assumes a diverse background of fundamental courses in electrical engineering: circuit theory with Laplace transform, digital and analog electronic design, classical electromagnetics, and introductory computer science.
  7. 7. ACKNOWLEGMENTS My sincere thanks to Dr. A.D.Shaligram (Reader, Electronic Science Department, University of Pune), for giving the valuable time & guidance during the assessment & editing of this book, without which it would be very difficult to improve the contents of this book. I would like to thank Mr. B. P. Kulkarni, (Edutech Catalyst) for co-ordinating the activity excellently. I am also thankful to Mr . Sameer Sale for timely support and suggestions Thanks to Mr. Shailendra Bhamare for providing the database for the book. I would like to give my deep sense of gratitude to Prof. S.B.Dhonde and Mr. N.M.Shenvi for authoring the book. I give special thanks to Raju Mole for editing the entire book painstakingly, thanks for the good job and the staff of Chintan Publications- Jay , Chandrakant, Archana for their countless efforts and support for bringing this book with great care and innovative ideas. I am also thankful to Sir Pradeep Lunavat & Mr. Jeevan Potdar for their constant support & feedback. Thanks to all the students (friends) for encouraging me to publish this book. I would like to have suggestions for the improvement of the contents of this book from all the concerned teachers, Professors & Readers. Mr.Chintan Dewalia D.I.E. (Institute of Polytechnic Engg,Lonere, Dr.Babasaheb Ambedkar University) B. E. Instrumentation Engg. (Dr.D.Y.Patil College of Engg., Pune) Any book is the combination of the efforts of many people. We are grateful for the fine effort by the Chintan publications group: Jay, Archana. The contribution of Raju in careful proof reading and error corrections is acknowledged with thanks. Thanks to Chintan Publications for providing the comprehensive technical review. We are particularly grateful for Dr. Shaligram who reviewed the entire manuscript and helped us from his wealth of experience, technical insight, and writing skills. And finally, thanks to Mr. B.P.Kulkarni, who gave some honest and insightful criticism. His positive comments were important source of inspiration. We deeply acknowledge my editor Mr. Chintan Dewalia for his never-ending encouragement, moral support, & patience for the preparation of this book. We also thank our friends & colleagues who helped us writing of this book. This book would not have come into existence without the active support given to us from various sides. Any suggestions and comments to improve this book are much welcome by the different authors. Mr. Nitin M.Shenvi Bsc.(Physics) BSc. (Applied) Advanced Electronics P.G.D.C.A. MSc. (Electronic Science ) Prof. S.B.Dhonde B.E. Electronics and Telecommunications M.E. Electronics Assistant Professor in Electronic engg. Department, AISSMS Institute of Information Technology, Pune.
  8. 8. Editing: Mr.Chintan Dewalia D.I.E. (Institute of Polytechnic Engg,Lonere, Dr.Babasaheb Ambedkar University) B. E. Instrumentation Engg. (Dr.D.Y.Patil College of Engg., Pune) Assessment&Review: Dr.A.D.Shaligram BSc.,MSc. PhD (Reader, Electronic Science Department, University of Pune) Co-ordination: Mr. B.P.Kulkarni Edutech Catalyst B.E.Instrumentation Typesetting and Art: Mr. J. N. Dewalia List of Contributors: Mr. Rajaram Mole (A.I.S.S.M.S.Institute of Information technology, Pune) Mr.Shailendra Bhamare (Circuit Vision,Pune) Ms. Niraja Waranashiwar (B.E. Instrumentation and control) Ms. Tanisha Datta (M.Sc. Electronic science) Mr. Amit Mukharji (B.E.Instrumentation ) Mr. B.P.Kulkarni (B.E.Instrumentation) Mr. Sameer Sale (B.E. Instrumentation) Mr. Vishal Gade (B.E. Instrumentation) Mr.Jaywant Jagtap (B.E.Electronics) Mr. Rohit Bagad (B.E.Electronics) Mr.Manoj Patil ( MSc Electronics )
  9. 9. Dedicated to … the Students and Practicing Engineers
  10. 10. TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 BASIC CONCEPT OF INSTRUMENT DESIGN............................................................ {1-12} 1.1 Introduction ..............................................................................................................................1 1.1.1 History of electronic instrument systems...........................................................................2 1.2 Instrument specifications..........................................................................................................2 1.2.1 Application specifications..................................................................................................2 1.2.1.1 Functional requirements..............................................................................................3 1.2.2 Enclosure specifications.....................................................................................................3 1.2.3 Environmental specifications.............................................................................................3 1.2.4 Specifications of digital insulator tester.............................................................................4 1.3 Basics of standards used...........................................................................................................5 1.4 List of some standards used......................................................................................................6 1.5 Military, industrial, and consumer standards............................................................................7 1.5.1 Commercial standard equipments......................................................................................8 1.5.2 Industrial standards............................................................................................................8 1.5.3 NEMA standards and IP standards.....................................................................................8 1.5.4 CE standards ...................................................................................................................... 9 1.5.5 CAT standards.................................................................................................................... 9  Review questions ..........................................................................................................................11  Further reading..............................................................................................................................12  References ...................................................................................................................................12 2 ENCLOSURE DESIGN GUIDELINES .......................................................................... {13-66} 2.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................13 2.1.1 Necessity of enclosures....................................................................................................14 2.2 Indian standards for enclosure................................................................................................15 2.2.1 Index of protection (IOP).................................................................................................15 2.3 Selection of material for enclosure.........................................................................................17 2.3.1 Surface treatments............................................................................................................17 2.3.2 Finishing of aluminum enclosure.....................................................................................18 2.3.3 Finishing of mild steel .....................................................................................................18 2.4 Tests carried out on enclosure................................................................................................18 2.4.1 EMI and EMC ..................................................................................................................19 2.5 ESD-Electrostatic discharge...................................................................................................20 2.5.1 Generation of electrostatic charge....................................................................................20 2.5.2 Human body model..........................................................................................................21 2.5.3 ESD protection in equipment design................................................................................23
  11. 11. ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENT AND PRODUCT DESIGN2 2.5.4 ESD induced effects in electronic circuit.........................................................................24 2.5.5 ESD effect in electronic equipment .................................................................................24 2.5.6 Solution to ESD ...............................................................................................................24 2.6 Steps in designing...................................................................................................................24 2.6.1 Design guidelines to minimize ESD ................................................................................25 2.6.2 Enclosure design guidelines to minimize ESD ...............................................................25 2.6.3 Enclosure design .............................................................................................................26 2.6.4 Inputs, output cable treatment..........................................................................................27 2.6.5 Circuit design and board layout .......................................................................................29 2.6.6 Cable design guidelines to minimize ESD.......................................................................30 2.6.7 PCB design guideline to minimize ESD ..........................................................................30 2.6.8 Software and ESD protection...........................................................................................31 2.6.9 General firmware or software design guidelines .............................................................34 2.6.10 Firmware or software design guidelines to minimize ESD..............................................35 2.6.11 Shielding design guidelines to minimize ESD.................................................................36 2.6.12 Manufacturing, shipping and installation guidelines to minimize ESD...........................36 2.7 Grounding...............................................................................................................................36 2.7.1 Safety grounds .................................................................................................................37 2.7.2 Signals grounds................................................................................................................37 2.7.3 Low frequency analysis of common mode choke............................................................43 2.7.4 High frequency analysis of common mode choke...........................................................44 2.8 Shielding.................................................................................................................................45 2.8.1 Grounding or shielding ....................................................................................................45 2.8.2 Shielding functions ..........................................................................................................46 2.8.3 Characteristics and wave impedance ...............................................................................46 2.8.4 Shielding effectiveness ....................................................................................................47 2.8.5 Absorption loss ................................................................................................................48 2.8.6 Reflection loss..................................................................................................................49 2.9 Forced air circulation..............................................................................................................50 2.10 Safety specifications...............................................................................................................52 2.11 Aesthetics ...............................................................................................................................53 2.12 Ergonomics.............................................................................................................................54 2.13 Control panel layout ...............................................................................................................55 2.13.1 Types of control panels .............................................................................................56 2.13.2 Controller location.....................................................................................................57 2.13.3 Layout of the switches...............................................................................................58 2.13.4 Location and the fixing of control panel ...................................................................60  Summary.......................................................................................................................................61  Solved problems............................................................................................................................62
  12. 12. TABLE OF CONTENTS 3  Review questions ..........................................................................................................................65  Answers ........................................................................................................................................66  Further reading..............................................................................................................................66  References ...................................................................................................................................66 3 ELECTRONIC DESIGN GUIDELINES ........................................................................ {67-92} 3.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................67 3.2 Noise in electronic circuit.......................................................................................................67 3.3 Measurement and suppression of noise..................................................................................72 3.3.1 Measuring noise...............................................................................................................72 3.3.2 Sensitive inputs................................................................................................................72 3.3.3 Clamping suppressors......................................................................................................72 3.3.4 Guarding ..........................................................................................................................74 3.4 Power supply protection.........................................................................................................75 3.4.1 Graphic topology for protection network.........................................................................76 3.4.2 Fuses ...............................................................................................................................77 3.4.3 Metal oxide varistor (MOV).............................................................................................78 3.4.4 Line filters........................................................................................................................79 3.4.5 Transient voltage suppressor (Tranzorbs)........................................................................80 3.5 EMI (electromagnetic interference) .................................................................................81 3.5.1 Source of EMI..................................................................................................................82 3.5.2 Protection against EMI.....................................................................................................82 3.6 Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) ...................................................................................82 3.6.1 The methods to minimize the EMI and EMC effects.......................................................83  Summary ......................................................................................................................................86  Review questions .........................................................................................................................87  Answers ........................................................................................................................................91  Further reading..............................................................................................................................91  References.....................................................................................................................................91 4 PCB DESIGN GUIDELINES ......................................................................................... {93-124} 4.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................93 4.2 Layout.....................................................................................................................................94 4.2.1 Layout scale.....................................................................................................................94 4.2.2 Grid system......................................................................................................................94 4.2.3 Layout approaches ...........................................................................................................94 4.2.4 Layout procedure (rules)..................................................................................................95 4.2.5 Layout sketch...................................................................................................................95
  13. 13. ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENT AND PRODUCT DESIGN4 4.3 PCB sizes................................................................................................................................96 4.3.1 Mechanical stress.............................................................................................................96 4.3.2 Constraints of PCB sizes..................................................................................................96 4.3.3 Board types and sizes.......................................................................................................97 4.4 Layout- general rules and parameters.....................................................................................98 4.4.1 Resistance ........................................................................................................................98 4.4.2 Resistance and temperature..............................................................................................98 4.4.3 Capacitance......................................................................................................................99 4.4.4 Inductance......................................................................................................................101 4.4.5 The supply and ground conductors................................................................................103 4.4.6 Component placing and mounting.................................................................................104 4.4.7 Cooling requirements and package density ...................................................................104 4.5 Layout check ........................................................................................................................104 4.6 Design rules for digital circuit PCB .....................................................................................105 4.6.1 Reflections .....................................................................................................................105 4.6.2 Cross talk .......................................................................................................................107 4.6.3 Noise generation ............................................................................................................109 4.6.4 Remedies........................................................................................................................109 4.6.5 E.M. interference from pulse type E.M. fields...............................................................110 4.7 Design rules for analog circuit PCBs ...................................................................................111 4.7.1 Component placing........................................................................................................111 4.7.2 Signal conductors...........................................................................................................112 4.7.3 Miller effect ...................................................................................................................113 4.7.4 Multistage amplifiers with high power output stage......................................................113 4.7.4.1 Feed Back amplifiers or regulators with remote sensing lines..........................113 4.7.4.2 High gain DC amplifiers (thermal effect)..........................................................114 4.7.4.3 Precision differential amplifiers ........................................................................114 4.7.5 Supply and ground conductors.......................................................................................114 4.7.5.1 Ground-lines......................................................................................................114 4.7.5.2 Supply lines.......................................................................................................115 4.8 Multilayer boards .................................................................................................................115 4.8.1 Applications...................................................................................................................115 4.8.2 Construction of multilayer boards .................................................................................116 4.8.3 Design of multilayer boards...........................................................................................117 4.8.4.1 Problems that occur in multilayer design ................................................................118 4.8.5 Design considerations....................................................................................................118 4.8.6 Equipment......................................................................................................................118 4.8.7 Lamination process........................................................................................................118 4.8.8 Copper plating................................................................................................................118
  14. 14. TABLE OF CONTENTS 5 4.8.9 Multilayer artwork method ............................................................................................119 4.8.10 Tests for multilayer PCB ...............................................................................................120  Review questions ........................................................................................................................122  Answers ......................................................................................................................................123  Further reading............................................................................................................................123  References...................................................................................................................................123 5 AUTOMATION AND COMPUTERS IN PCB DESIGN & ASSEMBLY............... {125-142} 5.1 Introduction ..........................................................................................................................125 5.2 Automation and computers in PCB design ..........................................................................125 5.2.1 Steps in automation........................................................................................................126 5.2.2 Automated artwork draughting......................................................................................126 5.2.3 Equipments (in automated artwork)...............................................................................126 5.2.4 Advantages of automation .............................................................................................127 5.3 Computer aided design (CAD) .............................................................................................127 5.3.1 Initial data requirements ................................................................................................127 5.3.2 Data preparation.............................................................................................................127 5.3.3 Component placement ..................................................................................................128 5.3.4 Conductor routing..........................................................................................................128 5.3.5 Checking........................................................................................................................129 5.3.6 Advantages of CAD .......................................................................................................129 5.4 Design automation................................................................................................................129 5.4.1 Conductor routing..........................................................................................................129 5.4.2 Component or package placement.................................................................................129 5.4.3 Advantages of design automation..................................................................................129 5.5 Soldering techniques ............................................................................................................130 5.5.1 Iron soldering (better known as soldering gun) .............................................................130 5.5.2 Mass soldering...............................................................................................................131 5.5.3 Dip soldering..................................................................................................................131 5.5.4 Drag soldering................................................................................................................132 5.5.5 Wave soldering ..............................................................................................................132 5.5.6 Flux removal..................................................................................................................133 5.6 Component assembly and testing.........................................................................................133 5.6.1 Bare board testing (BBT) ...............................................................................................133 5.6.2 Component assembly techniques...................................................................................135 5.6.3 Solderability testing .......................................................................................................137 5.6.4 Automatic insertion of components...............................................................................138 5.7 Cable.....................................................................................................................................138 5.7.1 Types of cables ..............................................................................................................138
  15. 15. ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENT AND PRODUCT DESIGN6 5.7.2 Selection of cable...........................................................................................................139 5.7.3 Cable design guidelines .................................................................................................140 5.7.4 Co-axial cable versus shielded twisted pair...................................................................140 5.7.5 Ribbon cables.................................................................................................................140  Review questions ........................................................................................................................141  References...................................................................................................................................142 6 RELIABILITY............................................................................................................... {143-184} 6.1 Introduction ..........................................................................................................................143 6.2 Failure...................................................................................................................................143 6.2.1 Failure density................................................................................................................144 6.2.2 Causes of failure and Unreliability ................................................................................144 6.3 Reliability metrics ................................................................................................................144 6.3.1 Quality ...........................................................................................................................145 6.3.2 Maintainability...............................................................................................................145 6.3.3 Mean time to repair (MTTR)..........................................................................................147 6.3.4 Mean time between failures (MTBF) ............................................................................147 6.3.5 Mean time of failure (MTTF).........................................................................................148 6.3.6 MTTF in terms of reliability ..........................................................................................149 6.4 Concept of availability .........................................................................................................150 6.4.1 Types of availability ......................................................................................................150 6.4.2 Reliability and Availability............................................................................................150 6.5 Screening test (screeing of components)..............................................................................152 6.5.1 Bath tub curve................................................................................................................152 6.5.2 Use of bath tub curve.....................................................................................................154 6.5.3 Designing for higher reliability......................................................................................154 6.5.4 Reliability and Cost........................................................................................................154 6.5.5 Product law of reliability ..............................................................................................155 6.6 Environmental effects on reliability.....................................................................................156 6.7 Acceptance testing................................................................................................................157 6.8 Redundancy..........................................................................................................................158 6.8.1 Classification of redundancy..........................................................................................158 6.8.2 Cost of redundancy ........................................................................................................159 6.8.3 Screening test.................................................................................................................160 6.8.4 Failsafe system...............................................................................................................161 6.8.5 Trichotomous system....................................................................................................161  Summary.....................................................................................................................................163  Solved problems..........................................................................................................................165  Review questions ........................................................................................................................180
  16. 16. TABLE OF CONTENTS 7  Answers ......................................................................................................................................183  Further reading............................................................................................................................183  References...................................................................................................................................184 7 INSTRUMENT EVALUATION .................................................................................. {185-192} 7.1 Introduction ..........................................................................................................................185 7.2 Evaluation methodology.......................................................................................................185 7.3 System models and functions...............................................................................................186 7.3.1 The functional model.....................................................................................................186 7.3.2 Physical system model...................................................................................................187 7.3.3 Properties .......................................................................................................................187 7.4 Test conditions .....................................................................................................................187 7.5 Test programs.......................................................................................................................188 7.6 High voltage testing (HV testing).........................................................................................188 7.7 Performance evaluation........................................................................................................189 7.8 Evaluation results .................................................................................................................189 7.9 Bare board testing.................................................................................................................190 7.9.1 Testing technique...........................................................................................................190  Review questions ........................................................................................................................191  Further reading............................................................................................................................191  References...................................................................................................................................191 8 SYSTEM DESIGN......................................................................................................... {193-206} 8.1 Introduction ..........................................................................................................................193 8.1.1 Identifying the customer requirements ..........................................................................193 8.1.2 Judging the techno-commercial feasiblity of the product..............................................194 8.1.3 Desinging the product....................................................................................................194 8.1.4 Pilot production batch....................................................................................................195 8.1.5 Enviormental testing......................................................................................................195 8.1.6 Quality assurance testing ...............................................................................................195 8.1.7 Techno-commercial feasibility (a case study) ..............................................................196 8.2 Selection of sensor................................................................................................................197 8.3 Signal conditioning...............................................................................................................197 8.4 DAS designing......................................................................................................................198 8.4.1 The block diagram of DAS ............................................................................................198 8.4.2 Designing.......................................................................................................................199 8.4.3 Design a sample and hold circuit...................................................................................199 8.4.4 Design an ADC circuit ...................................................................................................200
  17. 17. ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENT AND PRODUCT DESIGN8 8.4.5 Other considerations ......................................................................................................200 8.5 Noise consideration of a typical system...............................................................................200 8.5.1 Different types of noise..................................................................................................201 8.5.2 Popcorn noise.................................................................................................................201 8.5.3 Flicker (1/F) noise..........................................................................................................201 8.5.4 Johnson noise.................................................................................................................201 8.5.5 Shot noise.......................................................................................................................202 8.5.6 Signal to noise ratio (SNR or S/N ratio) .........................................................................202 8.5.7 Noise budget ..................................................................................................................202  Review questions ........................................................................................................................205  Answers ......................................................................................................................................205  Further reading............................................................................................................................205  References...................................................................................................................................206 9 SAFETY ASPECTS, DOCUMENTATION AND QUALITY ASSURANCE ......... {207-224} 9.1 Introduction ..........................................................................................................................207 9.2 Safety aspects .......................................................................................................................207 9.2.1 Enclosures......................................................................................................................208 9.2.2 Fuses and Circuit breakers ............................................................................................208 9.2.3 Personal safety...............................................................................................................208 9.3 Documentation .....................................................................................................................209 9.3.1 Types of documentation.................................................................................................210 9.3.2 Methods of documentation ............................................................................................210 9.4 Quality assurance .................................................................................................................215 9.5 Quality management principles............................................................................................216 9.5.1 Customer focus ..............................................................................................................216 9.5.2 Leadership......................................................................................................................217 9.5.3 Involvement of peoples..................................................................................................217 9.5.4 Process approach............................................................................................................218 9.5.5 System approach to management...................................................................................218 9.5.6 Continual improvement .................................................................................................218 9.5.7 Factual approach to decision making.............................................................................219 9.5.8 Mutually beneficial supplier relationships.....................................................................219 9.5.9 The next step..................................................................................................................220  Review questions ........................................................................................................................223  Further reading............................................................................................................................223  References...................................................................................................................................224
  18. 18. TABLE OF CONTENTS 9 10 ANALOG SYSTEM DESIGN GUIDELINES AND APPLICATION ............... {225-264} 10.1 Analog design guidelines .....................................................................................................225 10.2 Instrumentation amplifiers (Precision instrumentation amplifiers) AD524..........................225 10.2.1 Features..........................................................................................................................225 10.2.2 Description.....................................................................................................................226 10.2.3 Characteristics................................................................................................................226 10.2.4 About maximum ratings ................................................................................................227 10.2.5 Theory of operation........................................................................................................228 10.2.6 Microprocessor based DAC ...........................................................................................233 10.3 Log and antilog amplifiers....................................................................................................234 10.3.1 Diode-connected log amplifier ......................................................................................236 10.3.2 Features..........................................................................................................................238 10.3.3 Description.....................................................................................................................238 10.3.4 Functional block diagram of AD538..............................................................................239 10.3.5 Multiplier or divider accuracy ......................................................................................239 10.3.6 Absolute maximum ratings............................................................................................240 10.3.7 Application of AD538....................................................................................................241 10.3.7.1 Basic multiplier ................................................................................................241 10.3.7.2 Divider..............................................................................................................244 10.3.7.3 Square root operation .......................................................................................245 10.4 Linear optoisolator (high-linearity analog optocouplers) – HCNR200 HCNR201...............246 10.4.1 Features..........................................................................................................................246 10.4.2 Description.....................................................................................................................246 10.4.3 Absolute maximum rating..............................................................................................247 10.4.4 Theory of operation........................................................................................................247 10.4.5 Circuit design flexibility ................................................................................................248 10.4.6 Applications...................................................................................................................251 10.4.6.1 Example application circuit..............................................................................251 10.5 V to I converters (precision voltage-to-current converters or transmitter) XTR 110 ............255 10.5.1 Features..........................................................................................................................255 10.5.2 Description.....................................................................................................................255 10.5.3 Absolute maximum ratings............................................................................................256 10.5.4 Basic circuit with external transistor..............................................................................256 10.5.5 Applications...................................................................................................................257 10.6 Signal conditioners...............................................................................................................258 10.6.1 Features..........................................................................................................................258 10.6.2 Description.....................................................................................................................259 10.6.3 Functional block diagram ..............................................................................................259
  19. 19. ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENT AND PRODUCT DESIGN10 10.6.4 Characteristics................................................................................................................260 10.6.5 Single and dual supply connections...............................................................................260 10.6.6 Setpoint controller..........................................................................................................262 10.6.7 Alarm circuit..................................................................................................................262 10.6.8 Celsius thermometer ......................................................................................................264 11 DIGITAL SYSTEM DESIGN GUIDELINES AND APPLICATION ............... {265-310} 11.1 Introduction ..........................................................................................................................265 11.2 Design system design guidelines..........................................................................................266 11.3 Phase locked loop (CMOS micro power phase locked loop) CD4046B types.....................273 11.3.1 General description of CD4046B...................................................................................273 11.3.2 VCO section...................................................................................................................273 11.3.3 Features..........................................................................................................................274 11.3.4 Maximum ratings, absolute maximum values ..............................................................275 11.3.5 Figure pin out CD4046 ..................................................................................................275 11.4 Applications..........................................................................................................................275 11.5 Programmable up/down counter with 4digit LED display ICM7217...................................277 11.5.1 Features..........................................................................................................................277 11.5.2 General description........................................................................................................277 11.5.3 Absolute maximum ratings............................................................................................278 11.5.4 Application of ICM7217................................................................................................279 11.5.4.1 3-level inputs....................................................................................................279 11.5.4.2 Fixed decimal point..........................................................................................280 11.5.4.3 Driving larger displays .....................................................................................280 11.5.4.4 LCD display interface.......................................................................................281 11.5.4.5 Thumbwheel switches and multiplexing..........................................................281 11.5.4.6 Unit counter with BCD output..........................................................................283 11.5.4.7 Inexpensive frequency counter or tachometer..................................................283 11.5.4.8 Tape recorder position indicator or controller..................................................284 11.5.4.9 Precision elapsed time or countdown timer......................................................285 11.5.4.10 8-digit up/down counter ...................................................................................286 11.5.4.11 Precision frequency counter or tachometer ......................................................286 11.5.4.12 Auto tare system...............................................................................................287 11.6 Multi digital counter with display drivers ............................................................................288 11.6.1 General description........................................................................................................290 11.6.2 Features..........................................................................................................................290 11.6.3 Absolute maximum ratings............................................................................................290 11.7 7107 General purpose 3½ digit LED panel meter ................................................................292 11.7.1 General description .......................................................................................................292
  20. 20. TABLE OF CONTENTS 11 11.7.2 Circuit description..........................................................................................................292 11.7.3 7100 Common mode EMI inductors..............................................................................295 11.8 Optoisolater ..........................................................................................................................296 11.8.1 General description........................................................................................................297 11.8.2 Applications...................................................................................................................297 11.8.3 Switching characteristics ...............................................................................................297 11.9 Power drivers (high voltage high current Darllington arrays)..............................................298 11.9.1 General description - ULN 2803 to 2824.......................................................................298 11.9.2 Features..........................................................................................................................298 119.3 Absolute maximum ratings............................................................................................299 11.10 Microcontroller MCS-51 ......................................................................................................300 11.10.1 General description.....................................................................................................300 11.10.2 CHMOS devices..........................................................................................................302 11.10.3 Memory organization in MCS-51 devices ..................................................................302 11.10.4 The MCS-51 instruction set ........................................................................................305 11.10.5 Memory organization..................................................................................................309  References...................................................................................................................................310 12 HARDWARE DESIGN .......................................................................................... {311-338} 12.1 Introduction ..........................................................................................................................311 12.2 Logic analyzer ......................................................................................................................313 12.3 Logic analyser architecture and Operation...........................................................................314 12.4 Oscilloscope .........................................................................................................................322 12.5 Monte Carlo analysis............................................................................................................330 12.6 Virtual instrument system.....................................................................................................333 12.6.1 Introduction....................................................................................................................333 12.6.2.1 History of instrumentation systems...................................................................334 12.6.3 The evolution of virtual instrumentation .......................................................................335 12.6.4 Creation of virtual instrumentation................................................................................336 12.6.5 Virtual instruments versus traditional instruments ........................................................336 12.6.5.1 Advantages ........................................................................................................337 12.6.5.2 Distributed applications ....................................................................................338  Review questions ........................................................................................................................338 13 SOFTWARE DESIGN AND TESTING MEHODS............................................. {339-360} 13.1 Introduction ..........................................................................................................................339 13.1.1 Phases of software design..............................................................................................340 13.1.1.1 Problem definition..........................................................................................341
  21. 21. ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENT AND PRODUCT DESIGN12 13.1.1.2 Software specification....................................................................................341 13.1.1.3 Software structure design ...............................................................................341 13.1.1.4 Program design...............................................................................................341 13.1.1.5 Program coding ..............................................................................................341 13.1.1.6 Testing and debugging ...................................................................................341 13.1.1.7 Documentation ...............................................................................................341 13.1.2 Goals of software design................................................................................................342 13.1.3 Problem definition .........................................................................................................342 13.1.4 Software structure diagram (SSD) .................................................................................342 13.1.4.1 Benefits of Software structure diagram (SSD) ...............................................343 13.1.4.2 Module design criteria....................................................................................343 13.1.5 Structured program design.............................................................................................343 13.1.5.1 Methods of program flow representation ......................................................343 13.1.6 Structured programs.......................................................................................................345 13.1.8 Testing and Debugging..................................................................................................348 13.1.9 Documentation ..............................................................................................................352 13.1.10 Software design guidelines ............................................................................................353 13.2 Simulators.............................................................................................................................353  Review questions ........................................................................................................................359  Further readings ..........................................................................................................................359  References...................................................................................................................................359  ABBRIVIATIONS....................................................................................................................361  NOTATIONS.............................................................................................................................363  APPENDIX I .............................................................................................................................365  APPENDIX II............................................................................................................................367  (Note: For additional articles in EIPD, please visit our website www.chinttanpublicaions.in , or to get sms, type “class-branch-college” and send to 8888101055) . 

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