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Seminar on smart cities roskilde university 2015

  1. Claude Rochet Urban lifecycle management : A research program for smart government of smart cities Prof. Claude Rochet 1 Roskilde Universitet 21/12/2015
  2. What means “Smart”= presence of a learning feedback loop 2 Action Effect feedback from 0,0001sec. to a génération Sensors Data TreatmentInterpretation Usage Decision Technologies Social sciences Iconomy
  3. When speaking of smart cities, what does it means? Efficient urbanization Inclusive urbanization Sustainable urbanization 3 Complex System Architecture: What are the key functions and their (un) desirable interactions? System Integration: Granting people the same capacity to interact and have control over the urban system Ecosystem modeling: Autopoiesis, resilience, scalability, innovation coordination
  4. The smart city and the temptation of the totalitarian utopia • Utopia= A perfect city in a perfect world 1896 1517 1623 1898 Are IT the new totalitarian utopia?
  5. What a smart city can’t be • A collection of « smarties » • A techno centric city • A city without past • A deterministic system Smart city => Smart territory
  6. Modeling a smart city: an imperfect city in an imperfect world • A dead end: The temptation of the ideal city : XX century garden cities, techno-centric approaches Masdar, Songdo… • A city is a living system 6
  7. What modelling means? The Lego game: • The construction is based on standardized building blocks • No two figures are alike • These blocks are structured in patterns: recurrent problems + improved solutions + rules of integration using semantic + syntax • The final result in an integration which is specific to needs and specifications 7 Definition: A pattern is a stable and reusable configuration, including physical elements in relation with their environment, …. Which solves a problem integrating on a non conflicting way all the constraints ... Is a system of forces
  8. Exemple: Multi functions mail box Recevoir son courrier Poster tout type de courrier sans se déplacer Trajet < 10’ AR sans véhicule à moteur Recevoir un recommandé en son absence Améliorer la rapidité des tournées et l’exactitude de la distribution BAL multifonctions Tournée 21/12/2015
  9. Claude Rochet A rationale for a smart city a system architect: A three steps approach • Strategic analysis • Inventorying the functions • Integrating the ecosystem • Strategic alignment 9 Must do May do How to do it? Vision
  10. A rationale for a smart city a system architect: 1- Strategic analysis 10 Why building a city & what are the strategic goals? Who are the stakeholders? What are the generic functions to be performed by a smart city? With which organs? Technical devices, software… With which smart people? Conception, metamodel framework, steering Subsystems and processes People and tools Why designing this ecosystem? Who will live in the city? What are its activities? How the city will be fed? Where the city is located ? (context) What are the functions to be performed to reach the goals and how do they interact? With which organs and ressources? How people will interact with the artifacts? How civic life will organize?
  11. Claude Rochet A rationale for a smart city a system architect: 2- Inventorying the “building blocks” 11/09/2014 12 Issues • Defining “smartness” and “sustainability” • Wealth creation • Finance and taxes • Controlling pollution • Equilibrium center – periphery • Migrations • Poverty • Education • Health • Crime • Segregation (social and spatial) • Leisure • Quality of life • How people interact with people and artifacts? • The New Business Models: • Public • Private • Project management • Institutional arrangements • The day to day decision making process in an evolutionary perspective • Empowerment • Direct democracy • Government • Governance • Project management • Social innovation • The state as a system engineer • Mastering ULM Functions • Work • Budgeting • Transportation • Feeding • Caring • Protecting • Securing • Housing policy • Education • Leisure • Social benefits • Health care system • Migrations control Resources • Energy • Water • Data • Digital Systems • Traditions • Sociology • Technologies as enablers and enacters • Culture and traditions • Institutions and public organizations • Process modeling • Software • Tech providers • Open innovation Capabilities
  12. Claude Rochet 11/09/2014 13 A rationale for a smart city a system architect: 3- Integration of the building blocks Soft domains Hard domains SMART city TransportationIndustry WorkHousing Sanitation EnergyWater Waste recycling Public services Health care Civic life Leisure Education Social integration GovernmentEconomy Institutional scaffolding Social life Periphery City Territory Commercial exchanges Food
  13. Problems in smart cities ecosystem modeling Hard systems may be models thanks to the laws of physics (conservative systems) Soft systems can’t be modeled with the laws of physics (dissaptive systems) - Social siences - Big data - Multi-agents modeling The key of the success is here… … while business is there System integration, a key competency to be developed
  14. How does integration works? Conceiving organic autopoeitic systems NO! An evolutionary process Integration process is bottom-up… … based on ordinary interactions  We must understand how ordinary people behave  Q: Is there an architect with a master plan?
  15. Bottom up patterns integration: social intelligence A smart city as an autopoetic ecosystem must be designed as an imperfect city in an imperfect world able to reframe itself according to the evolution of its environment. Integration is not made once and for all but is a permanent process all along the urban lifecycle. A smart integration is made according the ends of the city and must be citizen centered and not techno centered. smartphone Wired phone Wifi Lifi A human connected everywhere
  16. Integrating patterns bottom-up from basic to complex functions Démultiplier les fonctions d’un objet urbain par les usages Optimiser la polyvalence des ressources énergie et données Rendre le déplacement sûr, ludique et pertinent Fortifier le lien social par les nouvelles connexions Tout bâti et tout service doit être conçu de manière modulaire et évolutive pour gérer les cycles d’innovation Mobilier urbain multifonction Consommer juste BAL multifonction Contrôle commande de l’énergie électrique Traitement de la donnée Recréer de la proximité grâce à l’Internet Intégrer les cycles d’innovation The case of Functionnal patterns Techno organic patterns
  17. In / out Urban ecosystem : three perimeters: first the city itself where the synergies and interactions are the stronger and have the most “eco” properties. Second the periphery: one may refer here to the model defined by Thünen representing the city with a succession of concentric rings going from the highest increasing return activities at the center city to decreasing return activities at the periphery. third is the external environment with witch the city exchanges Ville: synergies les plus fortes Ville: synergies les plus fortes Ville: synergies les plus fortes Ville: synergies les plus fortes Ville: synergies les plus fortes Services à forte V.A Activités primaires à faible V.A Rendements croissants décroissants
  18. Defining metrics to measure the global balance of the ecosystem • Integrating imported pollution, energy waste…. produced by a dysfunctional ecosystem • Is the city really green?
  19. The research program
  20. Claude Rochet A tool to design and monitor the ecosystem: ULM (Urban Lifecycle Management©) 21 Maturityofecosystemicproperties Development From history, social intelligence, idea, to framework Integrating off-the- shelves innovation Functional integration Technical integration Designing the engineering ecosystem Project management City 1.0 Gathering data and understanding ecosystem evolution Evaluating, correcting and upgrading Sustainable City 1.0 Integrating innovation City 2.0 Risk of collapse Losing ecosystemic properties Permanent improvement Financial governance Socio political cycle Innovation cycle New City
  21. The integration of disciplines Social intelligence & social capital Complex systems architecture Complex projects management Analytics, big data & software code Direct democracy PLM integration Managing resilience
  22. Datafication 23 Legacy: How the city has evolved in the past •Hard data: statistics •Soft data: human memory => understanding the technological trajectory and social capital Present and future: Understanding how the city is evolving •Observatory for hard and soft data •Big data Understanding the present behavior => Evaluating the scalability and resilience, improving social capital
  23. Requisites for a successful integration • Common standards for data => Chief Data Officers • Common standards for building: BIM • Vivere politico as permanent integrative process
  24. Integrating PLM 25 Innovation within building blocks has different speeds With smart networks innovation cycles are connected: (before, no): a permanent challenge The city dweller is the decider in last resort of the impact of any innovation on the city life: Good/Bad, useful/unusual, improve/kill
  25. Power to technology or to citizens? Correlations => Induction Deduction =>Hypotheses Where is the brain? Existing knowledge
  26. Resilience: avoiding the trap of the self contained city and preventing collapse Thresholds System out of orderNormal Specific and foreseen Unforeseen catastrophes Source : Christian Morel The city as an HRO
  27. Improving social capital, bottom-up vs. top-down: The case of Christchurch (NZ) 28
  28. Citizen produce ideas
  29. Producing and structuring ideas
  30. Integration of disciplines 31 Levelsofcomplexity City Functions Citizens Complex systems engineering Extended P.A Political philosophy Complex system modeling Interaction and synergies Social networks and interactions Overlaps and interactions Common good as an emergence and structuring finality Ends and means of wealth creation Civic implication Polycentric Govce
  31. The research and training program • Integrating and upgrading into smart cities issues the basics of complex systems architecture as a basic baggage for SC stake holders • Learning by doing: Applied research to the building of pilot projects • Convergence of disciplines: engineering, social sciences, urban sociology, system architecture, political philosophy, complex decision making 32
  32. Merci! 33 Thank you!