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Ghana Priorities: Land Titles

Poverty remains a problem in Ghana. There is an overall reduction in national poverty over the last 3 decades, but this masks the persistent spatial concentration of poverty and high inequality.

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Ghana Priorities: Land Titles

  1. 1. EminentPanelConference,Accra,August7th -9th,2020 PRELIMINARY FINDINGS: Land Title Reforms in Ghana Charles K.D. Adjasi, Stellenbosch University, South Africa Stanislaus Adiaba Lands Commission, Ghana Saleema Razvi Copenhagen Consensus Brad Wong Copenhagen Consensus Centre
  2. 2. Land in Ghana • Land plays a crucial role in economic development and poverty reduction. • However, access to land for economic development is a challenge in Ghana due to the absence of titling and proper documentation. • Land in Ghana split between customary land (close to 80% of land in Ghana, stool/skin clan/family) and public land (20% held by state). • Majority of land (Customary Land) is largely undocumented and unregistered formally. This has adverse consequences for economic activity.
  3. 3. Recent Reforms • A host of reforms have been implement, the most recent have been: • Land Administration Project (LAP I - 1999-2001) - decentralizing deeds registry, establishment of customary land secretariats (CLSs), codifying customary land rights, establishment of land courts in Greater Accra & structuring of the administration • LAP II 2011 - LAP II increased progress of LAP I & enhanced the policy, legal and regulatory framework for land administration • However LAP II was not aimed at all parcels of land and challenges of un-documentation and access still remain significant.
  4. 4. The solution • Survey & digitization of majority of land parcels, & update of national base map. This would increase the land in Ghana under title from an estimated 10% to 85%. • Intervention is via 6 segments - Updating and modernizing the national base map. • The base map, a system of record of land maps, was last conducted in 1974 - Rehabilitating the Continously Operating Referencing Station (CORS) network. • The CORS is a system of monuments that is required for surveying and about 200 of these need to be established across Ghana. - Mapping, survey and demarcation of customary land ownership. 170,657 square kilometers of land representing the parcel of customary lands in Ghana - Digitization of documents, and automation of the registration process. - Sensitization. - Legal and arbitration framework.
  5. 5. It would cost GHS 1658m to reform customary lands & modernize land system Costs = GHS 1658 million • Parameter costs are in line with assumptions from Lands Commission - The cost of legal framework and digitization is based on a scaled up conversion of the cost in LAP II. - The nationwide sensitization is assumed to cost 5GHS per person via mass media (radio). - The survey cost is estimated based on km per boundary of customary land areas of 84,860 km of customary land to be surveyed at a unit cost of GHS 12,500 per km for a total cost of GHS 1061 million. • Parameters Cost Millions GHS Base map 100 Continuously Operating Referencing Station (CORS) network 100 Survey costs 1061 Legal framework 52 Digitization 195 Sensitization 150 Total Cost 1658
  6. 6. Intervention would increase land value by 25% • Benefits= GHS 344,492 million • Benefits associated with land titling including increasing access to credit, investment certainty and smoothing land transactions. - The computed benefit is based on average land values estimates at just under GHS 33,000 per acre. Benefits Value Boost to land value from titling 25% Value of land GHS per acre (GHS) 32,673 Value per sq km (GHS, million) 8.07 Total Benefits (GHS millions) 344,492
  7. 7. Total costs, total benefits and cost-benefit ratio 75% probability of success 50% probability of success 25% probability of success 10% probability of success 1% probability of success Benefits 258,369 172,246 86,123 34,449 3,445 Costs 1,419 1,181 942 799 713 BCR 182 146 91 43 5 • Uncertainties around the success of such reforms account for the wide BCR range [5 to 200]. Note: All costs and benefits in GHS millions. Costs and benefits reported in this table represent weighted values of success and failure scenarios, where benefits = GHS 344,492 million if successful and = GHS 0 if not, while costs = GHS 1,658 million if successful and GHS = 703 million if not.