Dont Be Blown Away by All The Hot Air - Ribble Valley Councillors Call for Authorities to Come Clean about Air Quality.docx

Ged Mirfin
Ged MirfinNational Award Winning Data Analytics Consultant & Marketing and Communications Strategy Adviser à Freelance

A Presentation of the Statistical Data on Greenhouse Gases as it relates to the Ribble Valley which draws on ONS & NHS Data

"Don't be blown away
by all the hot air":
Ribble Valley Councillors call
for the Authorities to 'Come
Clean' about Air Quality
A Presentation of the Statistical Data
on Greenhouse Gases as it relates to
the Ribble Valley
By
Lancs. Cty Cllr Ged Mirfin (Ribble Valley NE)
&
RV Boro Cllr Kevin Horkin (Grindleton & West
Bradford)
Greenhouse Gas Emissions (Carbon Dioxide, Sulphur Dioxide and Nitrous Oxide) in the
Ribble Valley represent 11.61% of the total emitted across the 14 Lancashire authorities –
the 2nd highest percentage total ever which represents a progressive deterioration over
the last 4 years.
The figures have hardly improved in percentage contribution over the last 17 years.
At the local authority area level, emissions range from under 450 kilotonnes (kt) in
Hyndburn to 1 Megatonne (Mt) (the equivalent material released by a hydrogen bomb) or
more in Ribble Valley, Lancaster and West Lancashire.
Area name Grand Total Grand Total
Ribble Valley 1160.00 11.61
Lancaster 1073.30 10.74
West Lancashire 1061.40 10.62
Wyre 876.30 8.77
Chorley 733.40 7.34
Blackburn with Darwen 653.40 6.54
South Ribble 647.80 6.48
Fylde 606.30 6.07
Blackpool 500.20 5.01
Pendle 467.00 4.67
Rossendale 460.50 4.61
Hyndburn 443.30 4.44
Burnley 434.40 4.35
Lancashire 14 9989.80 100.00
Year %
2021 11.61
2020 11.34
2019 11.11
2018 10.98
2017 11.03
2016 11.26
2015 11.32
2014 11.12
2013 9.76
2012 8.51
2011 10.06
2010 9.50
2009 8.55
2008 9.38
2007 10.24
2006 9.74
2005 12.08
This obviously has everything to do with the Cement Works in Clitheroe. Industry
generates 60.88% of Greenhouse Gases emitted in Ribble Valley which is 38.30% above
the Mean Average for the 14 Lancashire Authorities and represents 31.59% of All
Greenhouse Gas Emissions across Lancashire.
We have to acknowledge that Emissions from Industry have fallen by 584.7 Kt or 45.29%
since 2005 which is commendable. The latest however is the 8th highest figure and 6th
highest percentage contribution in 17 years with Industry increasing its percentage
contribution to Green House Gas Emissions across Lancashire over the past 4 years.
Area name Industry Grand Total %
Above/Below
Average
Ribble Valley 706.2 1160 60.88 38.50
West Lancashire 236.3 1061.4 22.26 -0.11
Blackburn with Darwen 193 653.4 29.54 7.16
Wyre 131.7 876.3 15.03 -7.35
South Ribble 125.7 647.8 19.40 -2.97
Hyndburn 117.9 443.3 26.60 4.22
Lancaster 105.9 1073.3 9.87 -12.51
Rossendale 97.9 460.5 21.26 -1.12
Pendle 90.5 467 19.38 -3.00
Fylde 88.7 606.3 14.63 -7.75
Blackpool 82.3 500.2 16.45 -5.92
Burnley 77.6 434.4 17.86 -4.51
Chorley 74.2 733.4 10.12 -12.26
Lancashire 14 2235.5 9989.8 22.38 0.00
Area name Industry
Ribble Valley 31.59
West Lancashire 10.57
Blackburn with Darwen 8.63
Wyre 5.89
South Ribble 5.62
Hyndburn 5.27
Lancaster 4.74
Rossendale 4.38
Pendle 4.05
Fylde 3.97
Blackpool 3.68
Burnley 3.47
Chorley 3.32
Lancashire 14 100.00
Worryingly, as we can see this is the highest contribution overall in 6 years and the 3rd
highest contribution since Green House Gas Emissions were first measured in the Ribble
Valley.
This is a cause for concern because what it suggests is that improvements made in other
sectors: Commercial and Public Sector Buildings following the retro-fitting of more
Year Area name Industry Grand Total %
2021 Ribble Valley 706.2 1160 31.59
2020 Ribble Valley 642 1077.2 30.61
2019 Ribble Valley 711.3 1178.2 28.92
2018 Ribble Valley 699 1184.9 29.40
2017 Ribble Valley 702.1 1195.4 32.25
2016 Ribble Valley 727 1230 33.96
2015 Ribble Valley 780 1275.3 33.69
2014 Ribble Valley 782.4 1286.7 32.78
2013 Ribble Valley 679.1 1204 28.20
2012 Ribble Valley 535.3 1067.2 22.69
2011 Ribble Valley 743.7 1274.8 28.55
2010 Ribble Valley 746 1304.1 25.53
2009 Ribble Valley 569.1 1112.7 22.12
2008 Ribble Valley 754.4 1334 24.86
2007 Ribble Valley 864.4 1456.7 28.48
2006 Ribble Valley 876.3 1480.3 25.69
2005 Ribble Valley 1290.9 1907.8 33.38
Year Industry Grand Total %
2021 706.2 1,160.00 60.88
2020 642 1,077.20 59.60
2019 711.3 1,178.20 60.37
2018 699 1,184.90 58.99
2017 702.1 1,195.40 58.73
2016 727 1,230.00 59.11
2015 780 1,275.30 61.16
2014 782.4 1,286.70 60.81
2013 679.1 1,204.00 56.40
2012 535.3 1,067.20 50.16
2011 743.7 1,274.80 58.34
2010 746 1,304.10 57.20
2009 569.1 1,112.70 51.15
2008 754.4 1,334.00 56.55
2007 864.4 1,456.70 59.34
2006 876.3 1,480.30 59.20
2005 1,290.90 1,907.80 67.66
efficient heating systems after getting rid of antiquated boilers are being made more
speedily.
There are other areas for concern too. The most critical is Transport. The figures for the
last 2 years are misleading because of the impact of Covid which meant that there were
far fewer vehicles on the Road but there glaring impact is apparent in the creep in their
contribution, which is now the largest since data on Green House Gar Emissions was
captured. In 2021 Transport contributed the highest per centage of Green House Gas
Emissions in Ribble Valley since they were first measured.
It is difficult to calculate the number of vehicles on the Roads in Ribble Valley at any one
time because although we can precisely determine the number of vehicles registered at
Year Commercial Public Sector
2021 6 6.5
2020 4.9 6.2
2019 6.4 7.2
2018 8 11.3
2017 19.8 7.9
2016 32.6 7.1
2015 26.5 8.5
2014 30 10.3
2013 33.8 11.6
2012 32.4 10.9
2011 34.6 12
2010 37.2 12.8
2009 31.2 10.4
2008 36.6 12
2007 37.6 13.1
2006 40.7 14.5
2005 42 15.8
ID Transport Transport
2021 113.5 4.45
2020 101.2 4.24
2019 122.8 4.19
2018 123.5 4.25
2017 121.3 4.12
2016 124.6 4.15
2015 119.8 4.04
2014 117.3 4.05
2013 114.5 3.98
2012 117.9 4.10
2011 121.4 4.09
2010 124.2 4.12
2009 125.5 4.15
2008 131 4.22
2007 137.1 4.42
2006 135.2 4.20
2205 135.7 4.19
homes or businesses in the Ribble Valley a large number of people work away from home
both inside and outside the Ribble Valley and a number of commercial vehicles travel
from destinations outside the Ribble Valley including a large number of Buses, HGVs and
Vans.
Currently, there are thought to be 45,647 vehicles in the Ribble Valley! At an average of
2.38 vehicles per household it is estimated that since 2011 there are an additional 9,568
cars on the roads of Ribble Valley based on an additional 4,020 properties completed and
occupied.
And therein lies the problem, When the current Core Strategy was submitted an attempt
was made to link transport and mobility. The connections between development and
movement it was claimed are strong. People travel for many reasons, to work, to shop, to
get to places of entertainment, to visit friends and for the pleasure of travelling. As a
consequence the location of places of employment, residential areas and shopping
centres have a major effect on distances travelled and the mode of transport used. In
recent years the effect of travel on the environment it was recognised had been the cause
of concern and both the Government and local authorities were seeking to reduce the
harmful elements. These include both the local impacts of congestion and the more global
concern of levels of CO2 emissions from excessive use of private cars.
It was recognised that in Ribble Valley a larger proportion of people have access to cars
than is usual. This is partly because the rural nature of the district makes car ownership
almost essential for an acceptable degree of mobility. As a district it is also a substantial
net exporter of employees. That is to say a much greater number of people leave the
district to work in neighbouring towns than make the reverse journey. These factors are
particularly important when environmental concerns dictate that maximum use is made
of public transport opportunities and cycling and walking for travel and that unnecessary
travel is reduced as much as possible by land-use planning.
The objectives of what were known as the local plan were to direct development in a way
that minimises the use of private car transport; to ensure all residents have good access to
the countryside, sports and entertainment facilities, shops, health care and all other
facilities; to protect residents from nuisance of all sorts particularly traffic noise, pollution
and the impact of nearby development; and finally to encourage and promote the use of
public transport, cycling and walking. Unfortunately, the twain never met.
A plan based on identifying a road hierarchy, safeguard programmed transport routes and
indicate any proposed traffic management schemes never happened in quite the way it
was planned because the not only was the Core Strategy delivered late but developers
were able to develop sites outside key service areas in periods when the Core Strategy
Area Cars Motorcycles Light goods
vehicles
Heavy
goods
vehicles
Busesand
coaches
Other
vehicles
Total
Ribble Valley 35,759 1,480 5,373 788 139 2,108 45,647
was silent on the basis of the primacy of the principle of sustainable development. This
led to development in areas that were not well serviced by the existing road network
leading to congestion of the road network, a degradation of the existing infrastructure
and traffic flows in areas that simply were unprepared for them placing undue pressure
on the existing highway network. It was simply not possible to redesign strategic transport
corridors to address the needs of large major new development radiating from the
County's main transport nodes, linking the main towns and serving intermediate points.
There have however been no major road improvements or new roads or significant
changes in traffic flow over the last few years.
Approaches to improving air quality could include redesigning road networks to reduce
congestion and separate vehicle emissions from places where people live, work and
congregate in addition to Targeting areas with high levels of air pollution, including
considering the introduction of Clean Air Zones. The Borough Council also seeks funding
from developers, through section 106 contributions, to support existing bus services or to
provide new bus services suitable to serve development sites once their built
Consequently Air Pollution is concentrated close to large housing developments.
The problem is that Ribble Valley Borough Council only monitors Nitrogen Dioxide
emissions via a network of diffusion tubes and currently has one declared Air Quality
Management Area [AQMA] within the borough, located in Clitheroe, which has only been
in place since 31/05/2010 and is located Whalley Road, Clitheroe No 1 (Ribble Valley
Borough Council). The area comprising the section of Whalley Road, Clitheroe between
numbers 36 and 74 evens and between 37 and 57 odds, extends twenty metres in either
direction measured from the kerb of each of these roads.
Ribble Valley Borough Council does not undertake any automatic (continuous)
monitoring. Instead what is known as Non-Automatic Monitoring Sites (listed below) is
undertaken via passive monitoring at 8 sites using Diffusion Tubes:
Bolland Prospect
Royal British Legion 1
Royal British Legion 2
Greenacre St
57 Whalley Road
85 Whalley Road
John Wall Court
Feildens Arms
Concerningly only one of these Diffusion Tubes are located outside Clitheroe in Mellor.
None are located on the A59 Corridor or in close proximity to Large Housing
Developments either inside or outside of the boundaries of Clitheroe.
More concerning still the last Air Quality Annual Status Report (ASR) was produced in
2020 over 3 years ago and even that is difficult to find:
Executive summary (ribblevalley.gov.uk)
The good news however is that nearly 3,400 low-emission vehicles are now registered in
Ribble Valley as more drivers in Ribble Valley are switching to low-emission vehicles, new
figures show. New figures from the DVLA show there 3,388 low-emission vehicles were
registered in Ribble Valley as of March 2023 – up from 2,368 the year before, and 384 in
2018.
This means that 7.42% of vehicles registered in the Ribble Valley are officially classified as
low-emission. The figures are not an exact representation of vehicle usage, as many
vehicles, including those in commercial use, may not be regularly used in the same place
they are registered. Designed to emit less than 75g of carbon dioxide from the tailpipe for
every kilometre travelled, they include battery electric, plug-in hybrid electric and fuel cell
electric vehicles.
The figures were released a week before London's high-profile ultra low emissions zone
expanded to cover all London boroughs. Anyone driving a non-compliant car, van or
motorbike within the zone will have to pay £12.50 a day.
They also come as new data reveals vehicle emissions-based schemes have generated
more than £418 million in fees and penalty charges in England since March 2001.The
Transport Act 2000 requires local authorities in England to reinvest any earnings from
clean air zones into the “delivery of local transport policies”.
A Department for Transport spokesperson said the Government and industry had
supported the installation of over 45,000 public charging devices, and stressed plug-in
grants would continue for taxis, motorcycles, vans and trucks for at least another year.
They added: “We’ve already put more than £2 billion into helping the transition to electric
vehicles and are investing over £381 million to help deliver local charging infrastructure so
people around the country can switch. Industry figures finding plug-in vehicles accounted
for nearly a quarter of new car sales in July.
As we can see in the Ribble Valley however only 757 Low Emission Vehicles are purely
electric – 22.26%, the 9th largest number in the 14 Lancashire Authorities, the rest: 2,643
are hybrid – 77.74% - although the percentage of pre electric vehicles is the highest at
1.66% in Lancashire. More worrying still is that we only have 34 Total public charging
points in the Ribble Valley the joint 7th largest amount in the 14 Lancashire Authorities 1
per 22.26 ULEV Cars – the 8th most frequent in the 14 Lancashire Authorities
This has led to warnings about the number of available in the Ribble Valley. Marshal Scott,
the Chief Executive of Ribble Valley Borough Council warned in a recent Community
Services Committee Meeting that people with electric cars may not be able to charge
them at council car parks in rural Lancashire in the future. Councillors feared that electric
cars could even be abandoned in beauty spots such as the Forest of Bowland.
The principle issue is the power supply. Access is critical. In some areas, connections are
simpler than others. A council report said the primary issue in places such as Clitheroe will
be the electrical supply available. The reason there are currently only two car parks in the
town is access to a suitable electric supply.
Earlier this year government data revealed the North West of England had the lowest
proportion of charging points in England.
That is why a new infrastructure strategy for electric vehicles was revealed for Lancashire
and Blackburn with Darwen. At the July Lancashire County Council Cabinet meeting on
Thursday Councillors discussed the strategy, which aims to provide a clear direction and
support the needs of an anticipated growth in electric vehicle usage.
In November 2020, the UK Government announced the end of the sale of new pure petrol
and diesel cars and vans by 2030, with the phasing out of remaining emissions-generating
cars and vans such as plug-in hybrids taking place by 2035. It is estimated that more than a
third of all vehicles in Lancashire will be electric by 2030.
District Plug-in vehicles Total ULEVs
Total
vehicles
ULEVs as %
of all
vehicles
Total public
charging
devices
Total public
rapid
charging
devices
Average ULEV's per
public chargingdevices
West Lancashire 1345 1308 79973 1.64 66 21 39.64
Chorley 1188 1151 75967 1.52 46 25 50.04
Preston 1096 1088 75321 1.44 57 17 38.18
South Ribble 1032 1019 75249 1.35 57 17 35.75
Lancaster 1000 996 80259 1.24 85 21 23.44
Blackburn with
Darwen
966 953 73063 1.30 46 16 41.43
Wyre 915 898 74164 1.21 47 16 38.21
Fylde 899 873 53823 1.62 25 10 69.84
Ribble Valley 779 757 45647 1.66 34 1 44.53
Blackpool 682 684 67888 1.01 30 2 45.60
Rossendale 586 577 43161 1.34 21 7 54.95
Pendle 543 536 51630 1.04 19 5 56.42
Hyndburn 477 468 44962 1.04 29 9 32.28
Burnley 464 453 45241 1.00 34 11 26.65
Lancashire-14 11982 11770 886753 1.33 596 178 39.50
County Councillor Shaun Turner, Cabinet Member for Environment and Climate Change,
said: "The strategy aims to deliver accessible charging points to meet the expected growth
in electric vehicle usage and demand from residents, businesses, and visitors, particularly
those without access to off-street charging.
"This includes identifying the optimal locations for charge points. Our modelling shows
that there will be a need for around 6,600 charge points throughout Lancashire by 2030 as
the latest figures estimate that there will be more than 240,000 electric vehicles in
Lancashire by that date, representing 36% of all cars and vans.
The County Council has been allocated an indicative £10.1m of capital funding, subject to
the submission and approval of a full business case and application early in 2024.
There is an expectation that private sector investment will be secured alongside the Local
Electric Vehicle Infrastructure fund to support the development of a more self-sufficient
local charge point market ahead of the 2030 phase out date.
In addition to this funding the County Council has secured £500,000 from the Local Electric
Vehicle Infrastructure extended pilot fund to trial solutions that will help people who do
not have access to off-street parking. This includes testing charging points integrated into
street lighting columns and pavement cable channels.
On September 7, applications officially opened for the first round of funding for the
government’s £343 million Local Electric Vehicle Infrastructure (LEVI) Capital Fund.
The LEVI fund will ensure the transition to electric vehicles takes place in every part of the
country by supporting tens of thousands of local charge points, especially for those
without access to off-street parking.
Local authorities will receive LEVI funding in two groups, with the first able to apply for
their allocated funding from now, to be distributed this financial year. The second group,
which includes Lancashire, can apply for their funding in the next financial year.
Cllr Shaun Turner, Cabinet Member for Environment and Climate Change said: "Following
the submission of our expression of interest in May, we have now been invited to submit
a stage two application to access the funding.
"We will be working closely with District Councils and key stakeholders to prepare the full
application ready for when the application window opens in spring 2024.
"The aim of the LEVI fund is to deliver on-street charging infrastructure primarily
benefiting those without access to off-street parking at home.
"This funding will help us deliver the vision and aims of our EV Infrastructure Strategy,
approved by Cabinet in July, supporting our residents with the move to electric vehicles.
"Now that the next stage of the process has begun, it takes us a step closer to accessing
the funds and making the project a reality here in Lancashire."
The latest position is Lancashire is set to benefit from £600,000 to boost its number of
electric vehicle charge points.
The move has come as part of a £56million investment for increasing electric vehicle (EV)
charge points across the country that is expected to help see up to 2,400 extra EV charge
points installed in the short term, and 4,200 more in the long term.
In Lancashire, the money will be used to trial solutions that will help people who do not
have access to off-street parking, including testing charging points integrated into street
lighting columns and pavement cable channels which have the potential to allow charging
at home, hiding the cable under the pavement. The results of the trial will help shape the
council's long-term electric vehicle charging plans.
Pavement cable channels can offer a solution for drivers who do not have access to off-
street parking, but still wish to use a charging cable connected to their home. Lancashire
County Council is conducting trials into the use of 'cable trays'. The cable tray provides a
housing that is installed directly into the pavement in which the charging cable can be
inserted into and removed after use. It can provide a low cost and practical solution to
safely pass an electric cable across the footway and allows the resident to charge their
vehicle from their domestic supply whilst it is parked on the highway, providing them access
to cheaper domestic electricity rates. 27.8% of households in Lancashire require on-street
charging provision.
Workplaces can also offer charging infrastructure and be particularly beneficial to those
without the ability to charge at home. The Workplace Charging Scheme (WCS) provides
support towards the up-front costs of the purchase and installation of electric vehicle
chargepoints.
The grant covers up to 75% of the total costs of the purchase and installation
of EV chargepoints (inclusive of VAT), capped at a maximum of:
 £350 per socket
 40 sockets across all sites per applicant – for instance, if you would like to install
them in 40 sites, you will have 1 socket available per site
For eligible organisations such as businesses and charities, the WCS can drastically reduce
the purchase and installation cost. The installation of chargepoints can also offer businesses
with an additional revenue stream if they were to make the facilities available to non-
employees, such as outside of normal working hours. Employers will be encouraged to
install charging infrastructure where appropriate.
The deployment of chargepoints within school grounds poses additional challenges which
other workplaces may not face. School parking facilities will vary and the contract between
the school and the local authority will need to be considered. Some key considerations
include the location of staff parking in the school; the installation of chargepoints in staff
parking areas may pose an issue for the movement of vehicles and be at greater risk of
vandalism, as well as technical considerations around electricity supply. Like other
workplace carparks, school car parks are an opportunity to deploy chargepoints, and could
serve residential areas where off-street parking is not available. This can be the case for
schools where there are no gates/security devices to prevent access to the carpark after
school hours; and hours of public accessibility compliment the school’s safety procedure.
Lancashire County Council has already installed 150 charging points across Lancashire to
increase take-up of electric vehicles, reduce emissions and improve air quality – 11 of
these are in Ribble Valley: 8 in Clitheroe and 3 in Whalley. These charge points have been
installed either at the side of the adopted highway or in County Council Carparks.
There are four main types of EV charging – slow, fast, rapid, and ultra-rapid. These
represent the power outputs, and therefore charging speeds, available to charge an EV.
• Slow chargers (3-6 kW) are best used for overnight charging and usually take between 6
and 12 hours for a pure-EV, or 2-4 hours for a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). which
typically fully charge an EV in 4-6 hours usually overnight. The main disadvantage is slow
rate of charging EVs charge on slow devices using a cable which connects the vehicle to a
3-pin or Type 2 socket.
• Fast chargers include those which provide power from 7 kW to 22 kW, Widely used for
public chargepoints such as car parks, supermarkets etc. Common fast connectors are a
tethered Type 1 or a Type 2 socket (via a connector cable supplied with the vehicle). The
main disadvantage with tethered chargers is that only vehicles compatible with the unit’s
charge socket type can be used.
• Rapid chargers are one of two types – AC or DC [Alternating or Direct Current]. Faster
rate of charging. Fastest commonly available charge type. Typically found at motorway
service stations. Current Rapid AC chargers are rated at 43 kW, while most Rapid DC units
are at least 50 kW. Both will charge the majority of EVs to 80% in around 30-60 minutes
(dependent on battery capacity) and will fully charge in 1-2 hours. The main disadvantage
with Rapid chargers is that they are not compatible with all EVs. Not currently available
for home charging. Can be expensive to install compared to fast chargers.
• Ultra-Rapid chargers are currently the fastest class of chargers available in the UK.
Fastest charge type currently available. Available at some motorway services. These are
typically in the range of 100-150kW but can be as powerful as 350kW. Typical charge
times for Ultra-Rapid chargers can be between 20 and 40 minutes. The main disadvantage
with Ultra-Rapid chargers is that they are Tethered – only vehicles compatible with the
unit’s charge socket type can be used. Limited public availability in the UK. Not currently
available for home charging. Very high installation costs - will usually require a new
substation to be built.
The County Council has installed two different types of charge units. Ultra chargers which
will allow most vehicles to take a full charge in less than an hour and Fast Chargers that
will take around three hours to charge the vehicles but each unit is able to charge two
vehicles at any time. The mix of these units depends on location, power supply and
demand.
Areas of the County have been categorised as those with off-street parking and those with
limited or without offstreet parking. Zones have been determined accordingly and those
with the greatest number of households without off-street parking identified. Prioritising
infrastructure provision by the total number of on-street households favours urban
centres, due to the number of homes involved. More detailed planning work will be
required to consider socio-economic and demographic factors, as well as practical
considerations to identify specific locations.
It should be noted that there are a number of more rural areas, identified as Minimum-
Need zones, in which all households are without off-street parking. The needs of these
areas as well as visitor / destination charging will need to be considered alongside the
prioritisation of on-street provision in urban areas to ensure there is adequate provision.
Requirements for visitor / destination charging will also need to be considered alongside
the prioritisation of on street provision in urban areas to ensure there is adequate
provision to attract visitors.
Lancashire County Council will be working closely with District Councils and partners to help
identify suitable locations for the pilot over the next few months. Although precise
locations have not yet been identified, Lancashire County Council is considering future
demand for charging infrastructure and identifying where different types of charging need
are in Lancashire. Demand across Lancashire is likely to be based on the current
distribution. Ribble Valley currently has the 11th highest percentage of pure electric vehicles
at 5.15% across the 14 Lancashire authorities.
District Location Availability Total Bays
York Street,
Clitheroe
4x F7 (7kWh) 8
King Street, Whalley 1x Rapid
(50kWh)
1
George Street,
Whalley
1x F7 (7kWh) 2
Ribble Valley
District Plug-in vehicles Total ULEVs
Total
vehicles
ULEVs as %
of all
vehicles
Total public
charging
devices
Total public
rapid
charging
devices
West Lancashire 11.23% 9.02% 9.02% 1.64 66 21
Chorley 9.91% 8.57% 8.57% 1.52 46 25
Preston 9.15% 8.49% 8.49% 1.44 57 17
South Ribble 8.61% 8.49% 8.49% 1.35 57 17
Lancaster 8.35% 9.05% 9.05% 1.24 85 21
Blackburn with
Darwen
8.06% 8.24% 8.24% 1.30 46 16
Wyre 7.64% 8.36% 8.36% 1.21 47 16
Fylde 7.50% 6.07% 6.07% 1.62 25 10
Ribble Valley 6.50% 5.15% 5.15% 1.66 34 1
Blackpool 5.69% 7.66% 7.66% 1.01 30 2
Rossendale 4.89% 4.87% 4.87% 1.34 21 7
Pendle 4.53% 5.82% 5.82% 1.04 19 5
Hyndburn 3.98% 3.98% 5.07% 1.04 29 9
Burnley 3.87% 5.10% 5.10% 1.00 34 11
Lancashire-14 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 1.33 596 178
On the basis of the above figures therefore it is estimated that an additional 340 EV charge
points will be located in the Ribble Valley over the next few years as part of the Local Electric
Vehicle Infrastructure (LEVI) Capital Fund initiative resulting in 374 in Total. Whether this
will be enough will depend on the take-up of electric vehicles. It is understood that the roll-
out will last a full electoral term of the County Council.
Motorists will be able to access the new charge points by signing up on the web to Polar
Plus. Membership is free for three months and just £7.85 per month thereafter. A majority
of charge points will be free for members, however, others you must pay for the electricity
from just 12p per kWh.
It is estimated that there will be there will be over 240,000 EVs in Lancashire by then,
representing 36% of all cars and vans with c.12,360 in the Ribble Valley or the equivalent of
66.10 vehicles having access to each EV charge point which is a decrease on the current
situation.
Lancashire County Councillor Shaun Turner, Cabinet Member for Environment and Climate
Change, said:
"This new funding will help provide more options and solutions to help increase the
uptake of electric vehicles, reduce emissions and improve air quality and help us to
maintain our wholehearted commitment to reducing carbon emissions across Lancashire
through adopting creative solutions and new technology.
"This will enable us to look at practical solutions for the roll out of Electric Vehicle
charging points across Lancashire, and I look forward to building on this in future as the
transition to EVs continues.
"Climate change presents a huge challenge, and this forms part of our overall strategy to
tackle this important issue and play our part in decarbonising the economy."
Housing presents a particular problem for the Ribble Valley. As we can see from the
graphic below the housing stock has increased by 4,007 over a 14 year period at an
Average of c.500 over the last 3 years and in excess of 400 in the 3 years prior to that.
Year Phase 1 Phase 2
1 31 54
2 31 54
3 31 54
4 31 54
Total 124 216
As we can see this has had little impact whatsoever on Greenhouse Gas Emissions. In fact
if anything, as we can see, this has gone into reverse in relation to Domestic housing. This
has a lot to do with the upgrading of Social Housing Stock by Ribble Valley Homes (now
part of the Onward Group) following the transfer of the Council Housing Stock from Ribble
Valley Borough Council but is also a direct consequence of private householders inveting
in energy efficiency measures to save money on their own homes. This is primarily
through investment in of better insulation, improved roofing ansd solar panels , double
glazing and the replacement of outdated gas boilers. The result is 57.6 Kt less Greenhouse
Gas Emissions from Domestic Housing Stock or 33.74%. Retrofitting of Older Private
Housing Stock with Solar Panels and Ground Source H eat Pumps is likely to achieve
further reductions even in the face of an increase of Greenhouse Gas Emissions as further
houses are built.
Year
Local Authority
Name
Region
Local
Authority
(incl.
owned by
other LAs)
Housing
association
Other
public
sector
Private
sector (R)¹
Total (R)¹
Year onYear
Increase
Cumulative
Increase
2009 RibbleValley NW 4 1,741 152 23,052 24,949
2010 RibbleValley NW 4 1,784 152 23,053 24,993 43 43
2011 RibbleValley NW 4 1,841 152 23,019 25,016 23 67
2012 RibbleValley NW 4 1,815 152 23,210 25,181 165 231
2013 RibbleValley NW 4 1,861 51 23,454 25,370 190 421
2014 RibbleValley NW 4 1,881 51 23,628 25,564 194 615
2015 RibbleValley NW 1 1,958 51 23,916 25,926 362 976
2016 RibbleValley NW 1 2,004 51 24,188 26,244 318 1,294
2017 RibbleValley NW 9 2,067 51 24,524 26,651 408 1,702
2018 RibbleValley NW 2 2,090 51 24,926 27,069 418 2,120
2019 RibbleValley NW 5 2,110 51 25,324 27,490 421 2,540
2020 RibbleValley NW 7 2,139 51 25,869 28,066 577 3,117
2021 RibbleValley NW 9 2,154 51 26,323 28,537 471 3,588
2022 RibbleValley NW 9 2,216 49 26,762 29,036 499 4,087
Year Domestic %
2021 113.1 4.80
2020 108.9 4.79
2019 111.8 4.77
2018 115.6 4.78
2017 115.6 4.72
2016 120.3 4.72
2015 127.3 4.68
2014 129 4.67
2013 150.4 4.61
2012 153.8 4.57
2011 145 4.59
2010 165.4 4.59
2009 154.1 4.56
2008 168.2 4.52
2007 167.7 4.51
2006 172.3 4.47
2005 170.7 4.42
Agriculture can now also be seen as a very major source of the other greenhouse gases,
methane and nitrous oxide, especially in Ribble Valley and Lancaster – the 2nd highest
contributer of Greenhouse Gases in the Ribble Valley and the 2nd highest Agricultural
contributor amongst the 14 Lancashire authorities on 17.88% behind just Lancaster on
19.94%. The 4 largest agricultural communities in Lancashire measured by the largest
number of farms are in Lancaster (511 agricultural holdings/45,204 hectares/51,939
cattle/178,324 sheep/4,588 pigs/130.890 poultry), Ribble Valley (632 agricultural
holdings/48,579 hectares/43,291 cattle/220,924 sheep/1,901 pigs/233,862 poultry), Wyre
(406 agricultural holdings/22,899 hectares/34,961 cattle/48,697 sheep/10,318
pigs/531,952 poultry) and West Lancs (also 406 agricultural holdings/23,207
hectares/7,321 cattle/12,675 sheep/7,434 pigs/417,248 poultry), making up a total of
55.89% of all farms 1,955 out of 3,498/139,889 out of 216,145 hectares -64.71%/ 137,512
out of 217,693 cattle -63.17%/ 460,620 out of 670,987 sheep -68.65%/ 24,241 out of
53,594 pigs -45.23%/ 1,313,952 out of 2,961,098 poultry -44.37%.
Ribble Valley's contribution after falling between 2005 and 2011 increased once again
between 2011 and 2015, rose between 2015 and 2017 falling again steadily between 2017
and 2020 only to leap again in 2021 to its 2nd highest level since Greenhouse Gas Emissions
were first measured.
Year Agriculture %
2021 1,272.30 17.88
2020 1,255.80 17.96
2019 1,257.60 18.15
2018 1,258.30 18.39
2017 1,266.20 18.43
2016 1,231.10 18.33
2015 1,242.40 18.25
2014 1,231.30 18.43
2013 1,204.70 18.26
2012 1,209.00 17.96
2011 1,192.10 17.89
2010 1,217.70 17.72
2009 1,218.90 17.78
2008 1,238.90 17.91
2007 1,238.90 17.60
2006 1,259.50 17.37
2005 1,283.60 17.62
According to Figures on Respiratory disease provided by the Office for Health
Improvement and Disparities, Chronic respiratory diseases are diseases of the airways and
other structures of the lung. Two of the most common are asthma and chronic obstructive
pulmonary disease (COPD). Smoking, the major cause of COPD, and air pollution are the
two main modifiable risk factors amenable to public health interventions. The asthma
prevalence (6+ years) in Lancashire is 7.4% of the population, which is higher than the
England rate of 6.5%. For Ribble Valley the figure at 7.6% is even higher. The figures for
Asthma and COPD are extremely revealing. More research work needs to be done to
establish the direction of travel of the figures and why they are so prevalent in the Ribble
Valley. A key part of this will be in establishing where these cases are located and in
particular whether they are in close proximity to roads.
NW
Period Count Value Value Value Worst/Lowest Best/Highest
2021/22 1.90% 1.90% 0.60% Amber 3.70%
2021 30 38.5 49.8 39.8 16.4 Amber 92.9
2021/22 4,454 7.60% 7.1%* 6.50% 3.20% Amber 8.80%
45th highest
in UK,13th in
NW && 7th
highestin
Lancashire
2021 12 16.8 35.3 26.5 8.6 63.1
2021 6 20.4 15.6 5.3 40.1
2021 5.7 7.1 7.4 4.2 9.8
Ribble Valley England
Appendix
Areaname Industry Commercial PublicSector Domestic Transport LULUCFNetEmissions Agriculture GrandTotal PerCapitaEmissions(tCO2e)
RibbleValley 706.2 6 6.5 113.1 113.5 -34.2 227.5 1,160.00 18.74
WestLancashire 236.3 15.1 26.8 183.1 201.6 219.5 142.3 1,061.40 9.06
BlackburnwithDarwen 193 33.1 35 217.7 137.8 -0.2 24 653.4 4.22
Wyre 131.7 38.2 15.9 184.7 206.3 81.9 178 876.3 7.79
SouthRibble 125.7 20.6 9.6 164.7 217.7 3.8 52.6 647.8 5.83
Hyndburn 117.9 20.6 9.1 124 131.9 -4.7 18.8 443.3 5.39
Lancaster 105.9 25 46.7 214 333.1 49.9 253.7 1,073.30 7.55
Rossendale 97.9 8.9 7.2 118 112.7 2.8 25.1 460.5 6.49
Pendle 90.5 14 12 147.2 120.4 -3.2 54.8 467 4.87
Fylde 88.7 13.2 15.4 141.6 158.6 45.2 99.9 606.3 7.41
Blackpool 82.3 38.8 41.5 220.6 103.1 3.3 4.4 500.2 3.55
Burnley 77.6 22.4 22.3 138.7 122.7 -1.4 20.6 434.4 4.59
Chorley 74.2 19.7 27.9 181.7 324.4 1.3 69.3 733.4 6.22
Lancashire14 2,235.50 333.5 327.2 2,358.00 2,551.20 361.2 1,272.30 9,989.80 91.71
Areaname Industry Commercial PublicSector Domestic Transport LULUCFNetEmissions Agriculture GrandTotal PerCapitaEmissions(tCO2e)
RibbleValley 31.59 1.80 1.99 4.80 4.45 -9.47 17.88 11.61 20.43
WestLancashire 10.57 4.53 8.19 7.77 7.90 60.77 11.18 10.62 9.88
BlackburnwithDarwen 8.63 9.93 10.70 9.23 5.40 -0.06 1.89 6.54 4.60
Wyre 5.89 11.45 4.86 7.83 8.09 22.67 13.99 8.77 8.49
SouthRibble 5.62 6.18 2.93 6.98 8.53 1.05 4.13 6.48 6.36
Hyndburn 5.27 6.18 2.78 5.26 5.17 -1.30 1.48 4.44 5.88
Lancaster 4.74 7.50 14.27 9.08 13.06 13.82 19.94 10.74 8.23
Rossendale 4.38 2.67 2.20 5.00 4.42 0.78 1.97 4.61 7.08
Pendle 4.05 4.20 3.67 6.24 4.72 -0.89 4.31 4.67 5.31
Fylde 3.97 3.96 4.71 6.01 6.22 12.51 7.85 6.07 8.08
Blackpool 3.68 11.63 12.68 9.36 4.04 0.91 0.35 5.01 3.87
Burnley 3.47 6.72 6.82 5.88 4.81 -0.39 1.62 4.35 5.00
Chorley 3.32 5.91 8.53 7.71 12.72 0.36 5.45 7.34 6.78
Lancashire14 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00

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Dont Be Blown Away by All The Hot Air - Ribble Valley Councillors Call for Authorities to Come Clean about Air Quality.docx

  • 1. "Don't be blown away by all the hot air": Ribble Valley Councillors call for the Authorities to 'Come Clean' about Air Quality A Presentation of the Statistical Data on Greenhouse Gases as it relates to the Ribble Valley By Lancs. Cty Cllr Ged Mirfin (Ribble Valley NE) & RV Boro Cllr Kevin Horkin (Grindleton & West Bradford)
  • 2. Greenhouse Gas Emissions (Carbon Dioxide, Sulphur Dioxide and Nitrous Oxide) in the Ribble Valley represent 11.61% of the total emitted across the 14 Lancashire authorities – the 2nd highest percentage total ever which represents a progressive deterioration over the last 4 years. The figures have hardly improved in percentage contribution over the last 17 years. At the local authority area level, emissions range from under 450 kilotonnes (kt) in Hyndburn to 1 Megatonne (Mt) (the equivalent material released by a hydrogen bomb) or more in Ribble Valley, Lancaster and West Lancashire. Area name Grand Total Grand Total Ribble Valley 1160.00 11.61 Lancaster 1073.30 10.74 West Lancashire 1061.40 10.62 Wyre 876.30 8.77 Chorley 733.40 7.34 Blackburn with Darwen 653.40 6.54 South Ribble 647.80 6.48 Fylde 606.30 6.07 Blackpool 500.20 5.01 Pendle 467.00 4.67 Rossendale 460.50 4.61 Hyndburn 443.30 4.44 Burnley 434.40 4.35 Lancashire 14 9989.80 100.00 Year % 2021 11.61 2020 11.34 2019 11.11 2018 10.98 2017 11.03 2016 11.26 2015 11.32 2014 11.12 2013 9.76 2012 8.51 2011 10.06 2010 9.50 2009 8.55 2008 9.38 2007 10.24 2006 9.74 2005 12.08
  • 3. This obviously has everything to do with the Cement Works in Clitheroe. Industry generates 60.88% of Greenhouse Gases emitted in Ribble Valley which is 38.30% above the Mean Average for the 14 Lancashire Authorities and represents 31.59% of All Greenhouse Gas Emissions across Lancashire. We have to acknowledge that Emissions from Industry have fallen by 584.7 Kt or 45.29% since 2005 which is commendable. The latest however is the 8th highest figure and 6th highest percentage contribution in 17 years with Industry increasing its percentage contribution to Green House Gas Emissions across Lancashire over the past 4 years. Area name Industry Grand Total % Above/Below Average Ribble Valley 706.2 1160 60.88 38.50 West Lancashire 236.3 1061.4 22.26 -0.11 Blackburn with Darwen 193 653.4 29.54 7.16 Wyre 131.7 876.3 15.03 -7.35 South Ribble 125.7 647.8 19.40 -2.97 Hyndburn 117.9 443.3 26.60 4.22 Lancaster 105.9 1073.3 9.87 -12.51 Rossendale 97.9 460.5 21.26 -1.12 Pendle 90.5 467 19.38 -3.00 Fylde 88.7 606.3 14.63 -7.75 Blackpool 82.3 500.2 16.45 -5.92 Burnley 77.6 434.4 17.86 -4.51 Chorley 74.2 733.4 10.12 -12.26 Lancashire 14 2235.5 9989.8 22.38 0.00 Area name Industry Ribble Valley 31.59 West Lancashire 10.57 Blackburn with Darwen 8.63 Wyre 5.89 South Ribble 5.62 Hyndburn 5.27 Lancaster 4.74 Rossendale 4.38 Pendle 4.05 Fylde 3.97 Blackpool 3.68 Burnley 3.47 Chorley 3.32 Lancashire 14 100.00
  • 4. Worryingly, as we can see this is the highest contribution overall in 6 years and the 3rd highest contribution since Green House Gas Emissions were first measured in the Ribble Valley. This is a cause for concern because what it suggests is that improvements made in other sectors: Commercial and Public Sector Buildings following the retro-fitting of more Year Area name Industry Grand Total % 2021 Ribble Valley 706.2 1160 31.59 2020 Ribble Valley 642 1077.2 30.61 2019 Ribble Valley 711.3 1178.2 28.92 2018 Ribble Valley 699 1184.9 29.40 2017 Ribble Valley 702.1 1195.4 32.25 2016 Ribble Valley 727 1230 33.96 2015 Ribble Valley 780 1275.3 33.69 2014 Ribble Valley 782.4 1286.7 32.78 2013 Ribble Valley 679.1 1204 28.20 2012 Ribble Valley 535.3 1067.2 22.69 2011 Ribble Valley 743.7 1274.8 28.55 2010 Ribble Valley 746 1304.1 25.53 2009 Ribble Valley 569.1 1112.7 22.12 2008 Ribble Valley 754.4 1334 24.86 2007 Ribble Valley 864.4 1456.7 28.48 2006 Ribble Valley 876.3 1480.3 25.69 2005 Ribble Valley 1290.9 1907.8 33.38 Year Industry Grand Total % 2021 706.2 1,160.00 60.88 2020 642 1,077.20 59.60 2019 711.3 1,178.20 60.37 2018 699 1,184.90 58.99 2017 702.1 1,195.40 58.73 2016 727 1,230.00 59.11 2015 780 1,275.30 61.16 2014 782.4 1,286.70 60.81 2013 679.1 1,204.00 56.40 2012 535.3 1,067.20 50.16 2011 743.7 1,274.80 58.34 2010 746 1,304.10 57.20 2009 569.1 1,112.70 51.15 2008 754.4 1,334.00 56.55 2007 864.4 1,456.70 59.34 2006 876.3 1,480.30 59.20 2005 1,290.90 1,907.80 67.66
  • 5. efficient heating systems after getting rid of antiquated boilers are being made more speedily. There are other areas for concern too. The most critical is Transport. The figures for the last 2 years are misleading because of the impact of Covid which meant that there were far fewer vehicles on the Road but there glaring impact is apparent in the creep in their contribution, which is now the largest since data on Green House Gar Emissions was captured. In 2021 Transport contributed the highest per centage of Green House Gas Emissions in Ribble Valley since they were first measured. It is difficult to calculate the number of vehicles on the Roads in Ribble Valley at any one time because although we can precisely determine the number of vehicles registered at Year Commercial Public Sector 2021 6 6.5 2020 4.9 6.2 2019 6.4 7.2 2018 8 11.3 2017 19.8 7.9 2016 32.6 7.1 2015 26.5 8.5 2014 30 10.3 2013 33.8 11.6 2012 32.4 10.9 2011 34.6 12 2010 37.2 12.8 2009 31.2 10.4 2008 36.6 12 2007 37.6 13.1 2006 40.7 14.5 2005 42 15.8 ID Transport Transport 2021 113.5 4.45 2020 101.2 4.24 2019 122.8 4.19 2018 123.5 4.25 2017 121.3 4.12 2016 124.6 4.15 2015 119.8 4.04 2014 117.3 4.05 2013 114.5 3.98 2012 117.9 4.10 2011 121.4 4.09 2010 124.2 4.12 2009 125.5 4.15 2008 131 4.22 2007 137.1 4.42 2006 135.2 4.20 2205 135.7 4.19
  • 6. homes or businesses in the Ribble Valley a large number of people work away from home both inside and outside the Ribble Valley and a number of commercial vehicles travel from destinations outside the Ribble Valley including a large number of Buses, HGVs and Vans. Currently, there are thought to be 45,647 vehicles in the Ribble Valley! At an average of 2.38 vehicles per household it is estimated that since 2011 there are an additional 9,568 cars on the roads of Ribble Valley based on an additional 4,020 properties completed and occupied. And therein lies the problem, When the current Core Strategy was submitted an attempt was made to link transport and mobility. The connections between development and movement it was claimed are strong. People travel for many reasons, to work, to shop, to get to places of entertainment, to visit friends and for the pleasure of travelling. As a consequence the location of places of employment, residential areas and shopping centres have a major effect on distances travelled and the mode of transport used. In recent years the effect of travel on the environment it was recognised had been the cause of concern and both the Government and local authorities were seeking to reduce the harmful elements. These include both the local impacts of congestion and the more global concern of levels of CO2 emissions from excessive use of private cars. It was recognised that in Ribble Valley a larger proportion of people have access to cars than is usual. This is partly because the rural nature of the district makes car ownership almost essential for an acceptable degree of mobility. As a district it is also a substantial net exporter of employees. That is to say a much greater number of people leave the district to work in neighbouring towns than make the reverse journey. These factors are particularly important when environmental concerns dictate that maximum use is made of public transport opportunities and cycling and walking for travel and that unnecessary travel is reduced as much as possible by land-use planning. The objectives of what were known as the local plan were to direct development in a way that minimises the use of private car transport; to ensure all residents have good access to the countryside, sports and entertainment facilities, shops, health care and all other facilities; to protect residents from nuisance of all sorts particularly traffic noise, pollution and the impact of nearby development; and finally to encourage and promote the use of public transport, cycling and walking. Unfortunately, the twain never met. A plan based on identifying a road hierarchy, safeguard programmed transport routes and indicate any proposed traffic management schemes never happened in quite the way it was planned because the not only was the Core Strategy delivered late but developers were able to develop sites outside key service areas in periods when the Core Strategy Area Cars Motorcycles Light goods vehicles Heavy goods vehicles Busesand coaches Other vehicles Total Ribble Valley 35,759 1,480 5,373 788 139 2,108 45,647
  • 7. was silent on the basis of the primacy of the principle of sustainable development. This led to development in areas that were not well serviced by the existing road network leading to congestion of the road network, a degradation of the existing infrastructure and traffic flows in areas that simply were unprepared for them placing undue pressure on the existing highway network. It was simply not possible to redesign strategic transport corridors to address the needs of large major new development radiating from the County's main transport nodes, linking the main towns and serving intermediate points. There have however been no major road improvements or new roads or significant changes in traffic flow over the last few years. Approaches to improving air quality could include redesigning road networks to reduce congestion and separate vehicle emissions from places where people live, work and congregate in addition to Targeting areas with high levels of air pollution, including considering the introduction of Clean Air Zones. The Borough Council also seeks funding from developers, through section 106 contributions, to support existing bus services or to provide new bus services suitable to serve development sites once their built Consequently Air Pollution is concentrated close to large housing developments. The problem is that Ribble Valley Borough Council only monitors Nitrogen Dioxide emissions via a network of diffusion tubes and currently has one declared Air Quality Management Area [AQMA] within the borough, located in Clitheroe, which has only been in place since 31/05/2010 and is located Whalley Road, Clitheroe No 1 (Ribble Valley Borough Council). The area comprising the section of Whalley Road, Clitheroe between numbers 36 and 74 evens and between 37 and 57 odds, extends twenty metres in either direction measured from the kerb of each of these roads. Ribble Valley Borough Council does not undertake any automatic (continuous) monitoring. Instead what is known as Non-Automatic Monitoring Sites (listed below) is undertaken via passive monitoring at 8 sites using Diffusion Tubes: Bolland Prospect Royal British Legion 1 Royal British Legion 2 Greenacre St 57 Whalley Road 85 Whalley Road John Wall Court Feildens Arms Concerningly only one of these Diffusion Tubes are located outside Clitheroe in Mellor. None are located on the A59 Corridor or in close proximity to Large Housing Developments either inside or outside of the boundaries of Clitheroe.
  • 8. More concerning still the last Air Quality Annual Status Report (ASR) was produced in 2020 over 3 years ago and even that is difficult to find: Executive summary (ribblevalley.gov.uk) The good news however is that nearly 3,400 low-emission vehicles are now registered in Ribble Valley as more drivers in Ribble Valley are switching to low-emission vehicles, new figures show. New figures from the DVLA show there 3,388 low-emission vehicles were registered in Ribble Valley as of March 2023 – up from 2,368 the year before, and 384 in 2018. This means that 7.42% of vehicles registered in the Ribble Valley are officially classified as low-emission. The figures are not an exact representation of vehicle usage, as many vehicles, including those in commercial use, may not be regularly used in the same place they are registered. Designed to emit less than 75g of carbon dioxide from the tailpipe for every kilometre travelled, they include battery electric, plug-in hybrid electric and fuel cell electric vehicles. The figures were released a week before London's high-profile ultra low emissions zone expanded to cover all London boroughs. Anyone driving a non-compliant car, van or motorbike within the zone will have to pay £12.50 a day. They also come as new data reveals vehicle emissions-based schemes have generated more than £418 million in fees and penalty charges in England since March 2001.The Transport Act 2000 requires local authorities in England to reinvest any earnings from clean air zones into the “delivery of local transport policies”. A Department for Transport spokesperson said the Government and industry had supported the installation of over 45,000 public charging devices, and stressed plug-in grants would continue for taxis, motorcycles, vans and trucks for at least another year. They added: “We’ve already put more than £2 billion into helping the transition to electric vehicles and are investing over £381 million to help deliver local charging infrastructure so people around the country can switch. Industry figures finding plug-in vehicles accounted for nearly a quarter of new car sales in July. As we can see in the Ribble Valley however only 757 Low Emission Vehicles are purely electric – 22.26%, the 9th largest number in the 14 Lancashire Authorities, the rest: 2,643 are hybrid – 77.74% - although the percentage of pre electric vehicles is the highest at 1.66% in Lancashire. More worrying still is that we only have 34 Total public charging points in the Ribble Valley the joint 7th largest amount in the 14 Lancashire Authorities 1 per 22.26 ULEV Cars – the 8th most frequent in the 14 Lancashire Authorities
  • 9. This has led to warnings about the number of available in the Ribble Valley. Marshal Scott, the Chief Executive of Ribble Valley Borough Council warned in a recent Community Services Committee Meeting that people with electric cars may not be able to charge them at council car parks in rural Lancashire in the future. Councillors feared that electric cars could even be abandoned in beauty spots such as the Forest of Bowland. The principle issue is the power supply. Access is critical. In some areas, connections are simpler than others. A council report said the primary issue in places such as Clitheroe will be the electrical supply available. The reason there are currently only two car parks in the town is access to a suitable electric supply. Earlier this year government data revealed the North West of England had the lowest proportion of charging points in England. That is why a new infrastructure strategy for electric vehicles was revealed for Lancashire and Blackburn with Darwen. At the July Lancashire County Council Cabinet meeting on Thursday Councillors discussed the strategy, which aims to provide a clear direction and support the needs of an anticipated growth in electric vehicle usage. In November 2020, the UK Government announced the end of the sale of new pure petrol and diesel cars and vans by 2030, with the phasing out of remaining emissions-generating cars and vans such as plug-in hybrids taking place by 2035. It is estimated that more than a third of all vehicles in Lancashire will be electric by 2030. District Plug-in vehicles Total ULEVs Total vehicles ULEVs as % of all vehicles Total public charging devices Total public rapid charging devices Average ULEV's per public chargingdevices West Lancashire 1345 1308 79973 1.64 66 21 39.64 Chorley 1188 1151 75967 1.52 46 25 50.04 Preston 1096 1088 75321 1.44 57 17 38.18 South Ribble 1032 1019 75249 1.35 57 17 35.75 Lancaster 1000 996 80259 1.24 85 21 23.44 Blackburn with Darwen 966 953 73063 1.30 46 16 41.43 Wyre 915 898 74164 1.21 47 16 38.21 Fylde 899 873 53823 1.62 25 10 69.84 Ribble Valley 779 757 45647 1.66 34 1 44.53 Blackpool 682 684 67888 1.01 30 2 45.60 Rossendale 586 577 43161 1.34 21 7 54.95 Pendle 543 536 51630 1.04 19 5 56.42 Hyndburn 477 468 44962 1.04 29 9 32.28 Burnley 464 453 45241 1.00 34 11 26.65 Lancashire-14 11982 11770 886753 1.33 596 178 39.50
  • 10. County Councillor Shaun Turner, Cabinet Member for Environment and Climate Change, said: "The strategy aims to deliver accessible charging points to meet the expected growth in electric vehicle usage and demand from residents, businesses, and visitors, particularly those without access to off-street charging. "This includes identifying the optimal locations for charge points. Our modelling shows that there will be a need for around 6,600 charge points throughout Lancashire by 2030 as the latest figures estimate that there will be more than 240,000 electric vehicles in Lancashire by that date, representing 36% of all cars and vans. The County Council has been allocated an indicative £10.1m of capital funding, subject to the submission and approval of a full business case and application early in 2024. There is an expectation that private sector investment will be secured alongside the Local Electric Vehicle Infrastructure fund to support the development of a more self-sufficient local charge point market ahead of the 2030 phase out date. In addition to this funding the County Council has secured £500,000 from the Local Electric Vehicle Infrastructure extended pilot fund to trial solutions that will help people who do not have access to off-street parking. This includes testing charging points integrated into street lighting columns and pavement cable channels. On September 7, applications officially opened for the first round of funding for the government’s £343 million Local Electric Vehicle Infrastructure (LEVI) Capital Fund. The LEVI fund will ensure the transition to electric vehicles takes place in every part of the country by supporting tens of thousands of local charge points, especially for those without access to off-street parking. Local authorities will receive LEVI funding in two groups, with the first able to apply for their allocated funding from now, to be distributed this financial year. The second group, which includes Lancashire, can apply for their funding in the next financial year. Cllr Shaun Turner, Cabinet Member for Environment and Climate Change said: "Following the submission of our expression of interest in May, we have now been invited to submit a stage two application to access the funding. "We will be working closely with District Councils and key stakeholders to prepare the full application ready for when the application window opens in spring 2024. "The aim of the LEVI fund is to deliver on-street charging infrastructure primarily benefiting those without access to off-street parking at home. "This funding will help us deliver the vision and aims of our EV Infrastructure Strategy, approved by Cabinet in July, supporting our residents with the move to electric vehicles. "Now that the next stage of the process has begun, it takes us a step closer to accessing the funds and making the project a reality here in Lancashire."
  • 11. The latest position is Lancashire is set to benefit from £600,000 to boost its number of electric vehicle charge points. The move has come as part of a £56million investment for increasing electric vehicle (EV) charge points across the country that is expected to help see up to 2,400 extra EV charge points installed in the short term, and 4,200 more in the long term. In Lancashire, the money will be used to trial solutions that will help people who do not have access to off-street parking, including testing charging points integrated into street lighting columns and pavement cable channels which have the potential to allow charging at home, hiding the cable under the pavement. The results of the trial will help shape the council's long-term electric vehicle charging plans. Pavement cable channels can offer a solution for drivers who do not have access to off- street parking, but still wish to use a charging cable connected to their home. Lancashire County Council is conducting trials into the use of 'cable trays'. The cable tray provides a housing that is installed directly into the pavement in which the charging cable can be inserted into and removed after use. It can provide a low cost and practical solution to safely pass an electric cable across the footway and allows the resident to charge their vehicle from their domestic supply whilst it is parked on the highway, providing them access to cheaper domestic electricity rates. 27.8% of households in Lancashire require on-street charging provision. Workplaces can also offer charging infrastructure and be particularly beneficial to those without the ability to charge at home. The Workplace Charging Scheme (WCS) provides support towards the up-front costs of the purchase and installation of electric vehicle chargepoints. The grant covers up to 75% of the total costs of the purchase and installation of EV chargepoints (inclusive of VAT), capped at a maximum of:  £350 per socket  40 sockets across all sites per applicant – for instance, if you would like to install them in 40 sites, you will have 1 socket available per site For eligible organisations such as businesses and charities, the WCS can drastically reduce the purchase and installation cost. The installation of chargepoints can also offer businesses with an additional revenue stream if they were to make the facilities available to non- employees, such as outside of normal working hours. Employers will be encouraged to install charging infrastructure where appropriate. The deployment of chargepoints within school grounds poses additional challenges which other workplaces may not face. School parking facilities will vary and the contract between the school and the local authority will need to be considered. Some key considerations include the location of staff parking in the school; the installation of chargepoints in staff parking areas may pose an issue for the movement of vehicles and be at greater risk of vandalism, as well as technical considerations around electricity supply. Like other
  • 12. workplace carparks, school car parks are an opportunity to deploy chargepoints, and could serve residential areas where off-street parking is not available. This can be the case for schools where there are no gates/security devices to prevent access to the carpark after school hours; and hours of public accessibility compliment the school’s safety procedure. Lancashire County Council has already installed 150 charging points across Lancashire to increase take-up of electric vehicles, reduce emissions and improve air quality – 11 of these are in Ribble Valley: 8 in Clitheroe and 3 in Whalley. These charge points have been installed either at the side of the adopted highway or in County Council Carparks. There are four main types of EV charging – slow, fast, rapid, and ultra-rapid. These represent the power outputs, and therefore charging speeds, available to charge an EV. • Slow chargers (3-6 kW) are best used for overnight charging and usually take between 6 and 12 hours for a pure-EV, or 2-4 hours for a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). which typically fully charge an EV in 4-6 hours usually overnight. The main disadvantage is slow rate of charging EVs charge on slow devices using a cable which connects the vehicle to a 3-pin or Type 2 socket. • Fast chargers include those which provide power from 7 kW to 22 kW, Widely used for public chargepoints such as car parks, supermarkets etc. Common fast connectors are a tethered Type 1 or a Type 2 socket (via a connector cable supplied with the vehicle). The main disadvantage with tethered chargers is that only vehicles compatible with the unit’s charge socket type can be used. • Rapid chargers are one of two types – AC or DC [Alternating or Direct Current]. Faster rate of charging. Fastest commonly available charge type. Typically found at motorway service stations. Current Rapid AC chargers are rated at 43 kW, while most Rapid DC units are at least 50 kW. Both will charge the majority of EVs to 80% in around 30-60 minutes (dependent on battery capacity) and will fully charge in 1-2 hours. The main disadvantage with Rapid chargers is that they are not compatible with all EVs. Not currently available for home charging. Can be expensive to install compared to fast chargers. • Ultra-Rapid chargers are currently the fastest class of chargers available in the UK. Fastest charge type currently available. Available at some motorway services. These are typically in the range of 100-150kW but can be as powerful as 350kW. Typical charge times for Ultra-Rapid chargers can be between 20 and 40 minutes. The main disadvantage with Ultra-Rapid chargers is that they are Tethered – only vehicles compatible with the unit’s charge socket type can be used. Limited public availability in the UK. Not currently available for home charging. Very high installation costs - will usually require a new substation to be built. The County Council has installed two different types of charge units. Ultra chargers which will allow most vehicles to take a full charge in less than an hour and Fast Chargers that will take around three hours to charge the vehicles but each unit is able to charge two vehicles at any time. The mix of these units depends on location, power supply and demand.
  • 13. Areas of the County have been categorised as those with off-street parking and those with limited or without offstreet parking. Zones have been determined accordingly and those with the greatest number of households without off-street parking identified. Prioritising infrastructure provision by the total number of on-street households favours urban centres, due to the number of homes involved. More detailed planning work will be required to consider socio-economic and demographic factors, as well as practical considerations to identify specific locations. It should be noted that there are a number of more rural areas, identified as Minimum- Need zones, in which all households are without off-street parking. The needs of these areas as well as visitor / destination charging will need to be considered alongside the prioritisation of on-street provision in urban areas to ensure there is adequate provision. Requirements for visitor / destination charging will also need to be considered alongside the prioritisation of on street provision in urban areas to ensure there is adequate provision to attract visitors. Lancashire County Council will be working closely with District Councils and partners to help identify suitable locations for the pilot over the next few months. Although precise locations have not yet been identified, Lancashire County Council is considering future demand for charging infrastructure and identifying where different types of charging need are in Lancashire. Demand across Lancashire is likely to be based on the current distribution. Ribble Valley currently has the 11th highest percentage of pure electric vehicles at 5.15% across the 14 Lancashire authorities. District Location Availability Total Bays York Street, Clitheroe 4x F7 (7kWh) 8 King Street, Whalley 1x Rapid (50kWh) 1 George Street, Whalley 1x F7 (7kWh) 2 Ribble Valley District Plug-in vehicles Total ULEVs Total vehicles ULEVs as % of all vehicles Total public charging devices Total public rapid charging devices West Lancashire 11.23% 9.02% 9.02% 1.64 66 21 Chorley 9.91% 8.57% 8.57% 1.52 46 25 Preston 9.15% 8.49% 8.49% 1.44 57 17 South Ribble 8.61% 8.49% 8.49% 1.35 57 17 Lancaster 8.35% 9.05% 9.05% 1.24 85 21 Blackburn with Darwen 8.06% 8.24% 8.24% 1.30 46 16 Wyre 7.64% 8.36% 8.36% 1.21 47 16 Fylde 7.50% 6.07% 6.07% 1.62 25 10 Ribble Valley 6.50% 5.15% 5.15% 1.66 34 1 Blackpool 5.69% 7.66% 7.66% 1.01 30 2 Rossendale 4.89% 4.87% 4.87% 1.34 21 7 Pendle 4.53% 5.82% 5.82% 1.04 19 5 Hyndburn 3.98% 3.98% 5.07% 1.04 29 9 Burnley 3.87% 5.10% 5.10% 1.00 34 11 Lancashire-14 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 1.33 596 178
  • 14. On the basis of the above figures therefore it is estimated that an additional 340 EV charge points will be located in the Ribble Valley over the next few years as part of the Local Electric Vehicle Infrastructure (LEVI) Capital Fund initiative resulting in 374 in Total. Whether this will be enough will depend on the take-up of electric vehicles. It is understood that the roll- out will last a full electoral term of the County Council. Motorists will be able to access the new charge points by signing up on the web to Polar Plus. Membership is free for three months and just £7.85 per month thereafter. A majority of charge points will be free for members, however, others you must pay for the electricity from just 12p per kWh. It is estimated that there will be there will be over 240,000 EVs in Lancashire by then, representing 36% of all cars and vans with c.12,360 in the Ribble Valley or the equivalent of 66.10 vehicles having access to each EV charge point which is a decrease on the current situation. Lancashire County Councillor Shaun Turner, Cabinet Member for Environment and Climate Change, said: "This new funding will help provide more options and solutions to help increase the uptake of electric vehicles, reduce emissions and improve air quality and help us to maintain our wholehearted commitment to reducing carbon emissions across Lancashire through adopting creative solutions and new technology. "This will enable us to look at practical solutions for the roll out of Electric Vehicle charging points across Lancashire, and I look forward to building on this in future as the transition to EVs continues. "Climate change presents a huge challenge, and this forms part of our overall strategy to tackle this important issue and play our part in decarbonising the economy." Housing presents a particular problem for the Ribble Valley. As we can see from the graphic below the housing stock has increased by 4,007 over a 14 year period at an Average of c.500 over the last 3 years and in excess of 400 in the 3 years prior to that. Year Phase 1 Phase 2 1 31 54 2 31 54 3 31 54 4 31 54 Total 124 216
  • 15. As we can see this has had little impact whatsoever on Greenhouse Gas Emissions. In fact if anything, as we can see, this has gone into reverse in relation to Domestic housing. This has a lot to do with the upgrading of Social Housing Stock by Ribble Valley Homes (now part of the Onward Group) following the transfer of the Council Housing Stock from Ribble Valley Borough Council but is also a direct consequence of private householders inveting in energy efficiency measures to save money on their own homes. This is primarily through investment in of better insulation, improved roofing ansd solar panels , double glazing and the replacement of outdated gas boilers. The result is 57.6 Kt less Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Domestic Housing Stock or 33.74%. Retrofitting of Older Private Housing Stock with Solar Panels and Ground Source H eat Pumps is likely to achieve further reductions even in the face of an increase of Greenhouse Gas Emissions as further houses are built. Year Local Authority Name Region Local Authority (incl. owned by other LAs) Housing association Other public sector Private sector (R)¹ Total (R)¹ Year onYear Increase Cumulative Increase 2009 RibbleValley NW 4 1,741 152 23,052 24,949 2010 RibbleValley NW 4 1,784 152 23,053 24,993 43 43 2011 RibbleValley NW 4 1,841 152 23,019 25,016 23 67 2012 RibbleValley NW 4 1,815 152 23,210 25,181 165 231 2013 RibbleValley NW 4 1,861 51 23,454 25,370 190 421 2014 RibbleValley NW 4 1,881 51 23,628 25,564 194 615 2015 RibbleValley NW 1 1,958 51 23,916 25,926 362 976 2016 RibbleValley NW 1 2,004 51 24,188 26,244 318 1,294 2017 RibbleValley NW 9 2,067 51 24,524 26,651 408 1,702 2018 RibbleValley NW 2 2,090 51 24,926 27,069 418 2,120 2019 RibbleValley NW 5 2,110 51 25,324 27,490 421 2,540 2020 RibbleValley NW 7 2,139 51 25,869 28,066 577 3,117 2021 RibbleValley NW 9 2,154 51 26,323 28,537 471 3,588 2022 RibbleValley NW 9 2,216 49 26,762 29,036 499 4,087 Year Domestic % 2021 113.1 4.80 2020 108.9 4.79 2019 111.8 4.77 2018 115.6 4.78 2017 115.6 4.72 2016 120.3 4.72 2015 127.3 4.68 2014 129 4.67 2013 150.4 4.61 2012 153.8 4.57 2011 145 4.59 2010 165.4 4.59 2009 154.1 4.56 2008 168.2 4.52 2007 167.7 4.51 2006 172.3 4.47 2005 170.7 4.42
  • 16. Agriculture can now also be seen as a very major source of the other greenhouse gases, methane and nitrous oxide, especially in Ribble Valley and Lancaster – the 2nd highest contributer of Greenhouse Gases in the Ribble Valley and the 2nd highest Agricultural contributor amongst the 14 Lancashire authorities on 17.88% behind just Lancaster on 19.94%. The 4 largest agricultural communities in Lancashire measured by the largest number of farms are in Lancaster (511 agricultural holdings/45,204 hectares/51,939 cattle/178,324 sheep/4,588 pigs/130.890 poultry), Ribble Valley (632 agricultural holdings/48,579 hectares/43,291 cattle/220,924 sheep/1,901 pigs/233,862 poultry), Wyre (406 agricultural holdings/22,899 hectares/34,961 cattle/48,697 sheep/10,318 pigs/531,952 poultry) and West Lancs (also 406 agricultural holdings/23,207 hectares/7,321 cattle/12,675 sheep/7,434 pigs/417,248 poultry), making up a total of 55.89% of all farms 1,955 out of 3,498/139,889 out of 216,145 hectares -64.71%/ 137,512 out of 217,693 cattle -63.17%/ 460,620 out of 670,987 sheep -68.65%/ 24,241 out of 53,594 pigs -45.23%/ 1,313,952 out of 2,961,098 poultry -44.37%. Ribble Valley's contribution after falling between 2005 and 2011 increased once again between 2011 and 2015, rose between 2015 and 2017 falling again steadily between 2017 and 2020 only to leap again in 2021 to its 2nd highest level since Greenhouse Gas Emissions were first measured. Year Agriculture % 2021 1,272.30 17.88 2020 1,255.80 17.96 2019 1,257.60 18.15 2018 1,258.30 18.39 2017 1,266.20 18.43 2016 1,231.10 18.33 2015 1,242.40 18.25 2014 1,231.30 18.43 2013 1,204.70 18.26 2012 1,209.00 17.96 2011 1,192.10 17.89 2010 1,217.70 17.72 2009 1,218.90 17.78 2008 1,238.90 17.91 2007 1,238.90 17.60 2006 1,259.50 17.37 2005 1,283.60 17.62 According to Figures on Respiratory disease provided by the Office for Health Improvement and Disparities, Chronic respiratory diseases are diseases of the airways and other structures of the lung. Two of the most common are asthma and chronic obstructive
  • 17. pulmonary disease (COPD). Smoking, the major cause of COPD, and air pollution are the two main modifiable risk factors amenable to public health interventions. The asthma prevalence (6+ years) in Lancashire is 7.4% of the population, which is higher than the England rate of 6.5%. For Ribble Valley the figure at 7.6% is even higher. The figures for Asthma and COPD are extremely revealing. More research work needs to be done to establish the direction of travel of the figures and why they are so prevalent in the Ribble Valley. A key part of this will be in establishing where these cases are located and in particular whether they are in close proximity to roads. NW Period Count Value Value Value Worst/Lowest Best/Highest 2021/22 1.90% 1.90% 0.60% Amber 3.70% 2021 30 38.5 49.8 39.8 16.4 Amber 92.9 2021/22 4,454 7.60% 7.1%* 6.50% 3.20% Amber 8.80% 45th highest in UK,13th in NW && 7th highestin Lancashire 2021 12 16.8 35.3 26.5 8.6 63.1 2021 6 20.4 15.6 5.3 40.1 2021 5.7 7.1 7.4 4.2 9.8 Ribble Valley England
  • 18. Appendix Areaname Industry Commercial PublicSector Domestic Transport LULUCFNetEmissions Agriculture GrandTotal PerCapitaEmissions(tCO2e) RibbleValley 706.2 6 6.5 113.1 113.5 -34.2 227.5 1,160.00 18.74 WestLancashire 236.3 15.1 26.8 183.1 201.6 219.5 142.3 1,061.40 9.06 BlackburnwithDarwen 193 33.1 35 217.7 137.8 -0.2 24 653.4 4.22 Wyre 131.7 38.2 15.9 184.7 206.3 81.9 178 876.3 7.79 SouthRibble 125.7 20.6 9.6 164.7 217.7 3.8 52.6 647.8 5.83 Hyndburn 117.9 20.6 9.1 124 131.9 -4.7 18.8 443.3 5.39 Lancaster 105.9 25 46.7 214 333.1 49.9 253.7 1,073.30 7.55 Rossendale 97.9 8.9 7.2 118 112.7 2.8 25.1 460.5 6.49 Pendle 90.5 14 12 147.2 120.4 -3.2 54.8 467 4.87 Fylde 88.7 13.2 15.4 141.6 158.6 45.2 99.9 606.3 7.41 Blackpool 82.3 38.8 41.5 220.6 103.1 3.3 4.4 500.2 3.55 Burnley 77.6 22.4 22.3 138.7 122.7 -1.4 20.6 434.4 4.59 Chorley 74.2 19.7 27.9 181.7 324.4 1.3 69.3 733.4 6.22 Lancashire14 2,235.50 333.5 327.2 2,358.00 2,551.20 361.2 1,272.30 9,989.80 91.71 Areaname Industry Commercial PublicSector Domestic Transport LULUCFNetEmissions Agriculture GrandTotal PerCapitaEmissions(tCO2e) RibbleValley 31.59 1.80 1.99 4.80 4.45 -9.47 17.88 11.61 20.43 WestLancashire 10.57 4.53 8.19 7.77 7.90 60.77 11.18 10.62 9.88 BlackburnwithDarwen 8.63 9.93 10.70 9.23 5.40 -0.06 1.89 6.54 4.60 Wyre 5.89 11.45 4.86 7.83 8.09 22.67 13.99 8.77 8.49 SouthRibble 5.62 6.18 2.93 6.98 8.53 1.05 4.13 6.48 6.36 Hyndburn 5.27 6.18 2.78 5.26 5.17 -1.30 1.48 4.44 5.88 Lancaster 4.74 7.50 14.27 9.08 13.06 13.82 19.94 10.74 8.23 Rossendale 4.38 2.67 2.20 5.00 4.42 0.78 1.97 4.61 7.08 Pendle 4.05 4.20 3.67 6.24 4.72 -0.89 4.31 4.67 5.31 Fylde 3.97 3.96 4.71 6.01 6.22 12.51 7.85 6.07 8.08 Blackpool 3.68 11.63 12.68 9.36 4.04 0.91 0.35 5.01 3.87 Burnley 3.47 6.72 6.82 5.88 4.81 -0.39 1.62 4.35 5.00 Chorley 3.32 5.91 8.53 7.71 12.72 0.36 5.45 7.34 6.78 Lancashire14 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00