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Copyright Conscires 2011 INTRO TO AGILE & SCRUM Presenter: Bachan AnandAGENDA SCRUM Framework SCRUM Roles Copyright Conscires 2011 Planning & Estimation Team Engagement SCRUM Simulations SCRUM Myths Class Retrospective 2AGILE MANIFESTO Individuals and interactions over processes and tools Working software/product over comprehensive Copyright Conscires 2011 documentation Customer collaboration over contract negotiation Responding to change over following a plan 3
AGILE 12 PRINCIPLES Highest priority is to satisfy the customer through early and continuous delivery of valuable software Copyright Conscires 2011 Welcome changing requirements Deliver working software (Product) frequently Business people and developers must work together daily throughout the project Build projects around motivated individuals Most efficient and effective method of conveying information is face-to-face conversation 4AGILE 12 PRINCIPLES Working software (product) is the primary measure of progress Agile processes promote sustainable development Copyright Conscires 2011 (maintain a constant pace indefinitely) Continuous attention to technical excellence and good design enhances agility Simplicity (art of maximizing amount of work not done) is essential Best architectures, requirements, and designs emerge from self-organizing teams At regular intervals, team reflects on how to become more effective, then tunes and adjusts http://agilemanifesto.org/principles.html 5AGILE LEAN ROOTS Eliminate Waste – Anything that does not add value Build Quality In – Quality if a primary focus Copyright Conscires 2011 Deliver fast – Just as it’s defined Defer Commitment – Learning before commitment Respect People – Give space for others to grow Improve the System – The system is the entire process Create Knowledge – Sharable and Usable Focus on the customer - Needs Continuous improvement - Daily Kaizen - Change for better processes, led by the people 6
SCRUM FOUNDATION VALUES Empiricism Detailed up-front planning and defined processes are replaced by just-in-time Inspect and Adapt cycles Copyright Conscires 2011 Self-Organization Small teams manage their own workload and organize themselves around clear goals and constraints Prioritization Do the next right thing Rhythm Allows teams to avoid daily noise and focus on delivery Collaboration Leaders and customers work with the Team, rather than directing them 7SCRUM VALUES Transparency Everything about a project is visible to everyone Commitment Copyright Conscires 2011 Be willing to commit to a goal Courage Have the courage to commit, to act, to be open and to expect respect Focus Focus all of your efforts and skills on doing the work that you have committed to doing Respect Respect and trust the different people who comprise a team 8SCRUM FRAMEWORK Copyright Conscires 2011 9
SCRUM AND WATERFALL DIFFERENCESSCRUM Traditional (Waterfall) Copyright Conscires 2011Plan what you expect to happen with Plan what you expect to happendetail appropriate to the horizonControl happens through inspection Enforce what happens is the same asand adaption what is planned •Reviews and Retrospectives •Directive management •Self-organizing Teams •ControlUse Agile Practices to manage change Use change control to manage change •Continuous feedback loop •Change Control Board •Iterative and incremental •Defect Management development 10 •Prioritized backlogsSCRUM ROLES DETAILS Product Owner Maximize the value of the work done by prioritizing the features by market value Copyright Conscires 2011 SCRUM Master Manages the SCRUM framework Team Self-organizing empowered individuals motivated by business goals Other Stakeholders Anyone who needs something from the team or the team something from 11SCRUM ROLES DETAILS – PRODUCT OWNER Thought Leader and Visionary Drives the Product Vision (for example, with Story Copyright Conscires 2011 Mapping) Prioritizes the User Stories Maintains the Product Backlog with the team Accepts the Working Product (on behalf of the customer) 12
SCRUM ROLES DETAILS – SCRUM MASTER Servant Leader Facilitates the Process Copyright Conscires 2011 Supports the Team Removes Organizational Impediments Socializes Scrum to Management Enable close collaboration across all roles and functions 13SCRUM ROLES DETAILS – SCRUM TEAM Cross-Functional 5-8 Members Copyright Conscires 2011 Self-Organizing Focused on meeting Commitments 14ROLES RELATIONSHIP Copyright Conscires 2011 15
MANAGEMENT ROLES (SERVANT LEADERSHIP) Is a servant first and ensures other people – i.e. followers or stakeholders – highest priority needs are being served Copyright Conscires 2011 Empowers others and supports an environment of trust Has empathy and sensitivity to the needs and interest of all stakeholders Is open to the voice of others by supporting discussions that includes those without a voice Accept risks; takes the risk of failure along with the chance of success, while trusting others My cup is always full – my focus is now; I’ve learned from yesterday and I’m planning for tomorrow 16PRE-SCRUM PLANNING Pre-SCRUM is where projects are approved, budgets and resources assigned Project Portfolio’s are expensive Copyright Conscires 2011 They are risky Do we have the right people with the right experience and skills? Can we afford the project? What are the objectives of the project? Clear goals. Lack of commitment Can we verify the promise was met? The business want value and a return on investment 17PRE-SCRUM PLANNING Reject Copyright Conscires 2011 Pre- Active Post- Portfolio Portfolio Portfolio Success or Failure Projects Projects Projects Being formulated Approved Executed Evaluated Pending Kick-off M & E 18 Pending approval Executing
PRODUCT VISION & ROLE ENGAGEMENT A goal to aspire to Can be summarized in a short statement of intent Copyright Conscires 2011 Communicate it to the team Common format: For: (Our Target Customer) Who: (Statement of need) The: (Product/Product name) is a (Product/Product category) That: (Product/Product key benefit, compelling reason to buy and/or use) Unlike: (Primary competitive alternative) Our Product: (Final statement of primary differentiation) 19RELATIVE ESTIMATION Humans are better at relative estimates than absolute estimates Many heads are better than one Copyright Conscires 2011 Estimates are made by those who perform the work Estimate size/complexity – Derive duration The goal is to get useful estimates with minimal effort Estimates are not commitments Planning Poker is the common method for estimation 20RELATIVE ESTIMATION Story Points: Commonly used in Agile estimation No real-world dimensions Copyright Conscires 2011 Compare one story to another Based on effort, complexity, risk Precision is not critical 21
PRODUCT BACKLOG A living list of requirements captured in the form of User Stories Represents the WHAT of the system Copyright Conscires 2011 Prioritization with respect to business value is essential! Each story has estimated Story Points, which represent relative size, and is determined by those actually doing the work Higher priority items are decomposed and lower priority items are left as larger stories (epics) 22USER STORIES Product requirements formulated as one or more sentences in the everyday or business language of the user Copyright Conscires 2011 As a <user>, I would like <function> so that I get <value> Each User Story has an associated Acceptance Criteria that is used to determine if the Story is completed 23SPRINT BACKLOG List of stories, broken down into tasks, that is committed for any particular Sprint Copyright Conscires 2011 Owned and managed by the Team Any team member can add, delete or change the sprint backlog with additional tasks 24
USER STORIES Independent Not overlap in concept and be able to schedule and implement them in any order Copyright Conscires 2011 Negotiable Not an explicit contract for features; rather, details will be co-created by Product Owner and Team Valuable Add business value Estimated Just enough to help the Product Owner rank and schedule the storys implementation Sized Appropriately Need to be small, such as a few person-days 25 Testable A characteristic of good requirementsSPRINT PLANNING Sprint Planning meeting held at beginning of each Sprint Time and Resources are fixed in any given Sprint Copyright Conscires 2011 Goal is to have prioritized Sprint Backlog, broken down into tasks, that the Team can commit to During planning, Team commits to scope that can be completed in the Sprint, taking into account the definition of Done Story points may be refined 26TASK BOARD Active visual indicator of flow of work Should be visible to team Copyright Conscires 2011 members at all times Should be kept current Encourages self-organization, and collaboration 27
DOD - (DEFINITION OF DONE) Team creates its own definition of Done in the interest of creating quality software Definition can evolve over sprints Copyright Conscires 2011 Example checklist (not exhaustive): Unit tests pass (ideally automated) Customer Acceptance tests pass User docs written UI design approved by PO Integrated into existing system Regression test/s pass (ideally automated) Deployed on staging server Performance tests pass 28SPRINT BURN-DOWN Shows daily progress in the Sprint Copyright Conscires 2011 X-axis is the number of days in the Sprint Y-axis is the number of remaining stories 29RELEASE BURN-DOWN Shows progress across Sprints X-axis is the Copyright Conscires 2011 number of Sprints Y-axis is the total number of stories 30
DAILY STANDUP MEETINGS Meetings held in same location, same time, every day Time-boxed at 15 minutes Copyright Conscires 2011 Encourages self-organization, rhythm, and collaboration Not a status meeting Each Team member speaks to: What did I accomplish in the last 24 hours What do I plan to accomplish in the next 24 hours Any impediments getting in the way of my work 31SPRINT REVIEW Occurs at the end of each Sprint Inspect and Adapt the product (Empiricism) Copyright Conscires 2011 The team meets with the Product Owner (and Stakeholders) to demonstrate the working software from the Sprint This is a hands-on software demo (not a PowerPoint) that usually requires some prep beforehand 32RETROSPECTIVES Occurs at the end of each Sprint Inspect and Adapt the process (Empiricism) Copyright Conscires 2011 Team and ScrumMaster meet to reflect on what went well and what can be improved Tone of the meeting is that everyone did their best and now look to how can we improve Retrospectives must conclude with team commitments to action 33
SCRUM RELEASE - VELOCITY Total number of story points completed by a team in a Sprint Copyright Conscires 2011 Can be used by the team as a reference during Sprint Planning Used by Product Owner to plan out the releases 34SCRUM RELEASE PLANNING Product Owner, in conjunction with the team, formulates Release Plans by applying the team Velocity to the Product Backlog Copyright Conscires 2011 Release Plans are revisited after every Sprint Two ways to approach Fix scope and determine how many sprints are needed Fix time and determine how much scope can be completed 35SCRUM MYTHS SCRUM Myths: No quality/no testing Copyright Conscires 2011 People burnout because of short and frequent delivery cycles (sprints) No culture change is needed Will make a better team SCRUM is the only Agile method Solution to all 36
SCRUM MYTHS SCRUM Myths: A silver bullet Copyright Conscires 2011 Management believes it will solve all problems Easy to implement Will replace waterfall method Cowboy coding No documentation Simple but not easy 37SCRUM MYTHS! SCRUM: ! Exposes issues sooner Copyright Conscires 2011 ! Increases visibility, leading to faster issue resolution ! Facilitates complete feedback & continuous improvements ! Allows people to fail and learn from failure ! Moves away from the blame culture ! Embraces small incremental changes 38TAKE AWAY! Scrum is a lightweight framework with a simple set of rules, built on foundations and values Copyright Conscires 2011! Scrum enables teams to discover their true potential and deliver quality software that adds business value 39
APPENDIX - ROLES Product Owner Thought Leader and Visionary, who drives the Product Vision, maintains the Product Backlog, prioritizes the Copyright Conscires 2011 User Stories, and accepts the Working Software (on behalf of the customer) ScrumMaster Servant Leader, who facilitates the process, supports the Team, removes organizational impediments, and socializes Scrum to Management Team Cross-Functional group of 5-8 Members that is self- organizing and focused on meeting Commitments 40APPENDIX – ARTIFACTS Product Backlog A living list of requirements captured in the form of User Stories, prioritized according to business value Copyright Conscires 2011 Sprint Backlog List of stories, broken down into tasks, that is committed for any particular Sprint; owned and managed by the Team Taskboard Active visual indicator of flow of work Sprint Burndown Chart Shows daily progress in the Sprint Release Burndown Chart Shows progress across Sprints 41APPENDIX - CEREMONIES Sprint Planning Held at beginning of each Sprint, with the goal to have prioritized Sprint Backlog, broken down into tasks, Copyright Conscires 2011 that the Team can commit to Daily Standup Meetings held in same location, same time, every day, with the goal of ensuring that team members are in synch (not a status meeting) Sprint Review Occurs at the end of each Sprint, with the goal of inspecting and adapting the Product Retrospective Occurs at the end of each Sprint, with the goal of inspecting and adapting the process 42