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Extended administration: The case of smart cities

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Extended administration is a recent concept developed as an extension of extended enterprise to design a virtual organization encompassing the value chain from every angles. Considering the smart cities as a research field, we develop an approach of modeling the smartness of the city as an ecosystem. We assume that the best in position to carry out the role of system architect is the public actor. We propose a framework for a methodology and point out the relevant methodologies and competencies that could be the basics of P.A conceived as an extend administration.

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Extended administration: The case of smart cities

  1. 1. SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE AS A MEANS TO BUILD AN EXTENDED ADMINISTRATION : THE CASE OF SMART CITIES Prof. Claude Rochet Claude.rochet@univ-amu.fr IMPGT AMU CERGAM Lugano, June 5 2014 08/06/2014 Claude Rochet - Florence Pinot 1
  2. 2. Extended public administration: What are we speaking about? 6/8/2014 2Claude Rochet - Florence Pinot Input Process Output P.A. legally speaking Obje ctives Outcome Outcome Outcome Extended value chain Look simple? In real life outcomes are not aligned and are embedded in interconnected and overlapping heterogeneous systems This needs complex system mapping and understanding intertwined causes and effects relationships.
  3. 3. A smart is the result of multiple systemic equilibria 6/8/2014 No smart cities are alike… … but common building blocks may be identified… … and complex system architecture may define rules of integration
  4. 4. What makes a city smart? 08/06/2014 4Claude Rochet - Florence Pinot Not adding « smarties »: smart grids, smart anything…. … nor greenwashing, digital washing… .. But a city where one can live a good life
  5. 5. It is systemic coherence • Why the garden cities movement failed? • Thinking the city either as a palliative of the dysfunctional city … • … or as an ideal city • But NOT as a living ecosystem 6/8/2014 5
  6. 6. Our basic assumptions • A smart city is not putting lipstick on a bulldog • A smart city is an ecosystem that includes the city and its periphery • A smart city is a city where one may live and work in: o Economic wealth creation o Social life o Common weal • A resilient architecture: o A living system based on cooperation between public authorities, private corp., citizens o A properly designed architecture made with off-the-shelf components o Systemic resilience is leveraged using IT • A sea change in firms business models and P.A. 6/8/2014 Mission MUST 6
  7. 7. Let’s set up some definitions: • Architecture, system architecture – The design of how basic functions interact to give birth to a whole that is more than the sum of the parts • Ecosystem: – A system with autopoeitic properties, that means being able to reproduce itself • Entropy, negentropy – Interactions within the system make it losing its energy and increasing disorder (entropy), life (human life in the case of a city) may import energy (negative entropy or negentropy) • Emergence: – Many properties of a system do not exist as a basic function or a physical state, but are the result of the interactions of these functions: eg. “ageing well”, “happy life” is the result of both physical and human systems. • Resilience: – The property of a system to withstand a shock and to recover with stronger ability • Green IT and IT for green – IT is both a solution to coordination problems that may help saving energy (eg. Smart grids) but fabrication of IT produce a lot of pollutants and its functioning produce a lot of heat and waste that need to be recycled. 6/8/2014 Mission MUST 7
  8. 8. A rationale for extended P.A. as a system architect: • Strategic analysis • Inventorying the building blocks • Integrating the ecosystem 6/8/2014 8Claude Rochet - Florence Pinot
  9. 9. A rationale for extended P.A. as a system architect: 1- Strategic analysis 08/06/2014 9 Why building a city & what are the strategic goals? Who are the stakeholders? What are the generic functions to be performed by a smart city? With which organs? Technical devices, software… With which smart people? Conception, metamodel framework, steering Subsystems and processes People and tools Why designing this ecosystem? Who will live in the city? What are its activities? How the city will be fed? Where the city is located ? (context) What are the functions to be performed to reach the goals and how do they interact? With which organs and ressources? How people will interact with the artifacts? How civic life will organize?
  10. 10. A rationale for extended P.A. as a system architect: 2- Inventorying the “building blocks” 08/06/2014 Claude Rochet - Florence Pinot 10 Issues • Defining “smartness” and “sustainability” • Wealth creation • Finance and taxes • Controlling pollution • Equilibrium center – periphery • Migrations • Poverty • Education • Health • Crime • Segregation (social and spatial) • Leisure • Quality of life • How people interact with people and artifacts? Resources • Work • Budgeting • Transportation • Feeding • Caring • Protecting • Securing • Housing policy • Education • Leisure • Social benefits • Health care system • Migrations control Functions • Energy • Water • Data • Digital Systems • Traditions • Sociology • Technologies as enablers and enacters • Culture and traditions • Institutions and public organizations • Process modeling • Software • Tech providers • Open innovation Capabilities • The New Business Models: • Public • Private • Project management • Institutional arrangements • The day to day decision making process in an evolutionary perspective • Empowerment • Direct democracy • Government • Governance • Project management • Social innovation • The state as a system engineer • Mastering ULM
  11. 11. 08/06/2014 Claude Rochet - Florence Pinot 11 A rationale for extended P.A. as a system architect 3- Integration of the building blocks Soft domains Hard domains SMART city TransportationIndustry WorkHousing Sanitation EnergyWater Waste recycling Public services Health care Civic life Leisure Education Social integration GovernmentEconomy Institutional scaffolding Social life Periphery Commercial exchanges Food City Territory
  12. 12. Concepts and tools of systemic integration Smart territoryIndustry Smart cities Social intelligence (Dedijer) Valuing as well material and immaterial assets (Milieu innovateur, Aydalot) Coopetitive innovation ecosystem Integrating smart city and smart territory
  13. 13. Combining top down and bottom up Smart territory Milieu innovateur Functional integration Self governing capabilities • Understanding the context and defining a strategic vision • Declining it in combining hard and soft domains. • Toward an integrative and integrated extended administration Smart administation
  14. 14. A tool to design and monitor the ecosystem: ULM (Urban Lifecycle Management©) 08/06/2014 Claude Rochet - Florence Pinot 14 Maturityofecosystemicproperties Development From history, social intelligence, idea, to framework Integrating off-the- shelves innovation Functional integration Technical integration Designing the engineering ecosystem Project managemen t City 1.0 Gathering data and understanding ecosystem evolution Evaluating, correcting and upgrading Sustainable City 1.0 Integrating innovation City 2.0 Risk of collapse Unlike a product or a company, a city never dies, even if not sustainable (except in a case of collapse) Losing ecosystemic properties Permanent improvement Financial governance
  15. 15. Preliminary conclusion: designing and governing smart cities is a political problem • Let’s refer to Vincent and Elinor Ostrom: o No one best way for all levels of action: Polycentric governance o Uncertainty, conflicts, bargaining are at the heart of administrative life o Politics : “ the practical processes through which communities act to identify and solve their common problems and to realize shared opportunities” o A good P.A tend to reach self-governance o P.A. has to integrate complex system science • Smart cities => smart government and political life • A view of P.A coherent with system architecture! 6/8/2014 15
  16. 16. 08/06/2014 Common good Vivere politico Economic good Private good Smart government is the keystone of smart cities and was formalized at the Renaissance A strong correlation between top down… … and bottom up dynamics Common good
  17. 17. Extended P.A as an integration of disciplines 6/8/2014 17 Levelsofcomplexity City Functions Citizens Complex systems engineering Extended P.A Political philosophy Complex system modeling Interaction and synergies Social networks and interactions Overlaps and interactions Common good as an emergence and structuring finality Ends and means of wealth creation Vivere politico Polycentric Govce