• EIA DIRECTIVE
• HISTORY OF EIA
• AIMS OF EIA
• PROJECTS UNDERGOING EIA
• PROCESS OF EIA
→INITIAL ENVIRONMENT EXAMINATION
→MONITORING AND AUDIT EVALUATION
• USES OF EIA
Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a process which
ensures that all environmental matters are taken into account
quite early in the project at planning process itself.
It takes into consideration not only technical and economic
considerations but also, traditional aspects like impact on
local people, biodiversity etc.
5. EIA is intended to prevent or minimize potentially
adverse environmental impacts and enhance the
overall quality of a project. The main benefits
and advantages of EIA are:
Lower project costs in the long-term
Increased project acceptance
Improved project design
6. The EIA Directive requires projects likely to
have significant effects on the Environment
by virtue of their nature, size or location to
undergo an environmental assessment before
the competent authority in question grants
The EIA Directive defines a project as the
execution of construction works or of other
installations or schemes,
other interventions in the natural
surroundings and landscape including those
involving the extraction of mineral resources.
THE EIA DIRECTIVE
7. The EIA should identify, describe and assess
the direct and indirect effects of a project on
the following factors:
Fauna and flora
Soil, Water & Air
Climate and the landscape
Interaction between all above factors
EIA therefore should have a very strong social
8. Started in 1976-77, when Planning Commission asked
Department of Science & Technology to examine River
Valley Projects from environmental angle
Till 1994, Environmental Clearance from Central
Government was an administrative decision which lacked
January 1994, Union Ministry of Environment &
Forests, GOI under Environment (Protection) Act 1986,
promulgated EIA notification making Environment
clearance mandatory for expansion or modernization of
any activity or for setting up new projects listed in
Schedule one of the notification, which have been
amended more than 12 times.
HISTORY OF EIA IN INDIA
12. Environment Impact Assessment
EIA Clearance required
Total EIA clearance is required for 32 categories of developmental
works broadly categorized into following industrial sectors:
Thermal power plant
Infrastructure (Road, highway, ports, harbour, airports,
Industries including very small electroplating or foundry units)
Certain activities permissible under Coastal Regulation Zone Act 1991,
also require similar clearance
13. Flow chart representing the process of EIA
EIA Audit and
• It would be time consuming and a waste of
resources for all proposed projects and activities
to undergo EIA
• Not all development projects require an EIA, as
some projects may not pose an environmental
• Screening is the process used to determine
whether a proposed project or activity requires
an EIA and, if so, what level of environmental
review is necessary.
15. Prepare the work plan for the initial
environmental examination (IEE)
Project type on project
Get specific IAA
Project scale above the
Project located in a critical
IAA funding, or any other
Screening Flow Chart
Will the project be funded
by an IAA?
16. Initial Environment Examination
Initial environmental examination (IEE) is
intended as a low-cost environmental evaluation
that makes use of information already available.
It boost up the process of EIA and lead the
matter to further assistance.
17. IEE in the Overall EIA Process
Identifies projects that
typically contain potential
Initial Environmental Examination
1. Identifies potential significant
environmental issues associated
with a project
2. Grades effects and identifies actual
Significant Environmental Issues
3. Resolves simple SEIs
4. Recommends further action for
resolving outstanding SEIs
Full-Scale EIA or Other
Resolves any remaining
significant environmental issues
A process of interaction between government
agencies and project proponents
– spatial and temporal boundaries for the EIA
– important issues and concern
– information necessary for decision making
– significant effects and factors to be considered
– Establishes terms for reference of full scale
terms of IEE
Terms of Reference
2. Impact Issues
3. Work Plan
When/Who/How of Task Completion
20. Full-Scale EIA Overview
Input = Outstanding SEIs from IEE(initial
– Qualitative/quantitative analysis of SEI
– SEI impact significance
Mitigation development phase:
– Select appropriate mitigation measures
– Residual impact significance
22. Decision Making
• The challenge of making the final decision on
implementing a project is observed.
• Decision are taken at all stages during the EIA
process and the outcome will be based on these
• If a large scale project falls under the jurisdiction
of countries with comparable national EIA
procedures,it should be feasible to be more
ambitious in organising EIA Transboundary..
In legislation there is a often demand for
environmental reporting when treating
permits to activities with large EIA.
This stage involves improvement and
mitigational measures to put forward EIA.
It also involves elements of assessing
risks and hazard management.
24. Audit and Evaluation
• This is the final stage of EIA.
• Audit consists opinions and corrections of
the report which are submitted in front of
decision making committee.
• It also reveals that whether EIA is
necessary or not for the report submitted,if
necessary what are the measures taken in
order to overcome the drawbacks and
25. Uses of EIA
Systematic evaluation of a eco friendly
Risk and hazard assessment.
Monitoring of impact and advice.
assessment) and permit.
EIA is an important tool in assuring that
projects and plans will not give adverse
impact on the environment.
The use of EIA has developed
throughout the world and may different
EIA process thus could not only prevent
costs due to environmental aspects but also
prevent possible public opinions and protest
against a project.
• Arya,D.S:1991,Trends of urbanisation and
its impact on environment.
•Arya,D.S.and Abbasi,S.A:1992 A new
software package as aid in Environmental
Management proceedings of ENVIPRO-