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Place and manner of articulation ms espina

phones, phonemes, and allophones

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Place and manner of articulation ms espina

  1. 1. Topic 3: Phones, Phonemes, and Allophones  Place of Articulation  Manner of Articulation  Definitions of phones and phonemes  Vowel Nasalization in English as an Illustration of Allophones  Allophones of /t/ Discussant: Irish Claire Espiña
  2. 2. What is required for sound production?
  3. 3. Sound production requires two things: Power/energy source Vibrating element
  5. 5. ARTICULATION – It is the act of expressing something in a coherent verbal form, or an aspect of pronunciation involving the articulatory organs
  6. 6.  Articulatory Organs: o Tongue o Lips o Teeth o Alveolar ridge (gums behind upper teeth) o Soft Palate o Hard Palate o Velum/uvula
  7. 7. Place of Articulation • Classification of Consonant Sounds by Place of Articulation
  8. 8. BILABIAL –Both lips come together. • Consonant Sounds Produced: [b] [p] [m] [w] boy people man wet
  9. 9. LABIODENTAL: –Lower lip and upper teeth make contact. • Consonant Sounds Produced: [v] [f] velvet fence
  10. 10. ALVEOLAR: – The tongue makes contact with the alveolar ridge. • Consonant Sounds Produced: [t] [d] [s] [z] [n] [l] top deer soap zip nap lap
  11. 11. DENTALS/ INTERDENTALS –Made by placing the tongue against or between the teeth. • Consonant Sounds Produced: [th] [ð] eth [θ] theta that this loathe bathe
  12. 12. PALATAL: –Made when the center of the tongue approaches the palate.
  13. 13.  Voiceless Sounds: [tʃ]= /ch/ [ʃ] = /sh/ cherry chalk ship shoe  Voiced Sound: [g] rouge judge George  Palatal Glide: [j] = yod you cube onion yet
  14. 14. VELAR –Made when the back of the tongue touches the velum. • Consonant Sounds Produced: [k] [g] [ŋ]=engma kid go rolling sung
  15. 15. GLOTTAL –Primary constriction is at the glottis. • Consonant Sounds Produced: [h] hat harp hunt
  16. 16. MANNER OF ARTICULATION • Classification of Consonants by Manner of Articulation
  17. 17. STOPS –Also called the “Plosives” – produced by complete closure of the lips and subsequent release [p] [b] pen bed
  18. 18. FRICATIVES –Produced by almost blocking the airstream [f] [v] [ð] [s] [θ] [z] [ʃ] [ʒ] [h] fish those shoe casual
  19. 19. AFFRICATES –Can be describe as “STOPS” + “FRICATIVES” • Consonant Sounds Produced: ch=[tʃ] j=[dʒ] church chapter lunch germ edge journal
  20. 20. NASALS – Produced when the vellum is lowered and the airstream is allowed to flow out through the nose • Consonant Sounds Produced: [m] [n] [ŋ] morning knitting name
  21. 21. LIQUIDS & GLIDES –Both terms describe articulations that are mid-way between true consonants and vowels [l] [r] life like red rest
  22. 22. What’s the difference between phones and phonemes?
  23. 23. PHONES vs. PHONEMES o PHONES – Any distinct speech sound or gesture, regardless of whether the exact sound is critical to the meanings of words. – Transcribed within brackets [m] [n] oPHONEMES – A minimal unit that serves to distinguish between word meanings – Transcribed within slashes /m/ /n/
  24. 24. PHONES Example: A. pin B. spin The change never affects the meaning of a word in English so they are classified as phones and not phonemes. ASPIRATED [pʰ] UN-ASPIRATED [pʰIn] remains as [spIn]
  25. 25. PHONEMES Consider the following sentence: (1) /ðə kæt ɪz ɒn ðə mæt/ the cat is on the mat If we change the first consonant of the noun cat and insert /h/ instead we get the sentence: (2) /ðə hæt ɪz ɒn ðə mæt/ the hat is on the mat. which does not have the same meaning. The two strings of sound [kæt], and [hæt] differ only because of their initial sound and thus are potentially two different words. The substitution of one sound for another changes the meaning completely.
  26. 26. PHONEMES Now if we say: (3) a. the cat is on the mat b. the mat is on the cat  Is there a difference in sound?  Is there a difference in meaning? Obviously the set of sounds uttered in (3a) and (3b) is identical. So the difference lies in the order in which these sounds appear: /k/ and /m/ permute in (3b). We see that the order of appearance can alter meaning. In (3a) and (3b) the relationship between the cat and the mat is inverted. In our examples we produce in a string of sounds. These segments are called phonemes.
  27. 27. Vowel Nasalization in English as an Illustration of Allophones English Vowels
  28. 28. Vowel Nasalization in English as an Illustration of Allophones  Vowels become nasalized when followed by nasals. WHAT ARE THESE NASALS? [m] [n] [ŋ]
  29. 29. WORDS be [bi] bead [bid] bean [bĩn] lay [le] lace [les] lame [lẽm] baa [bæ] bad [bæd] bang [bæ ̃ŋ] Vowel Nasalization in English as an Illustration of Allophones Oral vowels Non nasal consonants Nasalized vowels Nasal consonants  Oral vowels occur before non nasal consonants.  Nasalized vowels occur before nasal consonants.
  30. 30.  Whether you speak or hear the vowel in bean with or without nasalization does not matter. bean pronounced [bĩn] and bean pronounced [bin] would convey the same word, because nasalization is an inessential difference insofar as what the word actually is, we tend to be unaware of it.  Contrast this situation with a change in vowel height. For example, the words bead and bad. The [i] in bead and the [æ] in bad are sounds from different phonemes. Substitute one for another and you get a different word (or no word). Vowel Nasalization in English as an Illustration of Allophones
  33. 33. NOTE:
  34. 34. ALLOPHONES OF /T/  Allophone is a phonetic variant of a phoneme. Aspirated [tʰ] Phonemes /t/ Un-aspirated [t] Allophones Flap[ɾ]  The aspirated [tʰ] occurs at the beginning of a word or a stressed syllable tick [tʰɪk]  The un-aspirated [t] occurs directly before or after /s/ stick [stɪk]  The flap [ɾ] occurs between a stressed vowel and an unstressed vowel. bitter [bɪɾər]
  35. 35. Examples:  letter = [let̬ər]  get in = [ɡet̬ ɪn]  thirty = [θɜrt̬i]  flutter = [flʌt̬ər]  stop = [stap]  stew = [stu]  step = [step]  steer = [stɪr]  top = [tʰap]  tan = [tʰæn]  tip = [tʰɪp]  ten = [tʰen]
  36. 36. https://allthingslinguistic.Com/post/143133795554/how-to-remember-the- ipa-consonant-chart https://pronuncian.Com/when-t-doesnt-sound-like-t/ https://www.Slideshare.Net/internationalcatlady/phonetics-the-sounds-of- language-26216641 https://calleteach.Wordpress.Com/2010/01/10/sounds-of-english-nasals- liquids-glides/ https://www.Youtube.Com/watch?V=69dwhug2f7s http://www.Antimoon.Com/how/flap-t.Htm https://www.Wordnik.Com/words/aspirate https://myefe.Com/transcription-pronunciation https://www.Bing.Com/search?Q=phone+phonetics&form=qsre6 REFERENCES
  37. 37. Let’s PLAY This zebra has been bought by the zoo.
  38. 38. Let’s PLAY She is very interested in environmental issues.
  39. 39. Let’s PLAY Can I leave my backpack at reception?
  40. 40. Let’s PLAY Red is my favorite color.
  41. 41. Let’s PLAY The runner crossed the finishing line.