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Acharya P. C. Ray.ppt

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Acharya Sir Prafulla Chandra Ray is a pathfinder and originator of India's modern chemistry – teaching and research, chemical industry, philanthropist, patriot, industrialist and educationist. He was born in August 2, 1861 in the village Raruli, Khulna, (now in Bangladesh) and trained in the village school, established and run by his father, Late Harish Chandra Ray. He came to Kolkata at the age of 9 and was admitted to the Hare School, at the age of 13 he suffered from dysentery and enforced to stay at home. In 1876 he joined in the Albert School and in 1879 he passed Entrance examination and joined the Metropolitan Institution, founded by the Late Pundit Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, the great pioneer of advanced English education in Bengal. He learned science attending as external student, particularly chemistry from Prof. Alexander Pedler, Presidency College (now Presidency University) only college where science teaching started. After receiving Gilchrist Scholarship, he joined in the Edinburgh University in 1882 and received B. Sc. in chemistry from Prof. Alexander Crum Brown in 1885 and D. Sc. in 1887. He returned India in 1888 and joined the Presidency College in July, 1889 and engaged in teaching and research in chemistry. His first research publication appeared in the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal in 1894 in the determination of adulteration in foodstuffs, especially ghee (butter fat) and oil. His brilliant discovery appeared in the same journal in 1896 of mercurous nitrite, a compound consisting of Hg(I)-Hg(I) bond, simplest example of metal cluster (J. Asiatic Soc. Bengal, 1896, 65, 1-9). His discovery of NH4NO2 and its vavour density measurement published in the J. Asiatic Soc. Bengal, 1913, 103, 1565-1568 and demonstration in RSC meeting in presence of Prof. William Ramsay NL earned him fame of ‘Master of Nitrites’ by Professor W. E. Armstrong. His experimental research encompassed from metal nitrites, nitrates, chemistry of sulfur, coordination of sulfur compounds of platinum group metals, organofluoro compounds; his research publications more than 150 out of 71 as single Authorship and 8 publications in Nature etc. His brilliant research in the laboratory and inspiring class demonstration attracted enthusiastic young men to join in the modern chemical research what he started in India. In his long and distinguished career as a research worker he had evoked a true spirit of scientific enquiry among his many disciples which has resulted in the creation of the flourishing school of chemistry who had shown their ability not only in India but also in other parts of the world.

Acharya Sir Prafulla Chandra Ray is a pathfinder and originator of India's modern chemistry – teaching and research, chemical industry, philanthropist, patriot, industrialist and educationist. He was born in August 2, 1861 in the village Raruli, Khulna, (now in Bangladesh) and trained in the village school, established and run by his father, Late Harish Chandra Ray. He came to Kolkata at the age of 9 and was admitted to the Hare School, at the age of 13 he suffered from dysentery and enforced to stay at home. In 1876 he joined in the Albert School and in 1879 he passed Entrance examination and joined the Metropolitan Institution, founded by the Late Pundit Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, the great pioneer of advanced English education in Bengal. He learned science attending as external student, particularly chemistry from Prof. Alexander Pedler, Presidency College (now Presidency University) only college where science teaching started. After receiving Gilchrist Scholarship, he joined in the Edinburgh University in 1882 and received B. Sc. in chemistry from Prof. Alexander Crum Brown in 1885 and D. Sc. in 1887. He returned India in 1888 and joined the Presidency College in July, 1889 and engaged in teaching and research in chemistry. His first research publication appeared in the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal in 1894 in the determination of adulteration in foodstuffs, especially ghee (butter fat) and oil. His brilliant discovery appeared in the same journal in 1896 of mercurous nitrite, a compound consisting of Hg(I)-Hg(I) bond, simplest example of metal cluster (J. Asiatic Soc. Bengal, 1896, 65, 1-9). His discovery of NH4NO2 and its vavour density measurement published in the J. Asiatic Soc. Bengal, 1913, 103, 1565-1568 and demonstration in RSC meeting in presence of Prof. William Ramsay NL earned him fame of ‘Master of Nitrites’ by Professor W. E. Armstrong. His experimental research encompassed from metal nitrites, nitrates, chemistry of sulfur, coordination of sulfur compounds of platinum group metals, organofluoro compounds; his research publications more than 150 out of 71 as single Authorship and 8 publications in Nature etc. His brilliant research in the laboratory and inspiring class demonstration attracted enthusiastic young men to join in the modern chemical research what he started in India. In his long and distinguished career as a research worker he had evoked a true spirit of scientific enquiry among his many disciples which has resulted in the creation of the flourishing school of chemistry who had shown their ability not only in India but also in other parts of the world.

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Acharya P. C. Ray.ppt

  1. 1. Prof C Sinha Honorary Secretary, ICS & Department of Chemistry, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India Nation BuildingPlanof Archarya P. C. Ray “It is difficult to believe that the man in simple Indian dress wearing simple manners could possibly be the great scientist and professor.” Gandhiji
  2. 2. Sl No Research Scholar Year Title of Major work No. of publications 1 Sri Jatindra Nath Sen 1903 Thermal studies on Mercurious Nitrite 1 2 Sri Atul Chandra Ganguli 1905- 1907 Thermal studies on Hyponitrous acid, Hyponitrites and Nitrites of Silver & Mercury 3 3 Sri Panchanan Neogi 1906-1907 Alkyl Sulphates, Nitrites & Nitro compounds 2 4 Sri Nagendra Nath Sen 1909 Phosphorus & Arsenic compounds 1 5 Sri Atul Chandra Ghosh 1910 Thermal studies on Dimercurammonium nitrites 1 6 Sri Satish Chandra Mukherjee 1910 Cryoscopic studies on ionisation of nitrites 1 7 Sri Jitendra Nath Rakshit 1911- 1913 Organo nitrite derivatives preparation, reaction & physiochemical study 10 8 Sri Hemendra Kumar Sen 1911 Thermal studies on organo Hyponitrite derivaties 1 9 Sri Rashik Lal Dutta 1911 Organo nitrites: preparation, reactivity, physical studies & thermal decomposition 2 10 Sri Nil Ratan Dhar 1912- 1913 Electrical Conductance behaviour of Mercury alkyl chlorides and nitrites 3 11 Sri Tincowry De 1912 Physiochemical studies on ammonium nitrite & organo nitrites 2 12 Sri Rajedra Lal De 1913- Physiochemical studies on alkali & alkaline earth metal nitrates 2 13 Sri Sarat Chandra Jana 1913 Physiochemical studies on ammonium nitrate, benzoate and acetate 1 14 Francis Vito Fernandes 1914 Organo thio-compounds 1 15 Sri Manik Lal De 1916-17 Physiochemical studies of nitrous acid synthesis of organo Thio-compounds 3 16 Sri Jnanendra Chandra Ghosh 1917 Physiochemical studies on ionization of nitrious acid 1 17 Sri Prafulla Chandra Guha 1919 Mercury mercaptide nitrates and related compounds: preparation and reactivity 4 18 Sri Radha Kishen Das 1919 Organo thio- compounds 1 19 Sri Kali Kumar Kumar 1921 Physiochemical studies on sulfonium compounds 1 20 Sri Gopal Chandra
  3. 3. 21 Sri Prafulla Kumar Bose 1923 Mercaptans 1 22 Sri Kshitish Chandra Boseray 1925- 1929 Platinum group metals Chemistry, Varying valency of platinum, Organo sulphur compounds, Double Sulphates of Cu, Mg & Phosphonium bases 9 23 Sri Biresh Chandra Guha 1926 Condenced heterocycles and Varying valency of platinum 3 24 Sri Nirmalendu Nath Ray 1927- 1929 Double Sulphates of Cu Mg compound Phosphonium bases & Organo phosphonium nitrites 1 25 Sri Purna Chandra Mukherjee 1929 Platinum and gold complexes with organo thiocompounds 1 26 Sri Sushil Kumar Mitra 1929 Organo sulphur compounds 1 27 Sri Dinesh Chandra Sen 1930 Gold complexes with Organo sulphur compounds 1 28 Sri Nadiabehari Adhikari 1930- 1934 Alkyl sulfonium compounds with mercury, antimony, silver, zinc, cadmium & Iridium complexes with organo sulphur compounds, amines, ammonia 8 29 Sri Sailesh Chandra Sengupta 1930- 1933 Variable valency of platinum 2 30 Sri Amerandra Nath Ray 1931 Alkyl sulfonium compounds with mercury, antimony 2 31 Sri Harendra Nath Ray 1931 Organo sulphur compounds of silver 1 32 Sri Sanat Kumar Banerjee 1931 Alkyl sulfonium compounds with zinc, cadmium 1 33 Sri Nripendra Nath Ghosh 1933 Varying valency, platinum group metal complexes with organo sulphur compounds, organothio-compounds 5 34 Sri Sushil Kumar Mitra 1933 Organo thio- compounds 1 35 Sri Pulin Behari Sarkar 1933 Fluorination of organic compounds 1 36 Sri Amit Roy 1933 Fluorination of organic compounds 1 37 Sri Harish Chandra Goswami 1935 Fluorination of organic compounds 1 38 Sri Anil Chandra Fluorination of
  4. 4. Illustrious Students : J. C. Ghosh (Bara Jnan), Director, IIT KGP, IISc, Vice-Chancellor, C. U. J. N. Mukherjee , Founder of Colloid Chemistry, Director, ICAR, New Delhi, Soil Chemistry. Nilratan Dhar: Founder of Physical Chemistry Research in India, Founder of Chemistry Dept of University of Allahabad. B. C. Guha, Founder of Biochemistry Research in India P. Ray, P. B. Sarkar, Gopal Chandra Chakraborty, Janandranath Roy, Prafulla Chandra Guha, Prafulla Kumar Sen, Maniklal De, Radhakishen Das, Kalikumar Kumar, Khiitsh Chandra Basu, Nirmalendunath Ray, Nadia Behari Adhikari, Sachindranath Roychowdhuri, Susil Kumar Mitra, Purna Chandra Mukherjee, Dinesh Chandra Sen, Sailesh Chandra Sengupta, Amarendranath Ray, Harendranath Ray, Sanat Kumar Banerjee, Nripendra Nath Ghosh, Ranjit Ghosh, Amit Ray, Harish Chandra Goswami, Anil Chandra Roy M. N. Saha, S. N. Bose “His Laboratory is the Nursery from which issue forth the young chemists of new India - --“ Journal Asiatique, 1908
  5. 5. Acharya Prafulla Chandra with his colleagues at the Calcutta University. Seated at the extreme right is Satyendra Nath Bose, and standing to the extreme left is Meghnad Saha.
  6. 6. Dr. Nilratan Sarkar J. C. Ghosh Director, IIT-KGP, IISc, Vice-Chancellor, C. U. Dr. B. C. Guha Founder of Biochemistry in India Prof. S. S. Bhatnagar Founder Director of CSIR Prof. B. B. Dey, Professor of Chemistry, Madras Presidency College (student of Acharya). His famous students are: Prof. T. R. Seshadri, T. Venkataraman Prof. S. S. Bhatnagar, Sir J. C. Ghosh, Prof. J. N. Mukherjee worked with Prof. F. G. Donnan, students of AAcharya Ray. SSBhatnagar at BHU, Lahore, Delhi J C Ghosh at Dacca, Kharagpur, Bangalore J. N. Mukherjee, Calcutta, Pusa, ICAR, New Delhi “---grand pupil of his (Sir P. C. Ray), having received instruction in Chemistry from the late Mr. Atul Chandra Ghosh, one of his earliest pupils---“
  7. 7. Alexander Pedler, Presidency College Alexander Crum Brown Edinburgh University In Edinburgh University Ray did B. Sc. In Chemistry, Botany and Zoology. B. Sc.In 1885. Worked with Prof. A. Crum-Brown, FRS, HOD, Chemistry, Edinburgh University. Thesis entitle “Conjugated Sulphates of the Copper- magnesium Group: A Study of Isomorphous Mixtures and Molecular Combinations”. He received D. Sc. In 1887. Prafulla Chandra in early youth. P. C. Rây, Proc. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh, 1888, 267 J. Asiatic Soc. Bengal, 1894, 1, 59 .
  8. 8. Nature wrote (15th August, 1912) “Prof. P. C. Ray has added to his success in preparing ammonium nitrite in a tangible form, a further accomplishment in determining the vapour density of this fugitive compound.” When he presented this work during his third visit to Europe in from of many illustrious scientists including Sir William Ramsay, NL he had been warmly congratulated for this work. This reaction presented by experiment in Chemical Society, London meeting in presence of famous chemist William Ramsay. Nature published this report in August 15, 1912 NH4Cl + AgNO2 NH4NO2 heating N2 + H2O N O O M M N O O O N O M a) b) c) N O O Hg Hg N O O O N N O Coordination modes of NO2 - to metal Mercurous nitrite Hyponitrite anion PUBLICATIONS: P. C. Rây, J. Asiatic Soc. Bengal, 1896, 65, 1.; Z. anorg. chem., 1896, 12, 365. J. Chem. Soc. Trans., 1897, 71, 337. J. Chem. Soc. Trans., 1903, 83, 491. J. Chem. Soc. Trans., 1908, 93, 997. J. Chem. Soc. Trans., 1909, 95, 66. J. Asiatic. Soc. Bengal, 1900, 69, 476. Proc. Chem. Soc., 1905, 21, 278. J. Chem. Soc. Trans., 1906, 89, 1900. J. Chem. Soc. Trans., 1905, 87, 171.
  9. 9. “The Journal of the Asiatic Society Bengal can scarcely be said to have a place in our chemical libraries; the current number, however, contains a paper by Dr. P. C. Ray, of the Presidency College, Calcutta on Mercurous Nitrite, that is worthy to note.---“, Nature, (1896) “But the existence of Mercurous Nitrite has been disproved many years later------. An estimate of enthalpy of formation of authentic Mercurous Nitrite, based on thermochemical data ---, shows this is to highly endothermic which accounts for its non existence---“ J. Indian Chem. Soc, 2011, 88, 1065- 1092
  10. 10. Early Research in Presidency College: He started first analyzing the quality of food materials sold in Calcutta market. Mustard oil, ghee, milk, butter etc were analysed and they were found to be adulterated. This work was published in the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1894. Title: Analysis of Indian Food Materials (First part: Fat and Oil). Prof. Jyoti Bhusan Bhaduri, MA, PRS approached Acharya Ray for pure calomel, Hg2Cl2 required for reference standard in electrochemical cell. Acharya Ray prepared it Hg + HNO3 (25% acid) followed by addition of HCl might prepare Hg2Cl2. During reaction he say deposition of yellow crystal and analysed the composition as mercurous nitrite, Hg2(NO2)2 Subhas Samanta, Sreebrata Goswami & Animesh Chakravorty*, “On mercurous nitrite and a basic mercurous nitrate derivative” , Indian Journal of Chemistry, Sec-A, 2011, 50A, 137 A. Chakravorty, Resonance, 2001, 6, 3. A. Chakravorty, Indian J. History Sci., 2014, 49, 361.
  11. 11. The decade of 1860-69 the nineteenth century was very important in India’s history. Thus, Animesh Chakravorty, a well-known inorganic chemist, wrote : “It was the best of times – the second half of the nineteenth century. The decade of 1860-69 alone saw the birth of Rabindranath Tagore, Motilal Nehru Swami Vivekananda, Madan Mohan Malaviya, Asutosh Mookerjee,Lala Lajpat Rai, Srinivasa Sastri and Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. And of Prafulla Chandra Ray. A season of light and hope was descending on a languishing India.” Because of his learning, devotion to chemistry and inordinate affection for his pupils, able young chemists joined him in Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry as well as in Physical and Organic Chemistry. Thus, he became the architecture of the first flourishing School of Chemistry in India 7th Indian Science Congress: Sir P. C. Ray, General President, 1920 at Nagpur deliberation on ‘Dawn of Science in Modern India’. P. C. Ray was second Indian to Preside over ISCA. ISCA started in 1914, 1st President Hon. Justice Sir Asutosh Mookerjee
  12. 12. The Indian Chemical Society The Indian Chemical Society, a premier Scientific Society of India, was founded in 1924. Acharya P. C. Ray was the founder President of the Society. J. N. Mukherjee, J.C. Ghosh and S.S. Bhatnagar while carrying out their research work in the University College, London in 1919 for the D.Sc. Degree, took a decision that after coming back to India their endeavor would be to establish a Chemical Society like the Chemical Society of London. Their cherished dream was transformed into a reality with active cooperation of many of the leading personalities in the country, and the Indian Chemical Society was founded on May 9, 1924, as a registered Society, with Sir Prafulla Chandra Ray, the doyen of Indian Chemists, as the first President. Many of the distinguished personalities in the field of Chemical Science of that time in India took active interest in nurturing the new born Society.
  13. 13. The first issue of the quarterly Journal of the Indian Chemical Society appeared in November 1924 and this received appreciation from several leading organizations and personalities of other countries. Professor Wynne, the then President of the Chemical Society, London, cabled to Sir P. C. Ray congratulating the Indian Chemical Society for this venture. The following report published in the renowned journal “Nature (London)” was revealing: “The great work in chemistry which has occurred in the Indian Empire during the past ten years, had lead to the establishment of an Indian Chemical Society, the first number of the quarterly journal of the Society has now appeared. There are thirteen papers, and only one of these is published under the English names. The remaining papers are published by Indians and come from all parts of the Indian Empire. Four of these emanate from the College of Science, Calcutta, and this is as it should be, because for many years past, this Institution has been the back-bone of chemical research in India.”
  14. 14. Published by Elsevier (2021`)
  15. 15. Education in Chemical Science and Technology, 2013-
  16. 16. Some of the Genius of Ancient India BHASKARACHARYA II (1114-1183 CE) ACHARYA KANAD (600 BCE) NAGARJUNA (100 CE) ACHARYA SUSHRUT (600 BCE) VARAHAMIHIR (499-587 CE) ACHARYA BHARADWAJ (800 BCE) ARYABHATT ACHARYA KAPIL (3000 BCE) Nagarjuna, “father of iatrochemistry” had explained the circulatory system and blood tissue. He worked on the benefits of specifically treated minerals known as bhasmas.
  17. 17. The iron pillar of Delhi (375–413 CE). The first iron pillar was the Iron pillar of Delhi, erected at the times of Chandragupta II Vikramaditya.The Iron Pillar located in Delhi, India, is a 7 m (23 ft) column in the Qutb complex, notable for the rust- resistant composition of the metals used in its construction.
  18. 18. Einstein: We should be thankful to the Indians who taught us how to count, without which no worthwhile scientific discovery would have been possible. The iron pillar of Delhi (375–413 CE). The first iron pillar was the Iron pillar of Delhi, erected at the times of Chandragupta II Vikramaditya.The Iron Pillar located in Delhi, India, is a 7 m (23 ft) column in the Qutb complex, notable for the rust- resistant composition of the metals used in its construction.
  19. 19. Struggle for Swatantrata : Best weapon is Science Sir P. C. Ray was a chemist by profession and an industrialist by inclination ; but his heart always remained with the people and the country. True spirit of nationalism pulsated through every fibre of his brain and body. He has served his country with head and heart. His head was big but his heart was bigger. Though Acharya Ray achieved fame far and wide as a great teacher, chemist, research worker and an exponent of industries, but his name is more familiar throughout India as a true philanthropist, patriot and social worker. He gave away his all for the poor and suffering humanity.
  20. 20. Royal Institution, London, 1897 Radiowave receiver 5 mm The waveguide Double-prism attenuators
  21. 21. An emotional Bose, during the inauguration of the Bose Institute (Basu Vigyan Mandir) in 1917 (six years after Nivedita’s death), said, “In all my struggling efforts, I have not been altogether solitary. While the world doubted, there have been a few, now in the city of silence, who never wavered in their trust.” In one of his letters he wrote, “Sister Nivedita was also greatly interested in the revival of all intellectual advances made by India, and it was her strong belief in the advance of Modern Science accomplished by Indian Men of Science that led me to found my Research Institute.”
  22. 22. J.C Bose with his students : Back Row - N.C. Nag, J.C. Ghosh, J.C. Bose, M.N. Saha, S. Dutta; Front row - N.R. Sen, J.N. Mukherjee, S.N. Bose, D.M. Bose (1928) Presidency College (1907)
  23. 23. Sir Stafford Northcote, Rector, Edinburagh University In the essay PCR analysed economic state of East India Company ruled India from Robert Clive to Lord Mayo. Within this period 15 Governors ruled India. Robert Clive Lord Mayo * In 1857 the ‘Public debt’ of India : £60,000,000 **In 1863 the Public Debt increased to £110,000,000 Every Year India sent Silver to UK of worth Rs. 1.2 Cr Mangal Pandey fired the first bullet in The First War of Independence Sepoy Mutiny : 1 st Indian Revolt in 1857
  24. 24. Acharya P C Ray consulted original Sanskrit literature with help of Acharya B. N. Seal and Rasendrasara Samgraha, Rasaratnakara, Rasahridaya, Kakachandesavarimata, Rasaprakasasudhakara, Rasakalpa, Rasaratnasammuchaya, Rasarajalakshmi, Rasanakshatramalika, Rasaratnakara, Dhaturatnamala, Rasapradipa, Dhatumanjari, Subarnatantra and different Tibetean texts. Rasahrdayatantra by Govind Bhagwatpad; Rasaratnakara by Siddha Nityanatha; Rasarnava by an unknown author; Rasendracudamani by Somadeva; Rasaratnasamuccaya by Vagbhatta; Rasaprakasasudhakara by Yasodhara; Rasarajalaksmi by Ramesvara Bhatta; Rasendracintamani by Dhundukanatha; Rasendracintamani by Ramacandra Guha; Rasasara by Govind Acarya; Rasakaumudi by Sarvajnacandra; Rasabhesajakalpa by Surya Pandita; Rasasamketakalika by Camunda; Lohapaddhati by Suresvara; Kankaligrantha by Nasirshah; Rasamuktavalina by Devanatha. Besides, there are several works whose authorship and dates have not yet been established. Among them may be mentioned Dhatukalpa, Dhatumanjari, Dhatumaranam, Rasagrantha, Rasakalpalata, Rasanibhandha, Suvaranatantra, Tamrakalpa, Abhrakakalpa, Paradakalpa, Jaranamaranadi, Sutapradipa etc.
  25. 25. Ancient India was advanced in all the fields of Science & Technology, Health and Culture. Why we Indian are going down? Acharya Ray identified three causes behind this. 1.The caste system. “The caste system was established de novo in a more rigid form. The drift of Manu and of the later Puranas is in the direction of glorifying the priestly class, which set up most arrogant and outrageous pretensions”, wrote Acharya Ray. On the issue of casteism, he wrote “Are we humans? All those haris, doms, chamars, malis, bagdis,-- —who live like animals around your house in the darkness of ignorance— what have you done for them over the centuries? You do not touch them, do not allow them to come close, you drive them away like dogs. You can take your pet dog on your lap, but if the healthy child of a cobbler crawls up your stairs, you roar in the name of your caste and religion. --- If a chamar comes to our door begging for food, it is true that we have not always shooed him away, we have given him food, but before that we have told him a thousand times: you are a cobbler, an untouchable, go away and wait under a tree in the garden—when we are through with eating you will get the leftovers. This way we have trodden millions of Indians under our feet for centuries.” He was too hard : “In our country, we need 500 stoves for 500 Congress delegates. Even that is not enough; the delegates from Madras would talk of sight-pollution: If a man from a lower caste looks at the cooked food of a Brahmin, the food becomes polluted. Would these pundits tell me if the food will become polluted if one looks from a distance with a telescope?”
  26. 26. 2. Following of code conduct as per Manu, Naya Sastras The reason for the decline of the rich culture of medicine and surgery (of Charaka and Susruta tradition), according to Acharya Ray, was the introduction of the code of conduct by Manu. Acharya Ray wrote, “According to Susruta, the dissection of dead bodies is a sine qua non to the student of surgery and his high authority lays particular stress on knowledge gained from experiment and observation. But Manu would have none of it. The very touch of a corpse, according to Manu, is enough to bring contamination to the sacred person of a Brahmin. Thus we find that shortly after the time of Bhagavata, the handling of a lancet was discouraged, and anatomy and surgery fell into disuse and became to all intents and purposes lost sciences to the Hindus.” 3. MAYA-BAD – Samkara Philosophy The third reason identified by him was the spread of the Vedanta philosophy among the educated section: “The Vadanta philosophy, as modified and expanded by Samkara, which teaches the unreality of the material world, is also to a large extent responsible for bringing the study of physical science into disrepute.” Science asks questions about the material world, and seeks the answers. Acharya Ray felt that if one believes that the material world itself is unreal or “MAYA”, it is impossible for him to harbour curiosity about it, let alone seeking truth about it.
  27. 27. Nationalistic movement With the help of Ghokhle APCR met Mahatma Gandhi and arranged a public meeting in Albert Hall, Calcutta. Gandhiji first time met intellectuals of Kolkata in 1st January, 1902 and delvered his experience in South Africa. President : Mr. Narendra Nath Sen, Editor, Indian Mirror Raja Peary Mohan Mukherji, Mr. Bhupendra Nath Basu, Mahadev Govinda Ranade Dadabhoy Naoroji APCR commented “The National Congress used to be designed as “a three days’ picnic’ in the Christmas Holidays.” (p-125, LEBC, Biography)
  28. 28. 1905 Greatly known for Partition of Bengal, bill passed by Lord Curzon. APCR was vocal against partition. Kobiguru, APCR other intellectuals of Bengal was against this bill and they joined movement against Partition Bill on 16/10/1905. Kobiguru arranged ‘Rakhi Bandhan Utsav’ and ‘No Cooking (Arandhan)’ for all.
  29. 29. 1906 Against partition, intellectuals of Kolkata met and formed the National Council of Education, Bengal (NCE-Bengal) in 1906. Aravinda Ghosh, Asutosh Chaudhuri, Bepin Chandra Pal, Brajendra Nath Seal, Chitta Ranjan Das, Devaprasad Sarvadhicary, Gaganendra Nath Tagore, Girish Chandra Bose, Hem Chandra Sen, Heremba Chandra Maitra, Jogesh Chaudhuri, Dr. Nilratan Sarkar, Raja S. C. Mullick, Rabindranath Tagore Bengal Technical Institute was started to operate since July, 1906 “A close link with the contemporary upsurge of economic swadeshi is indicated by the emphasis laid in the course of studies on training in ceramics, dyeing, soap-making, tanning and candle and match manufacture.” Acharya Ray was the President of NCE- B for two decades, 1924-1944.
  30. 30. Gandhi’s Salt March to Dandi, On March 12, 1930, Gandhi and approximately 78 male satyagrahis set out, on foot, for the coastal village of Dandi some 240 miles from their starting point in Sabarmati, a journey which was to last 23 days On the night of May, 4 Gandhi was sleeping in a cot under a mango tree, at a village near Dandi. Several ashramites slept near him. Soon after midnight the District Magistrate of Surat drove up with two Indian officers and thirty heavily- armed constables. He woke Gandhi by shining a torch in his face, and arrested him. The effects of the salt march were felt across India. Thousands of people made salt, or bought illegal salt. This period is to be considered the apex of Gandhi’s political appeal, as the march mobilized many new followers from all of Indian society and the march came to the world’s attention. After Gandhi’s release from prison he continued to work towards Indian independence, which was achieved in August, 1947. Dandi was a key turning point in that struggle.
  31. 31. The Bengal Salt Co.
  32. 32. Chairman of National School (1924) : Acharya Ray; Secretary : Subhas Chandra Bose Acharya Ray visited Kalagachia National School, Medinipur. He travelled by Train, then Boat and then 38 km by walk at the age of 73 on 15 th January, 1924. School was founded by Zaminder Mr. Jagadish Ch Maity. Now this school’s name is Jagadish Vidyapith. Acharya Ray spend four days, delivered speeches, taken classes, met the guardians etc. He declared “—The students of National School are open minded. In the Govt Schools the students are looking photos of King and Queen while in the National Schools the students are devoting to the portrays of half-necked Mahatmaji . They (Govt. School) have to cover the truth and in the National School the students discover the ‘Truth’ in the history. --- The students (National School) know well to sacrifice; they come forward as volunteer during any natural calamity like draught, flood, malaria etc.” In the British Education our students have lost their wider outlook; they are becoming narrow minded.
  33. 33. Gandhi’s Salt March to Dandi, On March 12, 1930, Gandhi and approximately 78 male satyagrahis set out, on foot, for the coastal village of Dandi some 240 miles from their starting point in Sabarmati, a journey which was to last 23 days On the night of May, 4 Gandhi was sleeping in a cot under a mango tree, at a village near Dandi. Several ashramites slept near him. Soon after midnight the District Magistrate of Surat drove up with two Indian officers and thirty heavily-armed constables. He woke Gandhi by shining a torch in his face, and arrested him. The effects of the salt march were felt across India. Thousands of people made salt, or bought illegal salt. This period is to be considered the apex of Gandhi’s political appeal, as the march mobilized many new followers from all of Indian society and the march came to the world’s attention. After Gandhi’s release from prison he continued to work towards Indian independence, which was achieved in August, 1947. Dandi was a key turning point in that struggle.
  34. 34. The Bengal Salt Co.
  35. 35. Bengal Salt Company Limited , established on 06 July 1934 by Mr. Manj Datta, disciple of Acharya P C Ray at Dadanpatrabar, Medinipur. Acharya Ray at the age of 80 spend 15 days at this place to train and take care of salt production, purification and to inspire nationalistic self-reliance of the country.
  36. 36. Productions: Hiracaus (FeSO4 7H2O used as medicine against Anemia) using scrap iron Organic Glycerine soap, Talcom Powder, Tooth paste, Phenyl, Carbolic Acid, Fire Extinguisher, Surgical Instrument, Hospital Materials, Epidrin, Santonin, Stricnin, Ferri-Iodide, Liq. Arsenicelis, Yoan, Basak, Kurchi, Kalmegh Cafin etc extracts. The indigenous drugs made at Bengal Chemical were displayed at the exhibition of Indian Medical Congress held in Calcutta in 1898. Doctors from different parts of India attending the Congress were attracted to these indigenous drugs. 1892 – BCPW; 1893 – Sulfuric Acid Plant, Phosphate Plant 1934 : Khulna Cotton Mill; 1935 : Bengal Initiative 1938 : Indian Chemical Manufacturing Association Bangasree Cotton Mill, Hindustan Inurance Co., Bengal Potteries, Bengal Enamel, Tannery Works, Chakravorty & Chatterjee Publications, Markentine Marine Co. He initiated Transports on Rivers and British Govt skill fully damaged his plan and he lost more than Rs, 2,00,000/-
  37. 37. Donations In his Science College days 8/10 students always with him and he maintained their livelihood. He had spent half-of the pension for students welfare. His Pension was Rs. 800/- pm 1918 – Establishment of Bager Hat College and purchase of 50 acres land for establishment of Agriculture University 1921 – To establish Biological Dept and over all growth of Science College, C. U., donated Rs. 1,80,000/- 1921 : Fellowship to carry out research in Science College @ 200/- per month 1022 – Nagarjuna Award to the Researcher of CU he donated Rs. 10,000/- 1922- Khadi Cotton Industry & Charaka – donated Rs. 50,000/- 1922 – Kathipara Sevashrama Sangha donation Rs. 1000/- 1924 : Establishment of Indian Chemical Society, donation to CU – Rs. 10,000/- 1927 – Jassore-Khulna Sammilani, Rs. 10,000/- 1936 – To mark his respect to Sir Ashutosh Mookherjee he donated Rs. 10,000/- for an Award after his demise 1936 _ Jotish Ch Ray Institute of Medical Research, Rs. 5000/- 1936 – Widow and poor women welfare fund Rs. 56,000/- 1936 – Lady Abala Basu Vidyalayas @ 400/- per month 1936 – Abhayashram of Mr. Prafulla Ch Ghosh, Congress leader & Student, Rs. 3000/- He ate a couple of bananas everyday. One day a student of his, Nadia Bihari, saw some very good bananas in the market, and bought a few him. Professor Ray was very glad to see such healthy bananas. But when he learned that they cost three paisas a piece instead of one paisa as usual, he got very angry, and slapped the student. The student thought the teacher as a very miserly man. A few minutes later he had a visitor, Dr. Prafulla Chandra Ghosh, who asked for help to run an orphanage. Acharya Ray asked Nadia Bihari to write a cheque of Rs. 3000, signed it, and gave it to Dr. Ghosh. The man who would not spend two extra paisas for himself had no hesitation in giving Rs. 3000 for charity! He did not received any salary from CU when he crossed 60 Yrs (1921) for 15 years when he fully retired (1975). Salary of Palit Professor was Rs. 1000/-. His Pension was 800/-.
  38. 38. CONCLUSION At the reception on Prafulla Chandra’s 70th birth anniversary organized in 1932 by the Corporation of Calcutta and the leading elites of the day, Rabindranath said in his presidential address: “It says in the Upanisads that the Supreme one wanted to be many. The urge of self-disposal is at the root of creation. It was through this kind of creative urge that Prafulla Chandra became many in the minds of pupils by diffusing and thereby reactivating himself in many younger minds. But this would hardly be possible unless he had the capacity to give himself fully to others.” Prafulla Chandra was a great nationalist and a dedicated patriot par excellence. Gandhi said : “Great he undoubted is: But goodness from Indian stand point is greater than greatness and Acharya Ray is even more good then he is great. And it is his goodness—his childlike simplicity, his suavity of manners, his ready accessibility, his unblemished purity, unostentious charity, his voluntary poverty with plain living and high thinking, his enthusiasm and optimism, his innate spirit of self-denial, his incurable habit of always taking a back seat, his sturdy independence, his inflexible incorruptibility…in a word, his nobility of nature made him idol of the people. Service and sacrifice were his watch-word…” (70th Birthday Volume)
  39. 39. International Chemical Landmark Plaque
  40. 40. University College of Science & Technology founded on March 27,1914, by the great visionary Sir Asutosh Mukherjee, the then Vice Chancellor of the University of Calcutta
  41. 41. Museum in the Department of Chemistry, University of Calcutta
  42. 42. He is an example of “plain living and high thinking”. When he was earning Rs. 800/- pm as HOD, Chemistry, Presidency College, he did not spend more than 250/- pm for his personal expenses. He distributed Rs. 400/- pm to needy students studying in colleges in Calcutta.

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