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Hypothesis

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Research Methodology
topic:- Hypothesis
subtopics:-
meaning and definition
utility of hypothesis
sources of hypothesis
testing of hypothesis
kinds of hypothesis
characteristics of hypothesis
formulation
remedies

Publié dans : Marketing
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Hypothesis

  1. 1. HYPOTHESES Made by:- CHANDAN MISHRA
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION 2 Hypothesis is a proposition that is put to test in research. A proposition talks about ‘how the world is’ whereas hypothesis speaks about ‘how the world is expected to be’.
  3. 3. MEANING AND DEFINITION Kerlinger states “A hypothesis is a statement of the relationship between two or more variables which is tested during the research process”. Rummel and Balline : “A hypothesis is a statement capable of being tested and thereby verified or rejected”. 3
  4. 4. FOUNDATION OF HYPOTHESIS 4
  5. 5. 5 SR No. Observation Proposition Hypothesis 1 Private schools provide better quality education. Private schools are provide better quality education. Private schools impart better quality education than government schools. 2 Children with Divorce parents have emotional problems. Divorce leads to emotional problems in young children. Children whose parents have divorced are more likely to show emotional problems than the children whose parents are not divorced. EXAMPLES
  6. 6. UTILITY OF HYPOTHESIS 6
  7. 7. ““Hypothesis is very essential in scientific research.” 77
  8. 8. UTILITY OF HYPOTHESIS • The hypothesis decides the direction of the study. It helps the researcher to decide what type of data is necessary and what information is irrelevant. In the absence of the hypothesis, our research would be direction-less. • The hypothesis decides the main ‘focus’ of the study, so that there would not be any deviation from the main path. • The well defined hypothesis gives a temporary answer to the research problem; hence it helps the advancement of knowledge. • The clear definition of hypothesis saves time, energy and money. Hence the study becomes a focussed study. 8
  9. 9. SOURCES OF HYPOTHESIS 9
  10. 10. 10
  11. 11. TESTING OF HYPOTHESIS 11
  12. 12. TESTING OF HYPOTHESIS 12 The process of testing hypotheses embodies the major part of the research process. It consists of operationalization of the concepts, construction of data gathering tools, collection of data, and statistical analysis of data and drawing inferences from the results. Tests of significance are applied. It observed facts are inconsistent with the hypotheses, they are rejected. If the facts confirm the hypotheses, then the latter are tenable.
  13. 13. KINDS OF HYPOTHESIS (i) Null hypothesis:- A Null hypothesis is a statement that there exists no difference between parameter and the statistic, being compared to it. 13
  14. 14. 14 Null: If one plant is fed club soda for one month and another plant is fed plain water, there will be no difference in growth between the two plants.
  15. 15. II. Alternative hypothesis:- An Alternative hypothesis is opposite of null hypothesis. 15
  16. 16. 16 Alternative: If one plant is fed club soda for one month and another plant is fed plain water, the plant that is fed club soda will grow better than the plant that is fed plain water.
  17. 17. CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD HYPOTHESIS 17
  18. 18. CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD HYPOTHESIS 18 •The hypothesis should state the relationship between the two variable. •The hypothesis should be specific, clear, definite and non- ambiguous. •The hypothesis should be stated as far as possible in most simple language so that anyone can easily understand. •It should be goal oriented. •The hypothesis should related to “body of theory” every hypothesis must have strong foundation of theory.
  19. 19. DIFFICULTIES IN FORMULATION OF HYPOTHESIS 19
  20. 20. DIFFICULTIES IN FORMULATION OF HYPOTHESIS 20
  21. 21. REMEDIES FOR REMOVING DIFFICULTIES 21
  22. 22. REMEDIES FOR REMOVING DIFFICULTIES 22 i) Complete and perfect knowledge of the principles of sociology has to be acquired. ii) From the very beginning the hypothesis should be in brief and Timely. iii) It should grow as the research proceeds further, means hypothesis should become elaborate as one proceeds in the field of research.
  23. 23. THANK YOU

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