Google campus presentation 15 jan 2013

Google campus presentation   15 jan 2013
Design Protection Workshop
          15 January 2013

 Peter Arrowsmith & Yasmine Hashim
Main types of Intellectual Property


 •   Trade Marks
 •   Patents
 •   Copyright
 •   Designs
Main types of Intellectual Property

 Trade Marks
 • Identifies   trade origin of a product
 • Must   be distinctive and non-descriptive
 • Potentially   unlimited duration
Main types of Intellectual Property

 Patents
 • Protects   technical inventions
 • Must    be novel and non-obvious
 • Lasts   20 years
 • UK/National   rights
Main types of Intellectual Property

Copyright
• Protects   original works
• 70   years from death of designer
• Limited   protection for 3D shapes
• No   requirement for registration
Main types of Intellectual Property

 Designs
 Registered –   Registered Community designs
                UK / national registrations

 Unregistered - Unregistered Community design
                (UCD)
                UK design right
Overview of IP

    Patents             Copyright
Vacuum cleaner
bag positioner




                       Trade Marks
                    HENRY/HETTY/NUMATIC
  Designs
What do we mean by a design?

                                           Plot
         Configuration
                                 Drawing
 Something decorative

                         Shape
        Sketch
                                 Scheme
Something artistic
Definition of design

Legal definition (within Europe):
“A design means the appearance theof           wholep
                                                or a
ofpart
   a          product from the features of, in particular,
              resulting
the lines, contours, colours, shape, texture and/or
materials of the product itself and/or its
ornamentation.”
Benefits of a registered design

…over a unregistered design
• Defined asset/property
• Visible deterrent
• Easier to enforce – no proof of copying required
• Lasts longer
• Buys you time
Requirements for protection

Registrable designs must:
• Be new

• Have individual character

• Not be excluded
Novelty

• A design is new if no identical design has been made
  available to the public before the filing date
• Designs shall be deemed to be identical if their features
  differ only in immaterial details
• A twelve month grace period applies to your own
  disclosures
• The grace period allows the design to be tested on the
  market before an application is filed (but should be
  used with caution)
Individual Character

• A design has individual character if the overall impression
                                                      it
      it produces oninformed user
                     an                  differs from the
  overall impression produced on such a user by any design
  that has been made available to the public before the filing
  date
• The degree of freedom of the designer shall be taken into
  consideration
• The aspects that confer individual character on a design are
  different in each case
Exclusions

• Features dictated solely by technical function
• “Must-fit” designs
• Component parts of complex products are
  excluded, unless visible in normal use
Application process

• UK vs Community designs
• No examination for novelty and individual character
• Design representations should be considered carefully
• Multiple applications
• Other countries
• 25 years of protection, renewable every 5 years
Google campus presentation   15 jan 2013
Scope of protection

• The holder of the design has the exclusive right to make,
  offer, put on the market, import, export or stock the design
• The scope of protection includes any design which does
  not produce a different overall impression on the informed
  user
• The degree of freedom of the designer shall be taken into
  consideration
Scope of protection
Scope of protection
Case Studies

What have Apple protected?
Case Studies
Case Studies
Case Studies
Case Studies
Case Studies

What about Google?
Case Studies
Case Studies

What about Facebook?
Take home points

Registered designs
• Potentially valuable asset
• Easy to get
• Low cost
• Put competitors off
• Consider as part of IP portfolio of rights
Google campus presentation   15 jan 2013
Google campus presentation   15 jan 2013
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Google campus presentation 15 jan 2013

  • 2. Design Protection Workshop 15 January 2013 Peter Arrowsmith & Yasmine Hashim
  • 3. Main types of Intellectual Property • Trade Marks • Patents • Copyright • Designs
  • 4. Main types of Intellectual Property Trade Marks • Identifies trade origin of a product • Must be distinctive and non-descriptive • Potentially unlimited duration
  • 5. Main types of Intellectual Property Patents • Protects technical inventions • Must be novel and non-obvious • Lasts 20 years • UK/National rights
  • 6. Main types of Intellectual Property Copyright • Protects original works • 70 years from death of designer • Limited protection for 3D shapes • No requirement for registration
  • 7. Main types of Intellectual Property Designs Registered – Registered Community designs UK / national registrations Unregistered - Unregistered Community design (UCD) UK design right
  • 8. Overview of IP Patents Copyright Vacuum cleaner bag positioner Trade Marks HENRY/HETTY/NUMATIC Designs
  • 9. What do we mean by a design? Plot Configuration Drawing Something decorative Shape Sketch Scheme Something artistic
  • 10. Definition of design Legal definition (within Europe): “A design means the appearance theof wholep or a ofpart a product from the features of, in particular, resulting the lines, contours, colours, shape, texture and/or materials of the product itself and/or its ornamentation.”
  • 11. Benefits of a registered design …over a unregistered design • Defined asset/property • Visible deterrent • Easier to enforce – no proof of copying required • Lasts longer • Buys you time
  • 12. Requirements for protection Registrable designs must: • Be new • Have individual character • Not be excluded
  • 13. Novelty • A design is new if no identical design has been made available to the public before the filing date • Designs shall be deemed to be identical if their features differ only in immaterial details • A twelve month grace period applies to your own disclosures • The grace period allows the design to be tested on the market before an application is filed (but should be used with caution)
  • 14. Individual Character • A design has individual character if the overall impression it it produces oninformed user an differs from the overall impression produced on such a user by any design that has been made available to the public before the filing date • The degree of freedom of the designer shall be taken into consideration • The aspects that confer individual character on a design are different in each case
  • 15. Exclusions • Features dictated solely by technical function • “Must-fit” designs • Component parts of complex products are excluded, unless visible in normal use
  • 16. Application process • UK vs Community designs • No examination for novelty and individual character • Design representations should be considered carefully • Multiple applications • Other countries • 25 years of protection, renewable every 5 years
  • 18. Scope of protection • The holder of the design has the exclusive right to make, offer, put on the market, import, export or stock the design • The scope of protection includes any design which does not produce a different overall impression on the informed user • The degree of freedom of the designer shall be taken into consideration
  • 21. Case Studies What have Apple protected?
  • 29. Take home points Registered designs • Potentially valuable asset • Easy to get • Low cost • Put competitors off • Consider as part of IP portfolio of rights

Notes de l'éditeur

  1. 17/01/13
  2. 17/01/13 Notes Hello. Welcome and thank you all for coming. I’m Peter [TO COMPLETE]. Today’s workshop, as you know, is about designs and design protection. What we are going to cover: Overview of IP What is a design? Benefits of a design registration Requirements for protection Registration process Enforcement and scope of protection Case studies his is for everyone and want it to be interactive therefore any questions, or comments just shout. Likelihood is if you have a question or comment others may too. House-keeping as they say: Approx 45 mins to 1 hr with time for questions. Then some drinks/nibbles will be served downstairs afterwards to mingle and ask more questions and follow up. B4 we kick off it would be good to get an idea of how many people here have: a) a product in development? –(i) mobile app; (ii) other product b) Have any experience of designs? Ok that’s useful. Hopefully something for all here but if topic not covered then can ask at end of session. Ok, let’s put things in context first. Many people get mixed up between different types of IP
  3. 17/01/13 Notes 1) Personal property – 1 of most valuable assets for a start-up or large company, can be owned, sold and licensed. Important for investors eg TRUNKI. 2) Exclusive in nature – ie right to prevent others from using – a sword not a shield – helps maintain competitive advantage 3) Territorial – protected by national legislation and limited by national boundaries but EU wide rights for trade marks and designsRight to prevent Rights exist in parallel but independent of each other and some overlap as we will see Other types of IP – database rights, confidential information know how, passing off rights
  4. 17/01/13
  5. 17/01/13 No reference to visual appearance as a general rule Excludes computer programmes, mathematical methods, business methods, method for performing a mental act,, presentation of informationr
  6. 17/01/13
  7. 17/01/13
  8. 17/01/13 Notes When you hear the word ‘design’ what do we mean? e.g – a drawing or sketch/something decorative or artistic/a plot or scheme/ the shape or configurations 2) From the point of view of IP and design protection within Europe – broadly you are talking about the appearance of a product.
  9. 17/01/13 Notes Harmonisation of designs in 2002. Previously different definition and had to have some eye appeal. Appearance – visual impression/how something looks e.g. texture and/or materials, e.g. brushed metal v shiny metal [Excludes functional features if 100% functional. If some arbitrary element then ok e.g. lego brick – held to be both – good design involves both. Whole or part – very useful. For reasons we may come onto later you may just want to protect a part of a product. Definition requires a product –what is a product – Very broad, includes perhaps graphical symbols and typographical typefaces but excludes computer programmes. Indication of product required in application and classification according to Locarno classification - but scope of protection not limited to particular product !!
  10. 17/01/13 Notes Defined asset -Investors interested in registered rights cf unregistered – certainty and can be assigned, security taken over, licensed – easier to define than unregistered rights and presumption of validity eg Trunki ride on suitcase Deterrent value – fact on register and can be used and enforced against 3 rd parties plus strategic advantage can create uncertainty– taken more seriously than unregisterd rights Easier to enforce No need to prove copying –no argument over the date you came up with design versus date they did or access to your design. Duration – up to 25 years cf UCD 3 years and UK design right – 10 years from 1 st marketing Buys you time – marker in sand and once file then can file priority claim. Also no requirement to use – can file for several prototypes as part of a multiple application – even though may not produce all of them
  11. The requirement of individual character focuses more on overall impression than on details. Thus, detailed differences will not be enough to give validity to a new design if it produces the same overall impression on an informed user The design freedom is important. Thus, if a designer’s freedom is highly constrained by the nature of the product then smaller differences will be sufficient to confer individual character on the design The informed user is an important person. He is like the skilled person in patent law. The informed uesr is like a customer who would use the product and be well enough informed to understand the degree of designer freedom.
  12. The purpose of the registered design system is to protect aesthetic features. Patents are intended to protect technical developments. Thus, you cannot obtain patent protection for functional components through the back-door. Just because some aspects of a design are dictated by function does not mean that the design is entirely invalid. The technical function features must be ignored when deciding whether the other features of the design fulfill the requirements for registration. “ Dictated solely by function” contains an ambiguity. If a wholly functional article can be made in a number of ways then no specific choice of shape is “dictated” by the article’s function. This interpretation has been rejected by the House of Lords. The held that “dictated solely by function” means that “prompted by function”: where a shape is adopted upon the sole requirement of achieving a functional aim. A similar exclusion exists in trade mark law to prevent a proprietor from obtaining a monopoly on a sign that embodies a functional characteristic of a product. Must fit is intended to allow competition in spare parts or complementary products, and to prevent the proprietor from gaining a monopoly in an after-market. Thus, much as they might like to, Apple cannot prevent competitors from producing accessories that fit their products, even if those products have poor quality etc. Normal use here means use by the end user, excluding maintenance or service. A complex product is one that is composed of multiple components which can be replaced permitting disassembly and reassembly of the product A car is a complex product. A fitted kitchen is another example. The components invisible in normal use provision is directed squarely at spare parts for the automotive industry which are to lack protection, whereas visible components such as body panels should be protectable OHIM must attempt to apply a Europe-wide conception of public policy and morality. Very few designs are refused on these grounds. Naxi symbols A UK design cannot involve the use of the royal arms, the crown or other royal symbols. Equally flags are excluded from registration, including the olympic symbol
  13. Clearly the design drawings are important. The drawings should not include unnecessary features which could limit the scope of protection. Equally it is important not to obscure important features. Colour should be considered carefully if it is to be used. Is colour important? Does it limit your scope of protection?
  14. It is somewhat anomalous to refer to a computer logo or symbol as a product. However, these items are definitely protectable as 2D designs Parts of products are expressly included, as long as they are visible in normal use. One strategy is to file several design applications for a single product, where each application relates to a different component. This probably gives a broader overall scope of protection than a single application for the whole product. It is, however, more expensive. Also, each component must satisfy the requirements of novelty and individual character on its own
  15. Patent claims give a precise definition of an invention so that infringers can understand the scope of protection. The scope of the penumbra of infringing equivalents can only be truly assessed in an infringement action for designs. The overall impression of a design will depend strongly on the individual case, and considerable margin is left to the judgment of the tribunal. The test for infringement is the same as that for individual character. What about the idea of making a chess set with different animals for different pieces? Is this protectable with registered designs? Not in general. Individual pieces can, however, be protected as three-dimensional representations How about style. Style usually lies somewhere between an idea and an expression. It usually cannot be protected, except in a specific form.
  16. Patent claims give a precise definition of an invention so that infringers can understand the scope of protection. The scope of the penumbra of infringing equivalents can only be truly assessed in an infringement action for designs. The overall impression of a design will depend strongly on the individual case, and considerable margin is left to the judgment of the tribunal. The test for infringement is the same as that for individual character. Make more interactive
  17. Jimmy Choo vs Towerstone These are “Ramona” bags, launched by Jimmy Choo amid great fanfare. The infringer is a retailer on Oxford Street. “ Standing back, it seems to me that the overall impression to be formed by an informed user at an appropriate level of generality is of a bucket bag with a double row of large eyelets threaded with a belt and interrupted by a clasp strap appearing to run along the bag longitudinally, and with handles which terminate in a lozenge shape integral with the eyelet design .” The overall impression of the Defendants’ handbag was exactly the same as that of Jimmy Choo’s handbag and was therefore an infringement of Jimmy Choo’s Community registered design and unregistered design right. Mr Justice Floyd went on further to state that “ the likelihood that these two designs could have been arrived at independently, given the large number of identical features in a design field as free as the present one, seems to me to be truly fanciful ”. There is a broad design freedom here. The defendants’ choice of design is so similar to the Jimmy Choo design that it could not have been developed independentally. The defendant said they were an ‘innocent infringer’, but they were found liable nevertheless
  18. Features of Apples tablet computer RCD 181607-0001: i)7 views showing front, back, perspective and sides -A rectangular , biaxially symmetrical slab with four evenly, slightly rounded corners ; ii) A flat transparent surface without any ornamentation covering the entire front face of the device up to the rim; iii) A very thin rim of constant width, surrounding and flush with the front transparent surface; iv) A rectangular display screen surrounded by a plain border of generally constant width centred beneath the transparent surface; v) A substantially flat rear surface which curves upwards at the sides and comes to meet the front surface at a crisp outer edge; vi) A thin profile, the impression of which is emphasised by (v) above; vii) Overall, a design of extreme simplicity without features which specify orientation. Identification of product: handheld computer (2) Conceded that none of features dictated solely by function but relevant as functionality relevant to qu of design freedom and therefore scope of protection –if limited design freedom then scope of protection narrower Assessment of indiv charac depends on whther overall impression produced on the informed user by the design depends on the “existing design corpus” taking into consideration the nature of the product to which the design is applied, the industrial sector to which it belongs and the degree of freedom of the designer in developing the design Art 14. Indication of product given in . In terms of scope of protection: the design must be broken down into features. Each feature needs to be considered in order to give it appropriate significance or weight. Each feature needs to be considered in three respects. A feature dictated solely by function is to be disregarded. As long as it is not disregarded, each feature must be considered against the design corpus and it must be considered from the point of view of design freedom then go onto look at similarities and differences. 17/01/13
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  21. Notes MP3 players Stand -? Extend excluded by must fit/functional exclusion Housing for electrical device Display for an electronic device Component for electronic device 17/01/13
  22. Notes Icons for display screen. Part of over 54 designs filed as part of a multiple application. 17/01/13
  23. Notes Google have 55 RCD 1) Computerised eye glasses – HMD for gaming, sports and personal use – in addition to patent equipped with processor, memory, cameras, speakers. 17/01/13
  24. Notes A screen displays and icons! Online promotional menage. Display screen with an animated user interface. 17/01/13
  25. 24 RCDs Graphical user interface. 17/01/13
  26. Notes Various filing strategies. Many companies file – some good, some not so good. No examination so easy to obtain Low cost – official fees (Euro 320 1 st design and Euro 115 for each additional design or Euro 50 if over 10 and Cleveland fees £670 + £125) 0 UK ½ cost but only one territory £60 + £20 to £40 (official fees _ £329+£68 6o £45) Scope of protection not always certain but deterrent value – puts competitors off – can cause competitors problems e.g. Apple v Samsung wars. Valuable asset – start ups – may have v.little inventions like IP and registered rights. Adds value and asset to put to accounts. Can be licenser e.g. Tranki Trade marks and patents more common but do not neglect. N.B – Benefits of RCD – non-European, scope of protection varies, low cost (3-4 times cost but protection in whole of EU)
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