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Submitted By Sohaib Hasnain
Submitted To DR. Ibrahim
Roll No 7536
Cracking of Petroleum
Application of Petroleum Industry
“Petroleum is defined as
blaskish colouerd or greenish
It is also called Rocks oil
because it is extracted from
3000BC- Sumerian use asphalt as a Adhesive
2400BC- Iranian use oil in weapon against their enemies
325BC- Alexander used flaming tourch of petroleum
347AD- Chinese discovered Oil
8th AD- Baku people used it for heating
6th AD- Sudia Arabia discovered oil resorvior
1847 - 1st Rock Oil Refinary launched in England
1849 - Canada distill kerosene oil from crude oil
1850 - World 1st Refinary in Romania
1870 - J.D Rock formed the standard Oil
1879 – Thomos Edison invents the oil light bulbs
1882 - Standard Oil trust formed
1893 - First Well drilled in Los Angel
1907 - Shell and Royal are Launched
1908 - Oil discovered in Persia
1942 - Oil discovered in Japan
1956 - Oil discovered in Nigeria
1969 - Oil found in Libya
1970 - Oil discovered in North Sea
1979 - Shah of Iran discovered Oil Reservior
1990 - Oil found in Kuwait
1993 - Oil reservoir discovered in Pakistan
1997 - Oil found in Dubai
1997- 2016 Almost all the Arabs Countries found Oil
It is has been said that petroleum is formed by slow
chemical and biochemical decomposition of Organic
It is remain of tiny plants and animals that lived in the
sea,when they died their bodies changes into oil by high
It is also called Fossil Fuel because it is formed from
remain of dead animals
It is found beneath the earth crust b/w the sedi-mentry
Petroleum in liquid and gas form itself pressurized
enough to lift itself against the force of gravity
Most of the Oil resorvior found in Middle East and Arabs
It is present in many part of all over the World
Conventional Oil Fields
It is easily extracted because of having
pressure.It is easily come out from the earth
cruts.It has less impurity.It is normally a thin
Non Conventional Oil Fields
It is not easily extracted because it is present
in lower layer of earth crust.It is thicker than
conventional.It has too much impurties
Petroleum contain several chemical
compounds.The most common is the
presence of hydrocarbon
Composition of petroleum indicates its
quality and usage
Although petroleum contains too much
traces of elements but the most common
is Hydrogen(10-14%), Nitrogen(0.1-2%)
Actually the properties of the petroleum
depends upon the percentage of four main
Chemical Processing on Petroleum
Generally petroleum produced from the
earth is not pure form,so we change it to
pure form by many chemical method.
There are many chemical process for the
production of petroleum fraction from
The process applied on the petroleum are
Cracking and Fractional distilation
The process of separating a mixture into a
series of fractions of different volatilities
by the mean to distillation.
In the process of fractional distillation a
mixture is evaporated followed by
Different Liquids are evaporated
according to their boiling point
Fractional Distillation Of Crude Oil
Generally, crude oil contain compounds having B.P upto
In this process, Crude oil is heated to above 400C in a
Its vapours are allowed to enter into a tower having
different compartment to collect the different
These are now condensend toa liquids and separated
More than 500 compounds are produced in this process
according to our demand.
Fractions Of Petroleum And Uses
Petroleum Gas Making chemical ,plastics and fuel for light vehicles
Used in manufacturing of petrol polymerization
Naptha Used to make chemical and fuel for aeroplane
Kerosene Fuel in jet engine,Lamp usage,Making deterergents
Diesel Fuel for Diesel Engine
Lubrication Oil Lubricants for the Mechinary
Fuel Oil Used for power station, ships and used to run generators
Asphalt Used in road construction and water proof products
Cracking Of Petroleum
The fractional distillation of petroleum yields only about 20% . Due
to it’s high demand this supply is augmented by converting the less
desireable fraction into gesoline by a process craking.
It is defined as breaking of high hydrocarbon having high boiling
point into a variety of lower hydrocarbon which are more volatile.
In this process the high H.C in vapour phase are mixed in the steam
heated for the short duration to about 900C and cool rapidly.
This process is suitable for obtaining lower unsaturated H.C.
Steam craking is used to increase the yields of oilfins.
The breaking down of large molecule at high temperature and pressure.
It is particular use for production of unsaturated H.C such as ethane and
Temperature range is (450-750 C) and pressure is 70atm .
In this process free radicals process take place.
Higher hydrocarbon can be cracked at
lower temprature(500C) and lower
pressure(2atm) in the presence of suitable
A typical catalyst for this purpose is a
mixture of silica and alumina.
This cracking is used for the production of
batter quality of gasoline
It is a process which is used to increase the quality of gasoline by
converting the straight chain H.C into branch chain.
By this process octane number of fuel increase and engine become better.
The quality of fuel is indicated by it’s octane number.
Top 10 Countries Producing Oil
world Oil Production 91 Million Barrel Per Day
Consumption Of Petroleum
For 2016, the IEA Oil market reported
forecast worldwide average demand of oil
nearly 96 million barrel per day.
The ten biggest oil consuming countries
consume more than 58% of the world total
oil consumption per day
United state is the world biggest Oil
It was launched in German two years ago.
A petrol is called E10 and IS 10% Ethanol.
It is enviormentelly friendly.
It is prepared from corn.
It is available in all over petrol pumps
High %age of ethanol ruin the engine of car and
motor bikes as it could melt some components
It is also called biofuel made up by distilling
plant and animal material and said to be less
polluting and enviormentelly friendlier
It is the abbreviation that is used for a fuel blend
made up of 85% denatured ethanol fuel and
remaining 15% is made up of gasoline and any
Ethanol is produced by using starch and sugar
producing crops like corn and sugar cane
These crops are put through a fermentation
process that produce ethanol
E85 is now being produced using biowaste
Bio diesel is produced from oil producing plants
unlike ethanol that is made from starch and sugar
Crops that can produce oil that like sunflower,
palm or any other vegetable can be used to make
biodiesel and is something that is being increasing
used in US and Europe
There are different types of bio diesel like B20,
B5,B100 and some other contents
International Energy Agency
An Introduction to Petroleum Industry(Book)
An Overview of petroleumIndustry(6th Edition)
Petroleum The Industry of Future (Book)
Biodiesel, Green Diesel Fuel