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Cellular respiration updated

  1. Cellular Respiration
  2. Cellular Respiration Photosynthesis CO2 + H2O + energy  sugars + O2 Cell Respiration Sugars + O2  CO2 + H2O + energy
  3. Cellular Respiration
  4. • You breathe air into your lungs. The oxygen in the air you breathe is absorbed into the blood in the capillaries that surround your lungs and then transported via the pulmonary vein into the left side of your heart. • The oxygenated blood is pumped out of the left side of your heart and into the arteries that deliver it throughout your body to your muscles. • When the oxygenated blood reaches your muscles the oxygen is absorbed into your muscle cells. . At the same time that your blood is providing oxygen to your muscles, it is also removing carbon dioxide • The de-oxygenated and carbon dioxide rich blood is pumped out of the right side of your heart to your lungs via your pulmonary artery. Once in the lungs, your blood releases the carbon dioxide into the air that you breathe out and absorbs more oxygen from the air that you breathe in, and the entire process begins again. Glucose + O2 → CO2 + H2O (l) + ATP
  5. Cellular Respiration Generate ATP
  6. How Do cells make ATP • Fermentation—NO oxygen • Anaerobic Respiration—no oxygen • Aerobic Respiration—OXYGEN – Reverse process of photosynthesis – Takes place in mitochondria – Harvest potential energy in food, use it to make ATP • ALL organisms do some sort of ATP generation C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + 36 ATP
  7. Aerobic Respiration • Redox reaction – Oxidize glucose and reduce oxygen • Carried out in 3 steps 1. Glycolysis—breaking a 6-carbon glucose into 2 3-carbon pyruvate molecules, use NADH to catch electrons 2. Krebs Cycle—oxidize pyruvate, release C02 ,and FADH2 3. Electron Transport Chain—transfers electrons from NADH and FADH2 down a gradient using ATP synthase to make ATP
  8. Aerobic Respiration
  9. Mitochondria • Glycolysis takes place in cell’s cytoplasm • Rest of the reactions take place in mitochondria – Cristae—folds to increase surface area of inner membrane – Intermembrane compartment—area between 2 membranes • Electron transport chains – Matrix—space within the inner membrane • Krebs Cycle
  10. Structure of Mitochondrion
  11. Glycolysis • Can be done with or without oxygen • Done in cell’s cytoplasm • 10 Steps – First 5 steps “prepare” glucose – Last 5 steps get the energy out • Produces 2 molecules of ATP – Substrate level phosphorylation – Does NOT need proton gradient or ATP synthase (like chemiosmotic phosphorylation)
  12. First 5 Steps
  13. Last 5 Steps
  14. Stages of Cellular Respiration Glycoysis
  15. Formation of Acetyl CoA • Before we can start Krebs Cycle have to convert pyruvate • In mitochondrial matrix • Pyruvate loses CO2 molecule • NADH reduced to NADH • Acetyl CoA = 2 Carbon molecule
  16. Acetyl CoA
  17. Krebs Cycle • Occurs mitochondria matrix • Cycle turns 2 times for every glucose molecule 1. Acetyl CoA loses coenzyme = 2 Carbon molecule 2. 2-Carbon + oxaloacetate = citrate 3. CO2 released 4. Electrons transferred to NADH and FADH2 5. ATP made by substrate level phosphorylation
  18. Outputs of Krebs Cycle • 4 CO2 • 2 ATP • 6 NADH • 2 FADH2 • Heat • Intermediate molecules in cycle can be used to make other organic molecules, amino acids, fats
  19. Cellular Respiration: NADH
  20. Cellular Respiration: NADH Electron Transport Chain _0media_bio/bioflix/bioflix.htm?cc7r espiration Just first subsection: overview
  21. (Krebs Cycle)
  22. Electron Transport Chain • Takes place across the inner mitochondrial membrane • Uses /electrons from NADH and FADH2 • NADH and FADH2 donate electrons to enzymes in membrane to create H+ gradient • In AEROBIC respiration final electron acceptor is O2 – O2 combines with H+ to make water • ATP finally made by chemiosmotic phosphorylation – Protons through ATP synthase to turn ADP to ATP
  23. Electron Transport Chain
  24. Stages of Cellular Respiration: Chemiosmosis
  25. Final Outputs of Respiration Aerobic Respiration Per 1 Glucose Molecule • 10 NADH • 2 FADH2 • 36 ATP
  26. Alternate Energy Pathways Anaerobic Respiration • No oxygen • Different terminal electron acceptor – NO3-, SO4-, CH4 • Amount of ATP produced depends on terminal electron acceptor • Fermentation • No oxygen • Only uses glycolysis • Only generates 2 ATP • Can use sugar, alcoholic, lactic acid
  27. Different Types of Fermentation Pyruvic acid CO2 + acetaldehyde + NADH ethanol + NAD+
  28. Photosynthesis v. Cellular Respiration Photosynthesis Cellular Respiration Energy source Light Food Energy released No, stored Yes Reactants H2O, CO2 Glucose, O2 Products Glucose, O2 CO2, H2O
  29. Connections Among Metabolic Pathways

Notes de l'éditeur

  1. Image from OLI
  2. The Body in Motion Souces. Provided by: PDHPEdomain. Located at: License: CC BY-SA: Attribution-ShareAlike
  3. Image from OLI
  4. “Aerobic pathways” by Boumphreyfr. Licensed under a CC-BY-SA Unported license.
  5. “Mitochondrion” by Kelvinsong. Available under a CC-0 1.0 Universal Public Domain Dedication.
  6. "Animal mitochondrion diagram en (edit)" by Mariana Ruiz Villarreal LadyofHats - the diagram i made myself using adobe illustrator. as a source for the information i used the diagrams found here:[1], [2], [3], [4], [5], [6] and [7].. Licensed under Public Domain via Wikimedia Commons -
  7. Image from OLI
  8. Image from Boundless
  9. Image from Boundless
  10. Concepts of Biology. Authored by: OpenStax College. Provided by: Rice University. Located at: License: CC BY: Attribution
  11. “Pyruvate Decarboxylation Steps” by LHcheM. Licensed under a CC-BY-SA 3.0 Unported license.
  12. Image from Boundless
  13. Image from Boundless
  14. “Citric Acid Cycle” by Narayanese, WikiUserPedia, YassineMrabet, TotoBaggins. Licensed under a CC-BY-SA 3.0 Unported license.
  15. Image from Boundless
  16. Image from Boundless
  17. Summary of Energy Yield During Cellular Respiration. Authored by: Becky Polk-Pohlman. Provided by: Wisconsin's Technical Colleges. Located at: License: CC BY-NC-SA: Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike
  18. Images and caption from Boundless
  19. Photosynthesis v. Cellular Respiration Chart. Authored by: Paula Rodgers. Provided by: NOVA. Located at: License: CC BY: Attribution
  20. Image from Boundless