1. University of Trinidad and Tobago
School for Studies in Learning Cognition and Education
EDFN204B – Curriculum Studies
Christina Sookdeo – 52927
Rosemary Mansingh – 110006027
Trisha Assing-Raghoonath – 50996
Vieanna Khadan - 51026
Assignment Due Date: 26th March, 2012
Assignment: Educational Reform
Quality Education for all
Instructor: Ms Leela Ramsook
2. A local problem
The need to attain full national identity and
A system that met the needs of the citizens
A system that provided young people with skills to
confidently enter the workforce
Capitalization of the human resource for effective
participation in socioeconomic activities at the local,
regional and international levels.
Education was seen as the vehicle for social change.
3. 2000 – Signatory of the Millennium Summit 2000
Committed to achieving the
The Goals are:
1.Eradicate extreme hunger and poverty
2.Achieve universal primary education
3.Promote gender equality and empower women
4.Reduce child mortality
5.Improve maternal health
6.Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases
7.Ensure environmental sustainability
8.Develop a global partnership for development
4. 2000 – Signatory for the 2000 Dakar Framework for Action
Committed to achieving six major goals
All citizens have a role to play in this educational reform.
The six goals of ‘Education for All’ (EFA) have become UNESCO’s
overriding priority in education
Expand early childhood care and education
The goal calls for better and more possibilities to support young children, and
their families and communities, in all the areas where the child is growing –
physically, emotionally, socially and intellectually.
Provide free and compulsory primary education for all
Therefore this goal sets the objective of seeing that all children – girls as well as
boys – go to school and finish primary education.
Promote learning and life skills for young people and adults
This goal places the emphasis on the learning needs of young people and adults
in the context of lifelong learning.
5. Increase adult literacy by 50 per cent
This goal calls for a certain level of improvement in adult literacy by 2015 – it
says that it should be 50 per cent better than it was in 2000.
Achieve gender parity by 2005, gender equality by 2015
This goal calls for an equal number of girls and boys to be enrolled in primary
and secondary school by 2005 – this is what gender parity means.
Improve the quality of education
This goal calls for improvement in the quality of education in all its aspects,
aiming for a situation where people can achieve excellence.
6. Seven goals have been placed on the national agenda:
1) The achievement of a high level of human
development and standard of living
2) Full participation of citizens in the mainstream
3) Strong and salient economy
4) Good effective governance of the country
5) Social cohesion
6) Preservation of the natural environment
7) Efficient and effective social institutional structures
7. This outlined four major objectives:
1) Accessibility to educational opportunities for all
2) Delivery of quality education to citizens at all levels of the
3) Sustainable policy development for the education sector
4) Continuous alignment of the strategic direction in the education
system with objectives set for national development.
Five priorities for the quantitative provision of education and seven
priorities for the qualitative provision of education were set.
8. • The Ministry of Education has implemented major
strides to reform the primary school educational
• Many advances, refurbishments, and modernization
within the primary schools has been made by the
Ministry of Education.
• This is to ensure quality primary school education for
9. ADOPTION OF MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS –
Among the key eight (8) goals of the MDG is one goal that pertains
directly to the primary school educational sector.
The achievement of universal primary
10. REFORM ACTION TAKEN:
• Current student enrollment
• Building of primary schools
• Refurbishment of primary schools
11. COMMITMENT TO ACHIEVING EDUCATION FOR ALL
In the year 2000 this country also made a commitment to achieving
‘Education For All’ (EFA). Among the six (6) major EFA goals there are two
major goals for primary school reform system.
1) To ensure that by 2015 all children especially girls, children in
difficult circumstances and those belonging to ethnic
minorities, have access to and complete free and compulsory
primary education of good quality.
2) To eliminate gender disparities in primary and secondary
education by 2005, and achieving gender equality in
education by 2015, with a focus on ensuring girls’ full access
to and achievement in basic education of good quality.
12. REFORM: TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCES
• The Ministry of Education is equipping primary schools
with the necessary technology to lay the groundwork for
the establishment of a knowledge-based workforce.
• To date, one hundred and twenty-four (124) primary
schools have been equipped with a total of 1,499
13. REFORM: EDUCATION AND GENDER
• The reformation process has sought to ensure that all
students have access to the educational opportunities.
(Education Policy Paper (1993 — 2003))
• Reform action taken place:
1) Gender discrimination is eliminated from the
school curriculum, textbooks and subject access.
2) Gender sensitive curriculum strategies are
developed and continue to be implemented at all levels of
the education system.
14. THE REFORM OF THE EDUCATION
Two major priorities:
• Continuation of the construction of primary schools under
the Fourth Basic Education Programme.
• Expansion of facilities at existing secondary schools to
ensure placement of all students exiting the primary system
and to facilitate the deshifting of schools.
15. CURRICULUM REFORM:
The educational system must produce graduates with the
necessary skills to boost the working force. Hence, the Ministry
of Education has sought to focus on two major developments of
the educational sector.
16. CURRICULUM IMPROVEMENTS:
• Revision of the primary school social studies
• Introduction of a Health and Family Life Education
(HFLE) programme within the education system.
• Infusion of Values Education across the subject
17. The modernization and reform of the education system
started in the 1900’s and is still a priority today. The
most current and forthcoming reforms which seek to
address the restructuring of the entire education system
18. •Enrollment Level-
•SEMP (Secondary Education Modernization
Local School Boards were established in ten Public
Secondary Schools to assist in the school’s policy and
improvement plans and also to assist in raising funds for
19. The goals of SEMP are:
1. The reform and expansion of the secondary school
system that will result in five (5) years of high quality
secondary education for all the nation’s children
regardless of the social and economic status
2. The creation of a curriculum that relevant to the very
demanding and dynamic world of work
3. The development of teaching technologies that will
produce graduates who can adapt to the rapid
changes being brought about through technological
advances and globalization.
20. Education Policy Paper 1993-2003; “de-shifting” and
conversion of all Junior Secondary and Senior Comprehensive
schools into full five and seven year schools to ensure
equitable access to full day secondary education for all
Teacher morale through training and streamlining of the
Decentralization of control from the Ministry of Education to
The introduction of more broad based curricular such as
the infusion of Information and Communication
21. •Technical Vocational Education, Specialized Craft
•HFLE (Health and Family Life Education)
•Modules on Aids and Social Reproduction Health
•At risk youth, Project Peace
CAPE (Caribbean Advanced Proficiency Examination)
22. •School Transport Service- Currently over 200 maxi taxis transport
students daily, students are also transported by Public Transport
Service Commission (PTSC) buses at an annual cost of $30million
•School Nutrition Programme- This programme provides daily
breakfast and daily lunches for students from early childhood to
•The Text Book Rental Programme- provides essential textbooks
on loan to 75,000 secondary school students.
•Book Grants of one thousand dollars per student are provided
through an innovative visa card. For September 2004, thirty
thousand students entering fourth and sixth form classes were
targeted to receive the grant.
23. It is well recognized that teachers along with other
school administrators lie “at the heart of the nation’s
drive” because they are the professionals charged
with the responsibility of translating into effective
classroom practice the conviction that every child can
Executive Diploma in Diploma in Technology
School Management and Education
Programme, Multi-media Specialists
Certification Programme in Special Education Teachers
School Management and
Effective Leadership, Post-graduate diploma in
Visual and Performing Arts
Bachelor’s in Education
programme Specialized Craft Teachers
Master’s in Education for School Librarians
25. CETT – Caribbean Centre of Excellence for Teacher Training
This centre was set up to provide innovative leadership in inspiring,
empowering and equipping teachers in the first three grades of the
primary school, to improve the teaching of reading and thereby assist
students in mastering the fundamentals of reading.
Provision of ramps at all new primary and secondary schools to
facilitate access of students in wheelchairs
Provision of additional diagnostic and intervention support through
psychologists at the educational district level as well as ensuring
prescriptive services at some educational districts
Increases in the number of concessions granted to students with
physical and learning disabilities that are registered for national,
regional and international examinations
26. Co-ordination with the Ministry of Health to have all students
screened for visual and learning disabilities. This would include
testing and provision of spectacles and hearing aids where
Continuation of the issue of book grants for students in
Continuation of providing school meals for students at all levels
on a daily basis
Provision of Special Education Teachers, Guidance Officers and
School Social Workers in primary schools to work with learning and
behaviourally challenged students.
27. The groups of exceptional students, apart from those
with early recognisable abilities are:
•Those with sensory abilities – 50% with undetected
•Those intellectually below normal – app.25%
•Students with learning disabilities – app.10%
•The gifted and talented – app.2%
28. Maurice Report (1959)
The Private School Ordinance (1961)
The Education Act (chapter 39:1, 1966)
Save the Children International Network (late (1960’s)
Bernard van Leer Foundation (1970’s)
UNICEF Conference “ the Need for Young Child in the Caribbean”
The International Year of the Child (IYC) 1980s
Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989)
29. 1990- World Summit Goals for Children
1986- 91 -SERVOL partner with the Ministry of Education
1989- National Council For Early Childhood Care and Education
1992- National Task Force on Education
NTFE Education Policy Paper(1993-2003)
1994-95- Government in corporation with the World Bank. Begun
the Fourth Basic Education Project.
1995- National ECCE Survey, Phase 1 conducted by High/Scope for
the Ministry of Education.
1997- National ECCE Survey Phase II, High/Scope/M.O.E. Adoption
of the Caribbean Plan of Action
30. 2000- National ECCE Survey Phase III
2005 –Approved -Draft Standards for Regulating Early Childhood
Services in Trinidad and Tobago
2006- Draft National ECCE Curriculum Guide developed and