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Effective Policies and Procedures for FMs Procedures are the “how to’s” Policies are the guides – help people make decisions
Motivation and Benefits Need What does success look like Design strategy – starting with basic and then building upon that with detail steps Including Creating, Review, Instituting them in your departments and on your campuses Getting buy in for them from the whole team / campus / business Keeping them current Enforcing them effectively
We have all seen pictures of guards removed, or how not to do a task or the impact of it not being done correctly An example of Miscommunication , or not following the posted procedure
Chocking wheels before disconnecting the trailer from vehicle for instance The reason from the truck driver’s perspective – he has brakes in lock mode on trailer why does he need chocks for instance. Then the loader or fork lift operator what is his perspective on this procedure What previous work had been done to bring us to the place of having a Chock wheels sign.
Like as simple fire rule to not stack boxes in stairwell…when is this a big deal
If there are no guidelines people find some sort of way Do signs matter Maybe the analogy of staying between the lines, - why can the lines be your friends? Are we stating that we can not change the location of the lines? Why even have lines then. What previous work had been done to bring us to the place of having lines on the road.
What is the problem? Is there a problem or are we OK with the mud, wet, cold, dirty,
Task not performed same way each time - Inconsistency Customers complain about a previously performed task – Customer Satisfaction Injuries or equipment damage – Downtime, Cost, and Morale Confusion or lots of staff questions – Confusion, Frustration NO foundation for future improvement or growth No increase or growth in efficiency to build upon
Sunday Morning Worship Cooling not working – Breaker left open on air handler – when checking belt and changing filter. left a key setting in IVU software set in override while working on unit VBS Decorations lead to excessive rework – teacher used a professional construction staple gun to hang decorations on drywall, use of painters tape on foyer carpet for 4 square games, (VBS Teacher decorations Training guidelines) Classroom cubbies – put together without procedure with horizontal board put vertical causing particle board to break at dowels. Baptistry drain valve left open when attempting to fill Laying asphalt shingles without following instructions, upside down, no overlap, number of tabs, nails, first course, tare paper / vapor barrier, ridge cap Most everything you do can be communicated in words – i.e. written down. Once written down it can be read, reviewed, shared, published, posted, and copied. Furthermore it can then be edited, revised, updated, tested, improved and What about the “Coke” recipe What if society was still trying to remember who the first cave man wheel was made? The time that guy got his hand stuck in the belt
Imagine - Only saying something one time with clarity Saying something with fewer words – like a command that had all the previous training associated with it – “Go do Q-F-6” Imagine - A new employee – starts their workday with basic knowledge you had personally trained the previous employee with in detail Not having to remember all the detail sequences / steps for a complex process Imagine - the Predictability for the life of a piece of equipment properly lubricated with correct lubricant and cleaned routinely or the Confidence of having the air working on Sunday after the Qrterly PM completed – no air handler breakers left open.
Imagine - Not getting disruptive cell phone calls when on vacation to talk a employee through a routine task over the phone Imagine - Using clear previously agreed upon steps to a procedural violation to Correct and Discipline an employee instead of emotional frustration or inconsistent unwritten social rule as the basis for a tough employee conversation
Now that we are more motivated, but possibly reluctant to tackle an improvement in this area, let’s consider these motivations as benefits
Why Write them down? Important communication device – especially requirements to employees for future accountability and minimum expectation for compensation Especially for new employees – the time to bring up a new employee to a similar training level of a past employee. Consistent each time it is communicated not biased – remembers the history – leaving Egypt – celebrating Passover – each part has meaning and reminds us Document agreements regarding way things are to be done and why they are done a particular way Result of previous healthy debate amongst stakeholders, agreed direction and likely includes past trial and error. Agreed starting point or baseline from which future improvements to a policy or practice can be discussed, compared and measured. Teams discussing how a process might be improved are all starting from same point and understanding
Why Publish: Reduction in rework Used to train, hold accountable, remind team of steps – framework for delegation Delegate Task without constant retraining Used by planners for parts, tools, inventory (specific model numbers for belt sizes, lubricate type) Safety, required for compliance Consistency, regardless of which employee, contractor or staff perform the work Eliminate outside contractors possibly (well written procedures that are easy to follow might prevent paying someone else at a higher rate to know how to do it and remember how it is done). Customer (user, member, congregant) Satisfaction – Customer speaks with you about their desires – such as room set-up. Then you delegate that – what if that person gets sick, or you need to call in a different subcontractor – will the customer always get the same room set-up. Lower long term cost / expense (cost of retraining, cost of inconsistency, equipment cycling) Publishing them in an accessible location allows for easy review, and future revisions.
Why Enforce / Improve / Implement? Customer Satisfaction – do what you say / said Standardize – avoid variations Business Continuity - Shorting New Employee Training – Past Employee Refresher Foundation for Process Improvement – Starting Point – Take the OEM or Previous Procedure or Similar Business Procedure and makes it applicable to your specific application and retains past worker experiences Set the minimum standard or articulates the specific requirements – thereby providing measurable results Fairness to all employees – same each time prevent favoritism Parts can be ordered and used – reduced storage and waste Employees not heading back to shop each time for forgotten tool Make the policy the bad guy – not a misunderstanding in verbal communication
Alignment of Motivations & Benefits lead to a Need When do you need them? Another way to say what we have stated so far is from the Mindtools website –
Lengthy – 27 step sequence to getting a piece of equipment properly lit off and warmed up without damage – a boiler heatup or whole building venting of the steam loop or chill water system. Complex – task not normally performed by most and detail steps are awkward Routine, but Critical – Oil Water separation tank inspected – no oil to town or fines Demand for Consistency – Fairness to employees or customer expectation Involves Documentation – What files does the fire marshal want to see, what does OSHA want to see, What about disciplining an employee
Significant change has occurred – new calendar software or work order database, new piece of equipment needing maintenance Serious consequence if done wrong – hand cut off, fall off roof, fines, suffocation, Similar questions get asked repeatedly – how do I light the pilot on the stove People seem confused – proper way to set out tables, stack chairs, Interpreted multiple ways – setup of baptism, mats, filling, camera system, handrail,
Let’s talk about Implementing for success May need to come back to some of these motivations and success discussion once we are in the heat of technical writing and publishing
Success includes: The larger team, with reviews, signoffs, accessibility (bigger than facilities) or all of facilities Understand the why of a procedure or policy and focus on that instead of personal preference or past sacred cows Clear purpose and goal of procedure /policy and the program to have them overall Owner you as an extreme – a clear leader that runs with the ball, keeps moving the ball up the field Include visual content , color code, easy to read, professional look, Keep it all positive - long range approach, it takes time Update / Revise on regular basis
Lets get started now with a basic strategy
Basic Strategy - Procedures, guidelines, SOPs should be Simple, Organized, Prioritized and Assessable
What is Simple: User friendly, straightforward, easy to use, comprehensible Owner’s manual simplified – converted to local application – meat of info filtered and re-written Facility / campus specific – after install of components the procedures may change or can be simplified. Check list, check boxes, maps, color coded Wording related to reader – language barrier overcome Volunteers able to step in and complete after reviewing procedure Using the procedure and training on the procedure prior to performing task makes the next time at each periodicity much easier.
Organized: So we are doing “Q-9” knowing what the code means – have you filled out your W-4 Trying to find the Location of a tool cost our team more time and frustration, what if the tool was the defibulator. Where is the safety section of the procedure – SDS have this standard built into them. How do I find the information on custodial stuff in all these procedures? Inventory Begin folders / binders / naming system or color code – yellow pages were revisions in review. A Calendar system A Code system Consistent across campus Directly related or same as PM / attached to PM Show Code system such as periodicity type A, SA, Qtrly, Bi-Monthly, Monthly, Bi-Weekly, Weekly, Daily – or priority type – such as GG (General Guideline and SG – Specific Guideline, PM for preventative Maintenance, Consistent format – using Word templates for instance, page number location, revision location at bottom, initials for who edited. Instruction sets - Directly related to Task or recurring task or same as PM / attached to PM
Prioritized: Remember we are just at the basic discussion of Policy and procedure We are building the future plan for instructions What is most important, How might you spend energy and time on these procedures, sops, guidelines Safety, financial impact, time reduction,
Importance vs Urgency – matrix how important or what is the impact and how urgent or what is the schedule requirement Example – kitchen cleaning checklist, kitchen training checklist, Weekly, Bi-weekly, Monthly, Qtrly, Semi Annual, Annual Effort spent providing procedures where there has been a problem in past – such as gas left on, dishwasher running all night, safety for kids.
Accessible: Company policies, hidden on a server folder with no hyperlinks, compared to improved FMx calendar or printed, laminated in location Team members who work at times with office closed but procedures in bosses office. Or a pastor who wants to do the job and has keys but never trained – leads to more work and failure or worse Easy to get to Overcomes Language barrier – Understanding difference Laminated posted clipboard not removable Pictures – posted on wall Maps included - visual On-line… connected with PM – attachments, never lost, torn out, written over, covered in grease Like SDS – in custodial closet where chemicals exist Location relevant… to tools, cart, building, classroom, equip Handy, available, reachable, open, nearby, Language barrier – Understanding difference Printed laminated posted clipboard not removable (example Van clipboard laminated) Pictures – posted on wall, coffee ministry / laundry use Maps Binders vs online Every employee (custodial / maintenance tech) has login Every maintenance personnel has key to location of files
Detail Strategy – plan/design
Starting Point: Take an Inventory – Equipment on campus Employee tasks building components or parts Assets, even assets like skills, Use Job Description - Yours first, what is expected of you What equipment is your responsibility What roles are your responsibility - Your team next what is expected of each of them, do the tools exist, do the procedures exist Critical to Mission or Success What would your customer not be happy without, what is necessary for minimum customer satisfaction (temp, roof, doors working, seats not broken) Convert this to smaller parts that deliver that happiness. Lessons Learned Incident Reports Failed inspections Early failure of equipment Damage Past Employee mistake
List Specific Needs: We are stacking the process up like building a Cake here – looking back at our priority list Following the inventory, job descriptions, and customer deliverables Then make a List of all the procedural needs you can think of – just get started and then prioritize them later Consider the formatting maybe based on the priority. Workflows Processes Existing forms Needs for Data Collection Codes All Guidelines Unwritten Rules
Proper grease - mixed or different grease leads to damage Sunday Morning Deliverables – set-ups, mats clean, paper towel dispensers filled, Equipment specific Employee specific Task Specific
Look at NACFM site http://nacfm.com/members/facility-management-links/ “FM Industry Links” for categories for the FM for PMs
Campus Examples may be repeated a multiple locations once they have been thoroughly reviewed routed and implemented Could help standardize the campuses You say some of this list is not even under the FM authority…if you have a team or employees then all the HR impacts you. Often HR affects the facilities hourly employee’s differently than the salaried pastoral team. Employee handbook has computer use policy, or parking policy that impacts facilities Wedding policy has parts regarding set-up and decorations, etc.
Define your types: Changes your template and or storage location? Policy: high level directive from management applying usually to the entire organization Campus wide – or all employee requirement or all members
Procedure: specifies how a policy is to be implemented, with a high-level description of activities and responsibilities Standard – or Specific – called SOP or SP General or GOP – called GP
Process Map: graphical representation of a flow of activities undertaken to achieve a specific outcome Could be checklist or flow diagram Could be attached to a step by step procedure Show the hidden electronic process such as current flow for the equipment being maintained
Work Instruction: detailed step-by-step instruction for performing a work activity Checklist Procedural steps - PMs Possible sign off with each step – Circle V or Q or W
Workflows - is this data in a database that gets backed up? 1. Once Contracts are signed move to In Progress Folder 2. Archive all Financial related Documents for 7 years, purge older 3. Often just calendar reminders in your e-mail program Processes 1. Key Request form routed to Pastor, Maintenance, Front office 2. Room Set-up request reviewed, approved, follow-up, assignment. 3. Vehicle reservation 4. Schedule request to reserve a room 5. Borrow Equipment – FMX example of the custom field that explains we sign out tables M-Th 9-5 Existing forms – have related process that may not be documented – who gets the form, where does it go next. 1. Key Request 2. Equipment Borrow Request 3. Van Request 4. Room Set-up 5. Maintenance Request 6. Incident Report Needs for Data Collection – authorities come wanting to review records, how are they captured and stored 1. Fire Alarm Test 2. Oil / Water Separator Report 3. Food Storage Freezer Temp / Time 4. Drinking Water test / Air Quality Test
Detail discussion. Creating and implementing
Now your have exhausted or put in that 80% approach to the list of inputs to this Policy and Procedure improvement Begin to then put all these ducks in a row. Next take the list and – Prioritize What needs a procedure – importance / critical (lessons learned, hard spots in employee relationships, incident reports, ) What needs to be done first – priority / urgency Come up with that Numbering / Code System How do we organize it for clarity and ease of use and consistency – GG (general guidelines), SG (Specific Guidelines), PMP (Preventative Maintenance Procedure), CMP (Custodial Maintenance Procedure), etc. .001 or 01-02 (GG01-02) Template starting point to ensure consistency and even “save as” DOT file in Word. Once you have a great naming system or code or title standard – being listing them by title / code. Make the most unsafe, greatest impact to operations the top priority Don’t just pick on easy ones. Get the hard work done – like inventory of all HVAC units with filter size, model number, belt size, lubricant, location, age, spreadsheet, unique steps or groups based on HVAC type, maybe even a different code number for large vs small.
Develop or steal (beg / borrow) a Template - What format do we use – template / Calendar / code system for instance Build a basic formatted template and only save as, never change original template. DOT files instead of DOC A good template like the handout can have multiple areas to help remind you but can be left with an N/A in that section when not necessary. Branded – helps to seal the importance and professionalism Different format for the use or type
Template: Should include but may not always be used for PMs Name / Title Tools / equipment / Safety Time Location Steps Map / drawing / picture Sign Offs For SOPS or Policies: Goal / Aim Owner References Review Date
Create: 1. Begin writing it down, if you have a simple template – then fill in the blanks 2. Send it in the field with understanding they should red ink it 3. Have the reader make notes on the OEM procedure with site specific differences 4. Hire a typist with some technical aptitude – hand wrote , gave list 5. Remember the Language should match the reader 6. Always consider the safety steps or implications this procedure may have on other processes (loss of air flow, fire alarm goes off, slippery, hole in the ground, working by side of the road, lighting storm on roof, At Glaxo Smith Kline or GSK – there were many previously established procedures and a process of creation, review, edit and publish. There were also FDA recommended and GMP (Good Manufacturing Processes) guides to this overall process. Even things like ISO (international organization for standardization) 9000 Quality, or 14000 require minimum procedure implementation and review. 7. You must drive - At Faith however – there was nothing and much less requirement from upper management or outside sources for this kind of detail. However – the benefits I listed above begin to demand it. As a Manager of something – this is a tool for management. 8. Start with a basic list, code like the Navy 3M system, and hand written with OEM copies attached to color coded sheets in 3 ring binders.
Publish: Type in hand written red lines or notes from reviews 2nd set of eyes will find things Every possible future stakeholder or cross functional area gets a chance to review and sign-off Sign-offs can also fulfill the required training step before official published status Training and communication / marketing – edit the actual PM staff have access to Publishing – Online- hardcopy, website, Where will it be stored, accessible – are all old copies removed. Are all old ways of doing things prevented removed.
Implement: Standardize / Institutionalize – this is the only way and assumed way it should have been done / New Normal Poke Yoke example – mistake proof – make it the way – integrate into only way (Christ stated “I am the Way, the truth” Standardizing examples In-Box or folder holders or posted calendar, e-mail notifications of assignments Sign off Steps / checkboxes and supervisor review Labor hours reported on as confirmation “Resolve” or “Execute” work in database with login Training and practice with application Show benefits to team, have parts on hand previously ordered per calendar, ease of use All procedures look professional and have the same standard. In the Navy you could not be performing any technical task without the procedure being open. Two person rule All highly repeatable and critical task required two sailors (safety guy was often the reader of the procedure) Can not drive a vehicle unless completion of training with quiz, signoff, application, not much different than employment. Application – to work, background check – and then “ attitude of I got this, don’t micro manage me?”
Enforce / Audit / Review: A. Improve / Report B. Hired an intern to inventory, audit, rewrite – upload to online accessible location C. Extreme Ownership – looks at self first if failure- what could I have done better, what is my part in the improvement. D. Put PM or reminder on calendar to review all Procedures for updates/ accuracy / is equipment still on campus / do we still do it that way? OSHA for instance will come looking for employee training files or documentation that training occurred when there has been an incident leading to OSHA involvement. (having the procedures, proof tech has access to it, was trained on it, etc.) E. Creative in my marketing and attempt to get the procedure so engrained into the fabric – that it becomes seamless. F. But we must be diligent since the reasons written down are forgotten – Previously you have put multiple team mates in review of the procedure or sat around a table and hashed out the pros and cons or hired an architect to tell you the best plan …we can not forget all of this in the heat of the moment and roughly violate a engrained policy G. What you tolerate will be the new standard – rubber stoppers / wedges on doors for instance. Maybe set a long term goal of getting to the harder to reach fruit now that low hanging ones are done. Maybe a Kiazen event or BBQ day where you stand-down from regular work and train on procedures, access to them. Etc.
Examples Simple pedestrian barriers in a foyer are based on a known policy of distance from door or wall and width The link on a website is attempting to guide people to a form that request use of a room based on a known policy and procedure Handicap parking spots are the result of a written policy Temp of the air is a policy When employees show up to work Location of the mop buckets are based on past decisions and included in employee training for a reason
Note one of the first – since my first was Site wide such as “Facilities Use, Kitchen Use, Wedding Policy” Then PMs However – this became a high priority by the matrix you saw before - In each van metal clipboard, laminated to clipboard and paper copies to check Door left down driving down highway Bent tonged post / stand Chains worn completely through Axle bent Tires rubbing on fender well Front roof damaged Overloaded and van missed turn on interstate in the mountains on a downhill due to weight and trailer brakes Stolen trailer due to improper locking
This one listed with the PM on NACFM http://nacfm.com/members/fm-best-practice-links/
On wall next to coffee system with picture – written with visual at location, accessible, simple, organized Pots not returned Each week it was a different crew of volunteers only doing one or two mornings or noon's per month.
Laminated on a clipboard with simple on one side and detail with reasons for each step on the other side Custom baptistry that only exist at Faith with manual drain valve, inline fill heater, with solenoid, separate hot tub circulating pump and heater. Also posted on our Company file share and in the FMX PM Customer complaints and critical to Sunday Morning Very Site specific – for our team built this thing from parts. I don’t want to be the only guys who knows how to work it Or others constantly breaking it due to lack of training.
Uniquely Site specific – not a normal Facilities component for most campuses, possibly hazardous – confined space, toxic gases, hepatitis, costly pump replacement if not working correctly, Way beyond the original OEM with site specific details such as working close to highway, impact on current operations if sewage is not operational, tagging out pumps while valves shut or disconnected
www.nacfm.com Member login Performed a search for Policies and Procedures on site Research papers such as Marie our Treasurer FM Best Practices Links with early start on Site specific pm steps
Keep climbing Never quit – long term marathon – lot of miles ahead Restart – don’t give up, if failure occurs Look deeper – what is next in the priority list Never satisfied Take these steps to the next level – like a Training program / like integrated PMs Or each procedure you have has been audited and reviewed to see if the organization has institutionalized it Or if it has become the engrained fabric of how you are doing business Or if you can change the policy and procedure in such a way that it is the social norm – makes sense to do no other way Use ISO site for template and detail guidelines – don’t try to reinvent policies and procedures – just improve operations on site – that is where success is, procedures and policies are just a tool in the tool box. https://www.iso.org/files/live/sites/isoorg/files/archive/pdf/en/how-to-write-standards.pdf
What is the
Low Customer Satisfaction
Confusion / Frustration / Morale
Inability to grow / climb to next rung
of the need
Sunday MorningWorship Cooling not
VBS Decorations lead to excessive
rework / cost
Newly Built Classroom Cubbies easily
Baptistry does not fill, wasting time and
Gas left on with no pilots lit in kitchen
MarieWelch, NACFM Research Paper, Development and
Implementation of Effective Policies and Procedures for
Church Facilities, April 29, 2005 taken from NACFM.com
7 Reasons toWrite Business Policies and Procedures
JANUARY 20, 2016 BY PATRICIA LOTICH