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Effect of Polypropylene Fiber In Concrete

As A part of my minor project , Me and my Colleagues had worked on how the polypropylene fiber will affect the various properties of concrete viz. Compressive strength, Split Tensile Strength , Workability and so on. So I would I like To share My Work With All Of You and the test result We obtained during the testing Procedure . Thank U.

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Effect of Polypropylene Fiber In Concrete

  2. 2. GURU NANAK DEV ENGINEERING COLLEGE, LUDHIANA CERTIFICATE We hereby certify that the work which is being presented in the minor project report entitled “EFFECT OF POLYPROPYLENE FIBER IN CONCRETE” by CHARANJIV SINGH, GAURAV KUMAR, DEVANSH SHRIVASTAV, AYUSH, in partial fulfillment of requirements for the award of degree of B.Tech. (Civil) submitted in the Department of Civil Engineering at GURU NANAK DEV ENGINEERING COLLEGE, LUDHIANA under PUNJAB TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY, KAPURTHALA is an authentic record of our own work carried out during a period from ______ to _______under the guidance of Prof. GAGANDEEP KAUR GREWAL The matter presented in this project report has not been submitted by us in any other University / Institute for the award of any Degree or Diploma. Signature of Students CHARANJIV SINGH (1714033) GAURAV KUMAR (1714041) DEVANSH SHRIVASTAV (1714038) AYUSH (1714028) This is to certify that the above statement made by the candidate/s is correct to the best of my/our knowledge. Signature of the Minor Project Guide/s Designation (Deptt.)
  3. 3. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The authors are highly grateful to the Director, Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College (GNDEC), Ludhiana, for providing this opportunity to carry out the present minor project work. The constant guidance and encouragement received from Prof. Gagandeep Kaur Grewal Department of Civil Engineering, GNDEC Ludhiana, who was our minor project guide. Without the wise counsel and able guidance, it would have been impossible to complete the in this manner. We also take this opportunity to express my appreciation to all the participants involved during my preliminary research for their invaluable time to answer my queries and suggestions for the application to be developed. Things always remain hidden in the shadow of the unsung heroes; still we would thank all the people passively involved in the assignment, people who encouraged us day in and day out to make it a success. Finally, the authors are indebted to all whosoever have contributed in this minor project work. CHARANJIV SINGH (1714033) GAURAV KUMAR (1714041) DEVANSH SHRIVASTAV (1714038) AYUSH (1714028)
  5. 5. 1 CHAPTER 1 1.1 INTRODUCTION TO CONCRETE Concrete is a construction material composed of cement, fine aggregates (sand) and coarse aggregates mixed with water which hardens with time. Portland cement is the commonly used type of cement for production of concrete. Concrete technology deals with study of properties of concrete and its practical applications. In a building construction, concrete is used for the construction of foundations, columns, beams, slabs and other load bearing elements. There are different types of binding material is used other than cement such as lime for lime concrete and bitumen for asphalt concrete which is used for road construction. Various types of cements are used for concrete works which have different properties and applications. Some of the type of cement are Portland Pozzolana Cement (PPC), rapid hardening cement, Sulphate resistant cement etc. Materials are mixed in specific proportions to obtain the required strength. Strength of mix is specified as M5, M10, M15, M20, M25, M30 etc, where M signifies Mix and 5, 10, 15 etc. as their strength in kN/m2. Water cement ratio plays an important role which influences various properties such as workability, strength and durability. Adequate water cement ratio is required for production of workable concrete. When water is mixed with materials, cement reacts with water and hydration reaction starts. This reaction helps ingredients to form a hard matrix that binds the materials together into a durable stone-like material. Concrete can be casted in any shape. Since it is a plastic material in fresh state, various shapes and sizes of forms or formworks are used to provide different shapes such as rectangular, circular etc.
  6. 6. 2 Various structural members such as beams, slabs, footings, columns, lintels etc. are constructed with concrete. There are different types of admixtures which are used to provide certain properties. Admixtures or additives such as pozzolans or superplasticizers are included in the mixture to improve the physical properties of the wet mix or the finished material. Various types of concrete are manufactured these days for construction of buildings and structures. These have special properties and features which improve quality of construction as per requirement. 1.1.1 COMPONENTS OF CONCRETE Components of concrete are cement, sand, aggregates and water. Mixture of Portland cement and water is called as paste. So, concrete can be called as a mixture of paste, sand and aggregates. Sometimes rocks are used instead of aggregates. The cement paste coats the surface of the fine and coarse aggregates when mixed thoroughly and binds them. Soon after mixing the components, hydration reaction starts which provides strength and a rock solid concrete is obtained. 1.1.2 GRADES OF CONCRETE Grade of concrete denotes its strength required for construction. For example, M30 grade signifies that compressive strength required for construction is 30MPa. The first letter in grade “M” is the mix and 30 is the required strength in MPa. Based on various lab tests, grade of concrete is presented in Mix Proportions. For example, for M30 grade, the mix proportion can be 1:1:2, where 1 is the ratio of cement, 1 is the ratio of sand and 2 is the ratio of coarse aggregate based on volume or weight of materials. The strength is measured with concrete cube or cylinders by civil engineers at construction site. Cube or cylinders are made during casting of structural member and after hardening it is cured for 28 days. Then compressive strength test is conducted to find the strength.
  7. 7. 3 Regular grades of concrete are M15, M20, M25 etc. For plain cement concrete works, generally M15 is used. For reinforced concrete construction minimum M20 grade of concrete are used. 1.1.3 CONCRETE MIX Concrete is manufactured or mixed in proportions w.r.t. cement quantity. There are two types of concrete mixes, i.e. nominal mix and design mix. Nominal mix is used for normal construction works such as small residential buildings. Most popular nominal mix are in the proportion of 1:2:4. Design mixed concrete are those for which mix proportions are finalized based on various lab tests on cylinder or cube for its compressive strength. This process is also called as mix design. These tests are conducted to find suitable mix based on locally available material to obtain strength required as per structural design. A design mixed offers economy on use of ingredients. Once suitable mix proportions are known, then its ingredients are mixed in the ratio as selected. Two methods are used for mixing, i.e. Hand Mixing or Machine Mixing.
  8. 8. 4 Based on quantity and quality required, the suitable method of mixing is selected. In the hand mixing, each ingredients are placed on a flat surface and water is added and mixed with hand tools. In machine mixing, different types of machines are used. In this case, the ingredients are added in required quantity to mix and produce fresh concrete. Once the it is mixed adequately it is transported to casting location and poured in formworks. Various types of formworks are available which as selected based on usage. Poured concrete is allowed to set in formworks for specified time based on type of structural member to gain sufficient strength. After removal of formwork, curing is done by various methods to make up the moisture loss due to evaporation. Hydration reaction requires moisture which is responsible for setting and strength gain. So, curing is generally continued for minimum 7 days after removal of formwork. 1.1.4 PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE Different properties of concrete: 1. Compressive strength 2. Characteristic Strength 3. Tensile strength 4. Durability 5. Creep 6. Shrinkage 7. Unit weight 8. Modular Ratio 9. Poisson’s ratio 1. Compressive strength of concrete Like load, the strength of the concrete is also a quality which varies considerably for the same concrete mix. Therefore, a single representative value, known as characteristic strength is used. 2. Characteristic strength of concrete. It is defined as the value of the strength below which not more then 5% of the test results are expected to fall (i.e. there is 95% probability of achieving this value only 5% of not achieving the same)
  9. 9. 5 Characteristic strength of concrete in flexural member The characteristic strength of concrete in flexural member is taken as 0.67 times the strength of concrete cube. Design strength (fd) and partial safety factor for material strength The strength to be taken for the purpose of design is known is known as design strength and is given by Design strength (fd) = characteristic strength/ partial safety factor for material strength The value of partial safety factor depends upon the type of material and upon the type of limit state. According to IS code, partial safety factor is taken as 1.5 for concrete and 1.15 for steel. Design strength of concrete in member = 0.45fck 3. Tensile strength of concrete The estimate of flexural tensile strength or the modulus of rupture or the cracking strength of concrete from cube compressive strength is obtained by the relations fcr = 0.7 fck N/mm2. The tensile strength of concrete in direct tension is obtained experimentally by split cylinder. It varies between 1/8 to 1/12 of cube compressive strength 4. Creep in concrete Creep is defined as the plastic deformation under sustained load. Creep strain depends primarily on the duration of sustained loading. According to the code, the value of the ultimate creep coefficient is taken as 1.6 at 28 days of loading. 5. Shrinkage of Concrete The property of diminishing in volume during the process of drying and hardening is termed Shrinkage. It depends mainly on the duration of exposure. If this strain is prevented, it produces tensile stress in the concrete and hence concrete develops cracks. 7. Modular ratio Short term modular ratio is the modulus of elasticity of steel to the modulus of elasticity of concrete. Short term modular ratio = Es / Ec
  10. 10. 6 Es = modulus of elasticity of steel (2 x 10 5 N/mm2) Ec = modulus of elasticity of concrete (5000 x SQRT(fck) N/mm2) As the modulus of elasticity of concrete changes with time, age at loading etc the modular ratio also changes accordingly. Taking into account the effects of creep and shrinkage partially IS code gives the following expression for the long term modular ratio. Long term modular ratio (m) = 280/ (3fcbc) Where, fcbc = permissible compressive stress due to bending in concrete in N/mm2. 7. Poisson’s ratio Poisson’s ratio varies between 0.1 for high strength concrete and 0.2 for weak mixes. It is normally taken as 0.15 for strength design and 0.2 for serviceability criteria. 8. Durability of concrete Durability of concrete is its ability to resist its disintegration and decay. One of the chief characteristics influencing durability of concrete is its permeability to increase of water and other potentially deleterious materials. The desired low permeability in concrete is achieved by having adequate cement, sufficient low water/cement ratio, by ensuring full compaction of concrete and by adequate curing. 9. Unit weight of concrete The unit weight of concrete depends on percentage of reinforcement, type of aggregate, amount of voids and varies from 23 to 26 kN/m2. The unit weight of plain and reinforced concrete as specified by IS:456 are 24 and 25 KN/m3 respectively. 1.1.5 USES OF CONCRETE 1. Concrete Dams The characteristics of concrete such as high strength and unit weight make it a more suitable material for the construction of dams. Dams are used to store water and produce electricity. The loads imposed on the dam due to water pressure are very intense which makes concrete as a suitable material for dam construction.
  11. 11. 7 2. Residential Buildings The construction of small buildings, villas, and even high-rise buildings are done using concrete with traditional or modern form-work as a method of construction of the skeleton from foundations to the slabs and of course columns and beams. 3. Commercial Buildings The use of concrete in commercial buildings makes it safer than using most other construction materials. It is mostly more economic than steel buildings and requires less maintenance. It is easy to control the heat transfer from inside to outside and vice versa which reduces the energy consumed. 4. Roads or Driveways Concrete streets, pavements, and driveways are more durable and stronger than asphalt roadways. The long-lasting service time and the less maintenance required for concrete roads make it the first choice of material for the construction of roads and driveways. 5. Marine Construction Concrete has had extensive use as a construction material for seawalls, jetties, groins, breakwaters, bulkheads, and other structures exposed to seawater. The performance record has generally been good. 6. Culverts and Sewers Sewers and underground construction works need strong and durable building materials and concrete is the ideal one. Culverts, piers, foundation, abutments are constructed using special concrete mix. 7. Foundations The foundation of high-rise or low-rise buildings is usually constructed using reinforced cement concrete, as it is durable and has a huge load-carrying capacity. 8. Concrete Bridges Reinforced concrete strength, durability, ductility, weather resistance, fire resistance, and long-lasting life cycle makes the concrete the best solution for constructing the bridges. Pre-stressed concrete, post-stressed concrete, self compacted concrete are different types of concrete that may apply in bridges construction.
  12. 12. 8 1.2 INTRODUCTION TO POLYPROPYLENE Polypropylene is a tough, rigid and crystalline thermoplastic produced from propene (or propylene) monomer. It is a linear hydrocarbon resin. The chemical formula of polypropylene is (C3H6)n. PP is among the cheapest plastics available today. PP belongs to polyolefin family of polymers and is one of the top three widely used polymers today. Polypropylene has applications both as a plastic and a fiber in:  Automotive Industry  Industrial Applications  Consumer Goods, and  Furniture Market 1.2.1 POLYPROPYLENE MANUFACTURING These days, polypropylene is made from polymerization of propene monomer (an unsaturated organic compound - chemical formula C3H6) by:  Ziegler-Natta polymerization or  Metallocene catalysis polymerization
  13. 13. 9 Upon polymerization, PP can form three basic chain structures depending on the position of the methyl groups:  Atactic (aPP) - Irregular methyl group (CH3) arrangement  Isotactic (iPP) – Methyl groups (CH3) arranged on one side of the carbon chain  Syndiotactic (sPP) - Alternating methyl group (CH3) arrangement Various production processes exist with some general similarities. They are taking place either in a gas-phase (fluidized bed or stirred reactor) or a liquid-phase process
  14. 14. 10 (slurry or solution). An example of flow diagram corresponding to each of the two types of processes is illustrated in figure 1 bellow. The gas-phase polymerization is economical and flexible and can accommodate a large variety of catalysts. It is the most common technology in modern polypropylene production plants. Relevant technologies are Novolen®, Unipol® (gas-phase processes), Borstar® and Spheripol® (liquid-phase processes). The obtained powder is finally conveyed to powder silos and then converted into pellets that incorporate a full range of well-dispersed additives.
  15. 15. 11 1.2.2 TYPES OF POLYPROPYLENE & THEIR BENEFITS Homopolymers and Copolymers are the two major types of polypropylene available in the market.  Polypropylene Homopolymer is the most widely utilized general-purpose grade. It contains only propylene monomer in a semi-crystalline solid form. Main applications include packaging, textiles, healthcare, pipes, automotive and electrical applications.  Polypropylene Copolymer family is further divided into random copolymers and block copolymers produced by polymerizing of propene and ethane: 1. Polypropylene Random Copolymer is produced by polymerizing together ethene and propene. It features Ethene units, usually up to 6% by mass, incorporated randomly in the polypropylene chains. These polymers are flexible and optically clear making them suitable of applications requiring transparency and for products requiring an excellent appearance. 2. While in Polypropylene Block Copolymer, ethene content is larger (between 5 and 15%). It has co-monomer units arranged in regular pattern (or blocks). The regular pattern hence makes thermoplastic tougher and less brittle than the random co-polymer. These polymers are suitable for applications requiring high strength, such as industrial usages. Polypropylene, Impact Copolymer – Propylene Homopolymer containing a co-mixed Propylene Random Copolymer phase which has an ethylene content of 45-65% is referred to PP impact copolymer. It is useful in parts which require good impact resistance. Impact copolymers are mainly used in packaging, houseware, film, and pipe applications, as well as in the automotive and electrical segments. Expanded Polypropylene - It is a closed-cell bead foam with ultra-low density. EPP is used to produce three-dimensional polymer foam products. EPP bead foam has higher strength to weight ratio, excellent impact resistance, thermal insulation, and chemical and water resistance. EPP is used in various applications ranging from automobiles to packaging, from construction products to consumer goods and more.
  16. 16. 12 Polypropylene Terpolymer - It is composed by propylene segments joined by monomers ethylene and butane (co-monomer) which appear randomly throughout the polymer chain. PP terpolymer has better transparency than PP homo. Also, the incorporation of co-monomers reduces crystalline uniformity in the polymer making it suitable for sealing film applications. Polypropylene, High Melt Strength (HMS PP)– It is a long chain branched material, which combines both high melt strength and extensibility in the melt phase. PP HMS grades have a wide mechanical property range, high heat stability, good chemical resistance. HMS PP is widely used to produce soft, low density foams for food packaging applications as well as used in automotive and construction industries. 1.2.3 MATERIAL PROPERTIES OF POLYPROPYLENE Keeping information about the properties of a thermoplastic beforehand is always beneficial. This helps in selecting the right thermoplastic for an application. It also assists in evaluating if the end use requirement would be fulfilled or not. Here are some key properties and benefits of polypropylene: 1. Melting Point of Polypropylene - The melting point of polypropylene occurs at a range.  Homopolymer: 160 - 165°C  Copolymer: 135 - 159°C 2. Density of Polypropylene - PP is one of the lightest polymers among all commodity plastics. This feature makes it a suitable option for lightweightweight saving applications.  Homopolymer: 0.904 – 0.908 g/cm3  Random Copolymer: 0.904 – 0.908 g/cm3  Impact Copolymer: 0.898 – 0.900 g/cm3 3. Polypropylene Chemical Resistance  Excellent resistance to diluted and concentrated acids, alcohols and bases  Good resistance to aldehydes, esters, aliphatic hydrocarbons, ketones
  17. 17. 13  Limited resistance to aromatic and halogenated hydrocarbons and oxidizing agents 4. Flammability: Polypropylene is a highly flammable material 5. PP retains mechanical & electrical properties at elevated temperatures, in humid conditions and when submersed in water. It is a water-repellent plastic 6. PP has good resistance to environmental stress cracking 7. It is sensitive to microbial attacks, such as bacteria and mold 8. It exhibits good resistance to steam sterilization 1.2.4 DISADVANTAGES OF POLYPROPYLENE  Poor resistance to UV, impact and scratches  Embrittles below -20°C  Low upper service temperature, 90-120°C  Attacked by highly oxidizing acids, swell rapidly in chlorinated solvents and aromatics  Heat-aging stability is adversely affected by contact with metals
  18. 18. 14 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 1. Kolli.Ramujee (2013) The interest in the use of fibers for the reinforcement of composites has increased during the last several years. A combination of high strength, stiffness and thermal resistance favorably characterizes the fibers. In this study, the results of the Strength properties of Polypropylene fiber reinforced concrete have been presented. The compressive strength, splitting tensile strength of concrete samples made with different fibers amounts varies from 0%, 0.5%,1% 1.5% and 2.0% were studied. The samples with added Polypropylene fibers of 1.5 % showed better results in comparison with the others. 2. Milind V. Mohod (2015) This paper presents an experimental study on performance of polypropylene fiber reinforced concrete. In this study deals with the effects of addition of various proportions of polypropylene fibers on the properties of High strength concrete (M30and M40 mixes). An experimental program was carried out to explore its effects on compressive, tensile, flexural strength under different curing condition. The main aim of the investigation program is to study the effect of Polypropylene fiber mix by varying content such as 0% ,0.5%,1%,1.5% & 2% and finding the optimum Polypropylene fiber content. A notable increase in the compressive, tensile and flexural strength was observed. However, further investigations were highly recommended and should be carried out to understand more mechanical properties of fiber reinforced concrete. 3. According to Balaguru (1988) The uniaxial compression test is normally used to evaluate the behavior of concrete in compression. This produces a combination of shear failure near the ends of the specimen with lateral swelling of the unconfined central section accompanied by cracking parallel to the loading axis when the lateral strain exceeds the matrix cracking strain in tension. Fibers can affect these facets of uniaxial compressive behavior that involve shear stress and tensile strain. This can be seen from the
  19. 19. 15 increased strain capacity and also from the increased toughness (area under the curve) in the post-crack portion of the stress-strain curve. 4. Khajuria and Balaguru, (1989) In some instances, if more water is added to fiber concrete to improve its workability, a reduction in compressive strength can occur. This reduction should be attributed to additional water or due to an increase in entrapped air, not fiber addition. 5. Johnston and Skarendahl, (1992). The addition of fibers up to a volume fraction of 0.1% does not affect the compressive strength. When tested under compression, failure occurs at or soon after the peak load providing very little toughness. It is found that the fibers have very little effect on compressive strength calculated from the peak load, and both slight increase and decrease in strength have been reported with increase in fiber content. The decrease in strength is mostly reasoned due to incomplete consolidation. 6. Alhozaimy, A.M., et al (1995) Carried out experimental investigations on the effects of adding low volume fractions (<0.3%) of calculated fibrillated polypropylene fibres in concrete on compressive flexural and impact strength with different binder compositions. They observed that polypropylene fibres have no significant effect on compressive (or) flexural strength, while flexural toughness and impact resistance showed increased values. They also observed that positive interactions were also detected between fibres and pozzolans. 7. Bentur, (2007). (Hasan Et Al., 2011 Roesler Et Al. (2006) The addition of polypropylene fibres does not have a significant effect on the direct tensile cracking strength (Bentur, 2007). However, in moderate volume replacements (0.33-0.5%) the addition of macro-synthetic polypropylene fibres showed a 10 to 15% increase in splitting tensile strength.
  20. 20. 16 CHAPTER 3 OBJECTIVES OF PROJECT There are various objectives of which are as follow :- 1. To study the effect of polypropylene fiber in concrete. 2. To conduct a comparative study on fiber in concrete and conventional concrete.
  21. 21. 17 CHAPTER 4 METHODOLOGY The methodology of the work consist of 1) Identifying the specification of material to be selected. 2) Collection of materials. 3) Identifying the properties of collected materials. Various tests were conducted on cement, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate. 4) Selection of concrete grade. 5) Preparation of mix design of M30 grade concrete. 6) Cubes, cylinder and beams were casted with control mix using natural aggregate. 7) Preparation of test specimen by adding 0.5, 1,1.5 and 2% of polypropylene fibers in concrete. 8) Workability tests, compressive strength, tensile strength, flexural strength & modulus of elasticity of concrete were conducted. 9) Optimum percentage of fibre addition in concrete was determined. Test Procedure Concrete test specimens consist of 150x150x150mm cubes, Cylinders of 150mm diameter and 300mm height and 100x100x500 beams. Concrete cube specimens were tested at 7 and 28 days to obtain the compressive strength of concrete. Cylindrical specimens were tested at 28 day to obtain the split tensile strength and modulus of elasticity of concrete. Beam specimens were tested at 28 day to obtain the flexural strength of concrete. Test on fresh concrete Workability is one of the physical parameters of concrete which affects the strength and durability as well as the cost of labour and appearance of the finished product. Concrete is said to be workable when it is easily placed and compacted homogeneously i.e. without bleeding or Segregation. The workability of concrete is measured by compaction factor test and slump test. Test on hardened concrete Various tests on hardened concrete is done to ensure the design strength of concrete and quality of concrete construction is achieved. It includes compressive strength test, flexural tensile strength test, split tensile strength test and modulus of elasticity.
  22. 22. 18 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Optimization of polypropylene fiber in concrete In this section polypropylene fiber (blended type- 24mm, 40mm, 55mm) of different percentage added in concrete Workability decreases due to more addition of fibers, there is increases in amount of entrapped air voids due to the presence of fibers and therefore increase in air content attributes in reducing workability.
  23. 23. 19 Compressive strength increases for all dosages of fibers due to confinement provided by fiber increases bonding characteristics of concrete.
  24. 24. 20 Failure patterns of splitting tensile test indicate that specimens after first cracking do not separate unlike the concrete failure. Large damage zone is produced due to closely spaced micro cracks surrounding a splitting plane.Fiber bridging mechanism is responsible for such enhanced ductile failure pattern.
  25. 25. 21 The enhancement in flexural strength is achieved due to improvement in mechanical bond between the cement paste and fiber. As amount of fiber increases in mix, it greatly helps to reduce widening of cracks more effectively.
  26. 26. 22 CHAPTER 5 REFERENCES [1]. Balaguru P.N. and Shah S.P., 1992, Fiber-Reinforced Cement Composites, McGraw- Hill Inc., New York, United State of America [2]. Bentur A. and Mindess S., 1990, Fibre Reinforced Cementitious Composites, Elsevier Science Publishing Ltd., New York, United State of America. [3]. James J. Beaudoin, 1990, Handbook of Fiber-Reinforced Concrete: Principles, Properties, Development and Applications, Noyes Publications, New Jersey, United State of America. [4]. Riley, V.R. and Reddaway, J.L., 1968, Tensile strength and failure mechanics of Fibre composites, J. Materials Science. [5]. Reinforced Concrete Design, M.L Gambhir [6]. M.V. Krishna Rao*A, N.R. Dakhshina Murthyb and V. Santhosh Kumara A department Of Civil Engineering, Chaitanya Bharathi Institute of Technology [7]. Sanjuan M.A., Andrade C, and Bentur A., 1998, Effect of polypropylene fibre reinforced mortars on steel reinforcement corrosion induced by carbonation, Materials and Structures, Volume 31, Number 209, June 1998, p.343-349 [8]. Gupta, P. et al., Journal of Materials in Civil Engrg., ASCE, 12 (1) 81-90; 2000. [9]. Banthia N. and Dubey A., 2000, Measurement of flexural Toughness of Fibre-Reinforced Concrete Using Technique – Part 2: Performance of various Composites, [10]. Nanni A., and ACSE, 1992, Properties of Aramid-Fiber Reinforced Concrete and SIFCON, Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, Volume 4, Number 1, February 1992, p.1-13. [11]. Fibremesh, 1989, Fibremesh Micro-Reinforcement System, Synthetic Industries, Fibremesh Division, TN, United State of America.
  27. 27. 23 [12]. Performance of Polypropylene Fibre Reinforced Concrete , Milind V. Mohod1 1 Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering ,Prof. Ram Meghe Institute of Technology And Research,Badnera, Amravati, India [13]. POLYPROPYLENE FIBER IN CONCRETE Divya S Dharan1, Aswathy Lal2 1 PG Scholar, Structural Engineering, SBCE, Alappuzha, Kerala,India 2 Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, SBCE, Alappuzha, Kerala, India [14]. Polypropylene Fibers in Concrete to achieve maximum strength N. Sohaib, Seemab, Sana G, R. Mamoon, Department of Civil Engineering, Capital University of Science & Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan Department of Civil Engineering, International Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan WEB REFERENCES [1]. The Constructor (www.theconstructor.org) [2]. ‘Plastic Wastage Management’ online course by Swayam (www.swayam.org) [3]. Wikipedia (en.m.wikipedia.org) [4]. Science Direct (www.sciencedirect.com) [5]. IJTRE (www.ijtre.net) [6]. Research Gate (www.researchgate.net) [7]. Shodh Ganga (www.shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in) [8]. We Civil Engineers (www.wecivilengineers.org)