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Are Libraries Sustainable in a World of Free, Networked, Digital Information?

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Presentació a càrrec de Lluís Anglada, director de Ciència Oberta al CSUC, duta a terme dins el panell "Sustainable Libraries: Open Science Perspective" del congrés ANKOS Link celebrat del 2 al 5 d'abril a Antalya (Turquia) .

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Are Libraries Sustainable in a World of Free, Networked, Digital Information?

  1. 1. Are libraries sustainable in a world of free, networked, digital information? Lluís Anglada (Open Science. Consorci de Serveis Universitaris de Catalunya - CSUC) Panel SUSTAINABILITY OF OPEN ACCESS AND OPEN SCIENCE ANKOS Link 2-5 April 2019, Antalya
  2. 2. Summary 1. The big change • information tends to be digital, networked and free 2. Open Science • what is exactly this, and their implications 3. Open Science activities • a big opportunity for libraries 4. OS activities and their sustainability • the Open Access case 5. OS and libraries • are libraries sustainable?
  3. 3. Summary 1. The big change • information tends to be digital, networked and free 2. Open Science 3. Open Science activities 4. OS activities and their sustainability 5. OS and libraries
  4. 4. Sustainability is a quite complex issue  Sustainability = TUD + CE + PAV • TUD = technologically up to date • CE = cost - effectiveness • PAV = perception of added value  Had libraries been sustainable in the past? Obviously yes • For being technologically up to date? • For being cost – effectiveness? • NO, for the value added to information People's decisions are motivated by perceptions (and not only by the reality)
  5. 5. Nor all the changes has the same consequences  Print landscape • Information is scarce • User time is abundant • To access = to go where the information is (the library) • Individual production • The reproduction has cost • One user each time • One media each time • Immutable • Preservation = avoiding disasters  Digital + networked + free information landscape  Information is abundant  User time is scarce  You don't need to walk for access to the information (is the information that comes)  Intellectual production is more and more social  The cost of copies tends to zero  Multiuser  Multimedia  Volatile  Preservation is a challenge  ...
  6. 6. The big change is not from print to electronic The big change is from info scarcity to info abundancy
  7. 7. Summary 1. The big change 2. Open Science • what is exactly this, and their implications 3. Open Science activities 4. OS activities and their sustainability 5. OS and libraries
  8. 8. The key words: transition and disruption Disruptive innovation … refers to an innovation that; • creates a new market and value network and (eventually) • disrupts an existing market and value network, (and) • displacing established market leading firms, products, and alliances. Clayton M. Christensen
  9. 9. The basic steps of the research cycle are the same, but research tools and methods are changing radically  New (technological) tools are changing how to do and how to disseminate science results • ‘Science 2.0’ as a holistic approach, therefore, is much more than only one of its features (such as Open Access) and represents a paradigm shift in the modus operandi of research and science impacting the entire scientific process.  Under the new paradigm, science is: • Open • Collaborative • Oriented toward society
  10. 10. Economic, politic & scientific motivations  For future (European) welfare: • A change of economic model is needed • From industrial society to a knowledge-based society  For responding to the great social challenges of our time: • Science should be for and with society (involvement and citizen participation) • For transparency and control (accountability): utility, reliability and replicability of the search  Because open science makes better science • Knowledge is a public good and what is publicly funded (mostly) must be public • Open Science makes better science (faster, cheaper, reusable) • Open to machines: Big data, TDM, interoperability
  11. 11. Summary 1. The big change 2. Open Science 3. Open Science activities • a big opportunity for libraries 4. OS activities and their sustainability 5. OS and libraries
  12. 12. National plans to Open Science  Finlàndia • Ministeri d’Educació I Cultura • Open science and research leads to surprising discoveries and creative insights: Open science and research roadmap 2014–2017, 2014 – http://julkaisut.valtioneuvosto.fi/handle/10024/75210  Eslovènia • Govern de la República d’Eslovènia • National strategy of open access to scientific publications and research data in Slovenia 2015-2020, setembre 2015 – http://www.vlada.si/en/media_room/government_press_releases/press_release/article/national_strategy_of_open_access_to_scientific_publicatio ns_and_research_data_55387/  Portugal • Resolução do Conselho de Ministros n.º 21/2016 • Princípios orientadores para a implementação de uma Política Nacional de Ciência Aberta, abril 2016 – https://dre.pt/pesquisa/-/search/74094659/details/maximized  Països Baixos • Plataforma d’institucions • National Plan Open Science, febrer 2017 – https://www.openscience.nl/binaries/content/assets/subsites-evenementen/open- science/national_plan_open_science_the_netherlands_february_2017_en_.pdf  França, • Ministère de l’Enseignement supérieur, de la Recherche et de l'Innovation, MESRI) • National plan for open science, juliol 2018 – https://libereurope.eu/wp-content/uploads/2018/07/SO_A4_2018_05-EN_print.pdf  Sèrbia • Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia (MESTD) • Open Science Platform, juliol 2018 – https://www.openaire.eu/public-documents?id=911&task=document.viewdoc
  13. 13. Netherland  … there are now new opportunities to exchange results of scientific research - publications and research data - and even scientific methods and practices.  The transition towards an open science system requires ambition, investments in people and resources, and alertness to risks, because they too exist.  The key ambitions [of the Plan] are: • Full open access to publications in 2020 – Continue the Dutch approach for all Dutch research organisations and research areas whilst recognising their differences and similarities. • To make research data optimally suited for reuse – To set clear and agreed technical and policy-related preconditions to facilitate reuse of research data, including provision of the necessary expertise and support. • Recognition and rewards – To examine together how open science can be an element of the evaluation and reward system for researchers, research groups and research proposals. • To promote and support – To establish a ‘clearing house’ for all information regarding all available research support.
  14. 14. TUBITAK Open Science Policy Scope: • This Policy covers publications (peer reviewed articles, etc.) and research data that has been produced by researchers who were fully or partially supported by TUBITAK … Principles 1. Depositing by default mandatory (green) 2. Accepting delayed OA 3. Publish in OA recommended (gold) 4. Research data management plan (DMP) recommended 5. Publish O articles with O data 6. Justifying when data are not O 7. DMP templates and guidelines will be provided 8. Depositing e- copies of scientific studies 9. O publishing will be taken in the evaluation 10. OS will be promoted 11. This policy will be monitored
  15. 15. OS: main areas of activities in national plans OS general OA O Data Evaluation Skills  Finlandia x x x  Slovenia x x x  Portugal x x x  Nederland x x x x  France x x x x  Serbia x x x  Turkey x x x x • OS activities are (today) highly concentrated around OA and open acces and open data • and libraries are playing an important role here, supporting OA & OD • But OS is much broader than that, • and libraries have a lot of new opportunities here.
  16. 16. Open Science Policy Platform Recommendations (+LERU + LIBER) Recommendations grouped into priorities / key areas Rewards and Incentives Research Indicators and Next- Generation Metrics Future of Scholarly Communication (= OA) European Open Science Cloud FAIR Data Research Integrity Skills and Education Citizen Science OS is full of opportunities for libraries, is our big opportunity
  17. 17. Summary 1. The big change 2. Open Science 3. Open Science activities 4. OS activities and their sustainability • the Open Access case 5. OS and libraries
  18. 18. OA as testing bench for OS OA is a good testing bench for OS, and OA, for the moment, • is costing more • has not a clear alternative business model • libraries are playing an important role in their implementation • Will only succeed if cooperation and common infrastructures increases We are living a moment of transition (we are in the middle of a big change) • More cost • Changes in the ‘status quo’ • Alternatives are not easy to built
  19. 19. OA (for the moment) is representing more cost • Universities of Catalonia have been monitoring OA cost in 2018 • cost = APCs + participation in OA consortia like SCOAP3 • Is quite difficult to do, but our findings are important: • the amount represents an overcharge of 20.17% with respect to the total paid in journal subscriptions
  20. 20. When we talk of journals, at what journals are we referring?
  21. 21. Changes in the status quo 1/2 pay for read pay x publish 32,60 30,03 20,40 23,06 10,58 16,53 7,18 6,31 5,07 6,15 6,42 4,87 8,08 6,88 3,90 1,77 1,41 0,87 4,36 3,53 0,00 0,00 100,00 100,00 • The old model (pay x read) is based in the previous expend. • The new model (pay x publish) is based on research activity. • The transition from old to the new model can significate savings or profits • (so, losers and winners) • [1% = 86.000€]
  22. 22. Changes in the status quo 2/2 Number of Pay for publish articles WoS 2017 apc 1500 apc 2000 apc 1000 1.684 2.526.000 € 3.368.000 € 1.684.000 € 1.293 1.939.500 € 2.586.000 € 1.293.000 € 927 1.390.500 € 1.854.000 € 927.000 € 354 531.000 € 708.000 € 354.000 € 345 517.500 € 690.000 € 345.000 € 273 409.500 € 546.000 € 273.000 € 386 579.000 € 772.000 € 386.000 € 99 148.500 € 198.000 € 99.000 € 49 73.500 € 98.000 € 49.000 € 198 297.000 € 396.000 € 198.000 € 5.608 8.412.000 € 11.216.000 € 5.608.000 € • We all are expecting to pay less in an OA landscape, • but this depends on the APC price • and APCs prices seem to increase annually much more than subscriptions prices • and more, APCs for journals included in WoS is unique that we have to pay for? • But, perhaps we will have to pay more in a new scenario
  23. 23. OA alternative models are increasing in diversity (and confusion) • In the beginning, it was easy: green and gold • Today • gray • green (post-prints) • pale green (preprints) • bronze • gold pure (diamond) • gold-APC • hybrid
  24. 24. All these mentioned difficulties (and other ones that we can add) are making OA impossible? no, because of the traditional scholarly communication model is perceived as technologically obsolete, economically costly, and functionally poor  today is recognized that the transition to the OA and the maintenance of the new OA model will require • support • money • consensus
  25. 25. Summary 1. The big change 2. Open Science 3. Open Science activities 4. OS activities and their sustainability 5. OS and libraries • are libraries sustainable?
  26. 26. Why libraries has been sustainable in the past?  Remember, before the ‘big change’, information was a scarce good  Libraries had been sustainable because libraries have been • technologically up to date, • economically quite cost-effective and • perceived as adding value  Libraries created a FAIR ecosystem for information where print books and journals were • Findable (catalogs and databases), • Accessible (library organization and ILL), • Interoperable (standardized) and • Reusable (preserved)  Libraries did act as a multi-institutional organization and cooperation has been our ‘big tool’
  27. 27. Will libraries be sustainable in the future?  The value of the ‘book’ is disappearing in a world of free, digital and networked information because the information is not scarce anymore • The perception about libraries is changing very fast and they perceived value can also disappear  Being technologically up to date and economically cost-effective requires every time more to scale up to have a ‘big size’ • Libraries can built a ‘big size’ back office if we increase the cooperation and common infrastructures  To being perceived as an institution that adds value we need clearly build services around research • To help in the creation of a FAIR ecosystem for the information  Libraries must act as a multi-institutional organization and share the vision that cooperation is our ‘big tool’
  28. 28. “… we need to recognize that … what should be about is not saving the library. Rather, … it should be about providing a product or service that can help students and faculty to more effectively, conveniently, and affordably do a job they’ve been trying to do in their scholarly lives.”  (David W. Lewis) In this so changing times….
  29. 29. lluis.anglada@csuc.cat @lluisanglada http://www.csuc.cat Many thanks questions? Çok teşekkürler sorular? lluis.anglada@csuc. cat @lluisanglada http://www.csuc.cat http://www.elprofesionaldelainformacion.com/contenidos/2014/nov/07.pdf