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Petroleum Industry

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Petroleum Industry

  1. 1. Petrolem Indsutry
  2. 2. Submitted By Sohaib Hasnain Submitted To DR. Ibrahim Roll No 7536 APPLIED CHEMISTRY
  3. 3.  Contents Introduction History Petroleum Formation Petroleum Reservior Petroleum Composition Cracking of Petroleum Reforming Blending Petroleum fraction Consumption Application of Petroleum Industry Green Petroleum Refereneces
  4. 4. DEFINITION “Petroleum is defined as blaskish colouerd or greenish coloured liquid. It is also called Rocks oil because it is extracted from rocks
  5. 5. History  3000BC- Sumerian use asphalt as a Adhesive  2400BC- Iranian use oil in weapon against their enemies  325BC- Alexander used flaming tourch of petroleum products  347AD- Chinese discovered Oil  8th AD- Baku people used it for heating  6th AD- Sudia Arabia discovered oil resorvior  1847 - 1st Rock Oil Refinary launched in England  1849 - Canada distill kerosene oil from crude oil  1850 - World 1st Refinary in Romania  1870 - J.D Rock formed the standard Oil
  6. 6.  1879 – Thomos Edison invents the oil light bulbs  1882 - Standard Oil trust formed  1893 - First Well drilled in Los Angel  1907 - Shell and Royal are Launched  1908 - Oil discovered in Persia  1942 - Oil discovered in Japan  1956 - Oil discovered in Nigeria  1969 - Oil found in Libya  1970 - Oil discovered in North Sea  1979 - Shah of Iran discovered Oil Reservior  1990 - Oil found in Kuwait  1993 - Oil reservoir discovered in Pakistan  1997 - Oil found in Dubai  1997- 2016 Almost all the Arabs Countries found Oil
  7. 7. Petroleum Formation  It is has been said that petroleum is formed by slow chemical and biochemical decomposition of Organic matter  It is remain of tiny plants and animals that lived in the sea,when they died their bodies changes into oil by high pressure  It is also called Fossil Fuel because it is formed from remain of dead animals
  8. 8. Petroleum Resorvior  It is found beneath the earth crust b/w the sedi-mentry rocks  Petroleum in liquid and gas form itself pressurized enough to lift itself against the force of gravity  Most of the Oil resorvior found in Middle East and Arabs Countries  It is present in many part of all over the World
  9. 9. Conventional Oil Fields It is easily extracted because of having pressure.It is easily come out from the earth cruts.It has less impurity.It is normally a thin liquid. Non Conventional Oil Fields It is not easily extracted because it is present in lower layer of earth crust.It is thicker than conventional.It has too much impurties
  10. 10. Petroleum Composition  Petroleum contain several chemical compounds.The most common is the presence of hydrocarbon  Composition of petroleum indicates its quality and usage  Although petroleum contains too much traces of elements but the most common is Hydrogen(10-14%), Nitrogen(0.1-2%) and suphur(0.5-6%)
  11. 11. Actually the properties of the petroleum depends upon the percentage of four main hydrocarbon: Paraffins (15-60%) Naptha (30-60%) Aromatics (3-30%) Asphalt (1-10%)
  12. 12. Chemical Processing on Petroleum  Generally petroleum produced from the earth is not pure form,so we change it to pure form by many chemical method.  There are many chemical process for the production of petroleum fraction from crude oil.  The process applied on the petroleum are Cracking and Fractional distilation
  13. 13. Fractional Distillation  The process of separating a mixture into a series of fractions of different volatilities by the mean to distillation.  In the process of fractional distillation a mixture is evaporated followed by condensation.  Different Liquids are evaporated according to their boiling point
  14. 14. Fractional Distillation Of Crude Oil  Generally, crude oil contain compounds having B.P upto 400C.  In this process, Crude oil is heated to above 400C in a pipe.  Its vapours are allowed to enter into a tower having different compartment to collect the different volatilities.  These are now condensend toa liquids and separated  More than 500 compounds are produced in this process according to our demand.
  15. 15. Fractions Of Petroleum And Uses Fraction Uses Petroleum Gas Making chemical ,plastics and fuel for light vehicles Used in manufacturing of petrol polymerization Naptha Used to make chemical and fuel for aeroplane Kerosene Fuel in jet engine,Lamp usage,Making deterergents Diesel Fuel for Diesel Engine Lubrication Oil Lubricants for the Mechinary Fuel Oil Used for power station, ships and used to run generators Asphalt Used in road construction and water proof products
  16. 16. Cracking Of Petroleum  The fractional distillation of petroleum yields only about 20% . Due to it’s high demand this supply is augmented by converting the less desireable fraction into gesoline by a process craking.  It is defined as breaking of high hydrocarbon having high boiling point into a variety of lower hydrocarbon which are more volatile. 
  17. 17. Steam Cracking  In this process the high H.C in vapour phase are mixed in the steam heated for the short duration to about 900C and cool rapidly.  This process is suitable for obtaining lower unsaturated H.C.  Steam craking is used to increase the yields of oilfins. Thermal Cracking  The breaking down of large molecule at high temperature and pressure.  It is particular use for production of unsaturated H.C such as ethane and propene.  Temperature range is (450-750 C) and pressure is 70atm .  In this process free radicals process take place.
  18. 18. Catalytic Cracking  Higher hydrocarbon can be cracked at lower temprature(500C) and lower pressure(2atm) in the presence of suitable catalyst.  A typical catalyst for this purpose is a mixture of silica and alumina.  This cracking is used for the production of batter quality of gasoline
  19. 19. Reforming  It is a process which is used to increase the quality of gasoline by converting the straight chain H.C into branch chain.  By this process octane number of fuel increase and engine become better.  The quality of fuel is indicated by it’s octane number. 
  20. 20. Top 10 Countries Producing Oil world Oil Production 91 Million Barrel Per Day
  21. 21. Consumption Of Petroleum  For 2016, the IEA Oil market reported forecast worldwide average demand of oil nearly 96 million barrel per day.  The ten biggest oil consuming countries consume more than 58% of the world total oil consumption per day  United state is the world biggest Oil consumer
  22. 22. Green Petroleum  It was launched in German two years ago.  A petrol is called E10 and IS 10% Ethanol.  It is enviormentelly friendly.  It is prepared from corn.  It is available in all over petrol pumps  High %age of ethanol ruin the engine of car and motor bikes as it could melt some components  It is also called biofuel made up by distilling plant and animal material and said to be less polluting and enviormentelly friendlier
  23. 23. E85(Ethanol Fuel)  It is the abbreviation that is used for a fuel blend made up of 85% denatured ethanol fuel and remaining 15% is made up of gasoline and any other hydrocarbons.  Ethanol is produced by using starch and sugar producing crops like corn and sugar cane  These crops are put through a fermentation process that produce ethanol  E85 is now being produced using biowaste
  24. 24. Bio Fuel  Bio diesel is produced from oil producing plants unlike ethanol that is made from starch and sugar producing crops.  Crops that can produce oil that like sunflower, palm or any other vegetable can be used to make biodiesel and is something that is being increasing used in US and Europe  There are different types of bio diesel like B20, B5,B100 and some other contents
  25. 25.  References  WWW.SLIDESHARE .COM  International Energy Agency  An Introduction to Petroleum Industry(Book)  An Overview of petroleumIndustry(6th Edition)  Petroleum The Industry of Future (Book)  Biodiesel, Green Diesel Fuel  WWW.chemwili.COM  WWW.CHEMPUB.COM  WWW.ASK.COM  WWW.CHEMISTRYWORLD.COM

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