1. SEMINAR ON
“3D PRINTING IN CONSTRUCTION FIELD “
Dr Mithun BM
Chandan N Swaraj
1. 3D Printing
2. History of 3D Printing
3. General Principles of 3D Printing
5. Scope of 3D Printing in Construction Industry
6. Technology of 3d printing in
7. Examples of 3D printed buildings
8. Advantages of 3d printing in Construction Industry
9. Disadvantages of 3d printing in
10. Effects of 3D printing in Construction Management
11. Future of 3D Printing
3. 1.Introduction of 3D PRINTING
• 3D printing is the construction of a three-dimensional
object from a CAD model or a digital 3D model.
• The term "3D printing" can refer to a variety of processes in which material is deposited, joined or
solidified under computer control to create a three-dimensional object
• With material being added together (such as plastics, liquids or powder grains being fused
together), typically layer by layer.
4. • 1980: First patent by Japanese Dr Kodama Rapid
• 1984: Stereolithography by French engineers then abandoned
• 1986: Stereolithography taken up by Charles Hull
• 1988: First SLA-1 machine
• 1988: First SLS machine by DTM Inc then buy by 3D system
• 1990: First EOS Stereos system
• 1992: FDM patent to Stratasys
• 1993: Solidscape was founded
• 1995: Z Corporation obtained an exclusive license from the MIT
• 1999: Engineered organs bring new advances to medicine
• 2000: a 3D printed working kidney is created
• 2000: MCP Technologies (an established vacuum casting OEM) introduced the SLM technology
• 2005: Z Corp.launched Spectrum Z510. It was the first
high-definition color 3D Printer on the market.
2.The History of 3D Printing
5. • 2006:An open source project is initiated (Reprap)
• 2008: The first 3D printed prosthetic leg
• 2009: FDM patents in the public domain
• 2009: Sculpteo is created
• 2010: Urbee is the first 3D printed prototype car
• 2011: Cornell University began to build 3D food printer.
• 2012: The first prosthetic jaw is printed and implanted
• 2013: “3D printing” in Obama’s State of the Union speech
• 2015: Carbon 3D issues their revolutionary ultra-fast CLIP 3D printing machine
• 2016: Daniel Kelly’s lab announces being able to 3D print bone
• 2018: The first family moves into a 3D printed house
• 2019: 3D Printing companies started in civil field.
6. 3.General principles
• 3D printable models may be created with a (CAD) package, via a 3D scanner, or by a plain digital camera and
• Errors in 3D printable models can be identified and corrected before printing.
• The manual modeling process of preparing geometric data for 3D computer graphics is similar to plastic arts such as
• 3D scanning is a process of collecting digital data on the shape and appearance of a real object, creating a
digital model based on it.
• CAD models can be saved in the stereolithography file format (STL)
• Before printing a 3D model from an STLfile, it must
first be examined for errors.
• Most CAD applications produce errors in output STL
• A step in the STL generation known as "repair"
fixes such problems in the original model.
• Once completed, the STL file needs to be processed
by a piece of software called a "slicer," which converts
the model into a series of thin layers
• This G-code file can then be printed with 3D printing
• Printer resolution describes layer thickness and X–Y
resolution in dots per inch (dpi) or micrometers (µm).
• Typical layer thickness is around 100 μ
although some machines can print layers as thin as 16 μ
• X–Y resolution is comparable to that of laser
• Though the printer-produced resolution is sufficient for many applications, greater accuracy can be
achieved by printing a slightly oversized version of the desired object in standard resolution and then
removing material using a higher- resolution subtractive process.
• ABS, allow the surface finish to be smoothed and improved using chemical vapor processes based on acetone
or similar solvents.
9. • In the construction industry, 3D printing can be used to create
construction components or to 'print' entire buildings.
• The recent emergence of building information modelling (BIM) in
particular may facilitate greater use of 3D printing.
• Construction 3D printing may allow, faster and more accurate construction of complex or
bespoke items as well as lowering labor costs and producing less waste.
• 3d printing itself is not a new technology, harking back to the 1980s.
10. • 3D printers often use liquid metals, plastics, cement and a
variety of other materials which then cool or dry to form a
• For 3D printing in construction, a CAD or BIM
programme ‘tells’the 3D printer what it needs to print, and
the machines then begin layering out levels of material
according to the plan.
• Concrete 3D printing in the construction industry
helps save time, effort and material compared to
traditional construction methods.
• It’s important to note, though, that 3D printers are not
yet capable of creating a fully functional house.
• Only the frame and walls of the house are built;
other elements, such as windows, electricity, or
plumbing, need to be installed separately.
• But concrete 3D printers can also be used to print
bridges, benches, or simply outdoor decorations.
• 3D printers are not unlike your desktop inkjet printer.
• Asoftware program ‘tells’the printer about the
dimensions of the end product.
12. 5.Exp 3D PRINTING BULDINGS
DUBAI M U N I CIPALITY O F F I C E BUILDING , U A E
⦁ In December 2021, 3D printing robot firm Apis Cor announced
it had completed the world’s largest individual 3D printed
⦁ The office block, built in the UAE, is 9.5 metres in height
and has a floor area of 640 m2.
⦁ Apis Cor’s 3D printer was moved around the open-air site by a
crane as it built different parts of the structure.
13. OFFICE OF THE FUTURE, UAE
⦁ Another impressive 3D printed building in the UAE, the
Office of the Future is a unique structure which is currently
home (appropriately enough) to the emirate’s Future
⦁ For this building, the printing itself was done offsite, with
all the parts printed in 17 days.
⦁ Workers installed the whole building in just 48 hours.
14. 3D PRINTED HOUSES BY WINSUN, CHINA
3D printers to construct human dwellings.
• The firm has created a handful of home designs,
including a small apartment block.
• The design’s users can quickly and cheaply print the parts before installing
• The firm reckons that one of their five-story apartment
blocks could cost as little as $161,000 to print.
15. L&T CONSTRUCTION 3D PRINTS HOUSE, KANCHIPURAM
⦁ It is the first ever in India.
⦁ L&T Construction, the construction arm of
Larsen & Toubro, has 3D printed a ground
plus one 700-sq-ft house with reinforcement
for the first time in India at Kanchipuram.
16. 3D PRINTED HOUSE INAUGURATED AT IIT-MADRAS
⦁ Tvasta Manufacturing Solutions, a start-up founded by alumni of IIT Madras,
has made what it says is India's first 3D-printed house.
⦁ The team printed the structure using a specialty concrete that it had developed
to print large-scale 3D structures in short periods.
⦁ They say the mix is based on ordinary Portland cement,
which has a lower water-cement ratio.
⦁ Though concrete is the primary material typically used in construction projects,
it cannot be recycled and requires a lot of energy to mix and transport.
⦁ So, the team's effort to use technology to print the house using ordinary
Portland cement can “overcome the pitfalls of conventional construction.”
17. Reduced Material Costs Concrete Pour – Pile of
• Another improvement is a considerable reduction of
• 3D printers use the exact amount of concrete needed for the
wall, floor, or whatever it is that you want to build. Builders
and GCs don’t have to order in bulk because they’ll know
exactly how much material they need.
• Not only is this a more sustainable, environmentally
friendly way to build, but it also results in reduced costs for
ADVANTAGES OF 3D PRINTING
• One of the biggest benefits that 3D printers have presented to
construction workers is a reduction in injuries in the field.
• Considering that building with concrete is difficult-even
dangerous-this is a welcome improvement.
18. Quicker Construction
• This is where concrete 3D printers truly set
themselves apart from traditional construction
• Where a project may sometimes take weeks–or
months-to complete, 3D printers can often finish a
project in a matter of hours or days.
• An entire house was once constructed in 24 hours!
• This allows contractors to move onto other projects
sooner…and with more orders filled, more money is
brought in for the contractor.
• Using a 3D printer also allows construction companies to
work in markets that might have otherwise been
inaccessible to them before.
• And for new construction companies, having a 3D printer
on hand could set them apart from companies that have
been around for a few decades and are resistant to change.
• Similarly, traditional and established construction
companies could utilize 3D printers to make sure they
remain relevant in the market.
• Essentially, 3D printers can be used as a means to enter
a new market but also to give an already established
company a competitive edge.
19. Improved Form
• 3D printers are renowned for their ability to create
seemingly odd and atypical design structures.
• Now construction companies can utilize that to offer
their clients unique buildings designed entirely for them.
• Essentially, being able to create unique architectural
designs for a client makes the construction company more
desirable to certain clients.
• Overall, the use of 3D printers costs less than
traditional construction techniques and processes.
• With the reduction of injuries, time, and material cost,
companies will see a dramatic increase in their profits.
• And while some workers will probably have to be let go,
others will remain, since someone still needs to be able
to put all of the pieces together.
• While testing concrete during the early stages of
construction will continue to be necessary, 3D printers have
been found to contribute to the durability of the structural
• This is due in part to how the materials are made and the
manner in which they are assembled.
20. DISADVANTAGES OF 3D PRINTING IN
• Reduced employee numbers in the industry, since the 3D
printer does most of the work
• A limited number of materials can be used, since the
same printer might not be able to print the required
• Transportation – getting the printers for large in situ
components to and from the site
• Storage of the printer on site
• Higher risks – any errors in the digital model can result in
problematic issues on site during the printing/construction
• Conventional product manufacturing companies and plant
renting companies could suffer as their products are no
• Additional time may be required on site if the
components are created in situ.
• Weather already has the potential to slow
construction progress, but issues with Mother Nature
may be amplified with 3D printing.
• The weather, environmental factors and more are all
conditions that could make 3D printing in
commercial construction more of a bust than a boom.
• Furthermore, quality control in construction can
already be a tricky matter.
• If not constantly monitored and overseen by real
humans, quality in 3D printing could end up being a
very expensive mess.
• One drawback that might not immediately come to mind is the
regulation of 3D printing.
• While regulation in 3D printing has made the news cycle recently, it still
hasn’t fully impacted the construction industry.
• However, there’s also the liability that may come with using printers
rather than humans to perform certain construction tasks.
• Currently, there’s much uncertainty in this aspect of 3D printing in
• Until laws and regulations are clearly defined, it’s unlikely that 3D
printing will make too much of a mark in the construction sector.
23. Improved Project Planning
• Creating this model by hand wastes precious
time that could be used to begin the project.
• For those just getting started as general
contractors, or even looking to start a new
construction business, 3D printing technology
may provide a competitive edge.
• With a 3D printer, the construction manager
simply plugs in the dimensions and details of
the project rendering and it automatically comes
• By creating a digital model, the construction
manager can show the client a rendering faster
and make changes to the model as needed in a
quicker time frame.
24. The automatic and accurate 3D printing process provides several benefits.
3D printing helps save time, money, and waste on construction sites, there are challenges to implementing this
strategy on every jobsite.
There are also no building codes yet for 3D printing, which makes it hard for construction managers.
A3D printer made for construction can cost between $20,000
With the increasing efficiency and capabilities of these machines, 3D printers may become more
intertwined with construction job sites in the future.
New companies are developing 3D printers, coming up with
innovative solutions to change the construction industry.
There are already families moving into 3D printed houses
It is likely that the technology will start to be seen more and
more in the industry in the coming years.
But, for the right kind of project, it seems reasonable to expect 3D printers will join the arsenal of tools
available to builders.
3D printed houses, offices, shops or other structures are
often impressive to look at.
Many people remain culturally attached to buildings made from bricks.
•The buildings are designed by computer and are build by computer.
•3D printing in architecture was restricted to the production of models and
small scale models.
•And it is now possible to print 3d houses.
•We can say that it is a revolution in the world of civil engineering when this
product will be conquered investors and construction companies.
•While being environmental friendly, it would provide a good quality of work
and reduces costs.