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Psychological Architectures & Persuasive Technology (SXSW)

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In this SXSW workshop, participants will learn to understand the psychology that drives some of the world’s most successful websites, social media, and mobile apps. They will also see through ridiculous claims about gamification, and other design patterns, as magic solutions for all problems. They will start to see these “solutions” as simply psychological patterns that work in some contexts, and totally fail in others. It’s also important to know that attendees will walk away with an understanding that “evidence-based design,” or “theory-based design,” is a simple concept, and that it is the perfect intersection of where science and creative thinking fit well together.

Publié dans : Technologie, Design
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Psychological Architectures & Persuasive Technology (SXSW)

  1. 1. PSYCHOLOGICAL ARCHITECTURES & PERSUASIVE TECH SXSW Interactive Brian Cugelman, PhD @cugelman Austin, Texas 14 March 2015 BETA slides
  2. 2. AGENDA • Starting out • Foundational principles (crazy fast overview) • Combining psychological principles • Building Psychological Architectures • Motivation and ability • Solo and social selling • Goals, feedback, progress • Time-based processes of change 2
  3. 3. BRIAN CUGELMAN, PHD 3 imcba.comalterspark.com
  4. 4. FOUNDATIONAL PRINCIPLES (CRAZY FAST OVERVIEW) 4
  5. 5. 5 BEHAVIOR CHANGE TECHNOLOGIES
  6. 6. 6 WHAT’S PERSUASIVE TECHNOLOGY
  7. 7. REALITY CHECK ON DIGITAL INFLUENCE 7
  8. 8. 8 Let’s take a realistic approach to habit formation with 66 avg days and most people abandoning your technology after a few sessions.
  9. 9. 9 INFLUENCE CAPACITY COMES FROM PERSUASIVE INGREDIENTS BLENDED INTO OPTIMIZED RECIPES
  10. 10. OPTIMIZATION: THE MIX OF INGREDIENTS THAT ACHIEVES THE MOST IMPACT WITH THE LEAST EFFORT 10 Number of persuasive ingredients Influencepotential How do you know when you have too few or too many? Too few Too many Just right Cugelman, B., Thelwall, M., & Dawes, P. (2011). Online Interventions for Social Marketing Health Behavior Change Campaigns: A Meta-Analysis of Psychological Architectures and Adherence Factors. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 13(1), e17.
  11. 11. 11How many ingredients can you find?
  12. 12. INTERACTIVE INFLUENCE MODEL 12
  13. 13. 13 DOMAIN 1. SOURCE (CREDIBILITY)
  14. 14. DOMAIN 2. SOURCE MESSAGE 14
  15. 15. DOMAIN 3. MEDIA 15
  16. 16. DOMAIN 4. MESSAGE EXPRESSION & INTERPRETATION 16
  17. 17. DOMAIN 5. AUDIENCE 17
  18. 18. DOMAIN 6. FEEDBACK EXPRESSION & INTERPRETATION 18
  19. 19. DOMAIN 7. AUDIENCE FEEDBACK 19
  20. 20. DOMAIN 8. SOCIAL AND PHYSICAL CONTEXT 20
  21. 21. OPTIMIZATION 21
  22. 22. COMBINING PSYCHOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES 22
  23. 23. HOW PHYSICAL FORCES COMBINE 23 Push Which exerts the most physical force? A B C Pull PullPush Let’s discuss how to throw someone with Jujitsu.
  24. 24. HOW PSYCHOLOGICAL FORCES COMBINE 24 IncentiveA B C Which exerts the most psychological pressure? Avoiding punishment (loss aversion) Avoiding punishment (loss aversion) Incentive
  25. 25. 25
  26. 26. C Obtain reward (If I buy more, I’ll save the cost of shipping) Avoid punishment (If I don’t buy more, I’ll lose the cost of shipping) POWERFUL MECHANICS EXPRESS MULTIPLE PRINCIPLES AT ONCE 26
  27. 27. C WHAT IF WE HAVE COMPETING INCENTIVES? 27
  28. 28. Value proposition KEEPING PRINCIPLES IN THE PERSUASIVE ZONE 28 PersuasiveZone Lack of ability (complexity) Lack of credibility Goal
  29. 29. CONSIDER THE NET IMPACT WHEN COMBINING PSYCHOLOGY • Do principles reinforce each other, providing greater force in one direction? (e.g. carrot and stick) • Do principles contradict each other, pushing users in contradictory directions? (e.g. free shipping if you buy more or sign-up for a program) • Do principles overlap, canceling out the impact of the other? (e.g. a good testimonial and bad star rating) 29
  30. 30. REINFORCES OR UNDERMINES? 30 Setting goals and making commitments Exercises 3 times per week Reminders & prompts Setting goals and making commitments Exercises 3 times per week Punish on failure
  31. 31. REINFORCES OR UNDERMINES? 31 Exercises 3 times per week Exercises 3 times per week Complicating Remove personal barriers & friction
  32. 32. WHAT IF WE WANT TO DEMOTIVATE USERS? 32 Exercises 3 times per week Exercises 3 times per week Publicizing embarrassing performance Undermine confidence
  33. 33. BUILDING PSYCHOLOGICAL ARCHITECTURES 33
  34. 34. 34 NOMENCLATURE
  35. 35. FITTING THEM TOGETHER Mechanics Outcome Respectful privacy policy Honesty in source credibility Expertise in source credibility Client testimonial Social learning (norms) Architecture
  36. 36. PSYCHOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES 36
  37. 37. PSYCHOLOGICAL PACKAGES 37 Stick Carrot Pain Pleasure Motivation Ability Fear Efficacy Just a few examples
  38. 38. PSYCHOLOGICAL ARCHITECTURES 38 Theory of planned behavior (Scientifically validated) L.I.F.T (Industry practice) Psychological principles that reinforce each other, producing effects greater than the sum of their parts. Mechanics? What are some ways we might implement these concepts in a landing page, to obtain a donation for a social cause?
  39. 39. WHAT IF THE THEORY OF PLANNED BEHAVIOR INSPIRED A USER INTERFACE? 39 Value proposition [behavior, Intention] Subjective norm [Social learning] Behavioral attitude [Incentives, Loss aversion] Perceived behavioral control [Self-confidence, Skills] Now you’re doing evidence-based design.
  40. 40. FROM GAME-IFICATION TO TAMAGOTCH-IFICATION, TO WHATEVER-IFICATION 40 ? ? ? ? What if a Tamagotchi inspired a user interface?
  41. 41. MOTIVATION AND ABILITY 41
  42. 42. MOTIVATION-GATEWAY 42 2. Source message 201.Proposition that motivates (explicit, implicit) Incentives +(+): -201 a. Promise they’ll gain pros +(+ +) Loss aversion –(-): -201 c. Promise they’ll avoid losing pros -(- +) 202. Path or opportunity (facilitated, advocated) 203. CTA (overt, covert) 5. Audience 502. motivation (decision balance) -502 a. Intellectual (beliefs) -502 b. Emotional (attitudes) 503. Ability (internal outcome confidence) 7. Audience feedback 712. Reinforcement 712 a. Reward on success
  43. 43. 43
  44. 44. 44
  45. 45. 45 Has this user taken action (signed-up, paid, etc...) Present something the user wants Give them what they want Tell them to take an action, to get what they want Did they take the action? START Y Y N N
  46. 46. EXTENDED PARALLEL PROCESS MODEL 46 2. Source message 201.Proposition that motivates (explicit, implicit) Loss aversion –(-): -201 c. Promise they’ll avoid losing pros -(- +) -201 d. Promise they’ll avoid gaining cons -(+ -) 202. Path or opportunity (facilitated, advocated) 5. Audience 502. Motivation (decision balance) -502 a. Intellectual (beliefs) -502 b. Emotional (attitudes) 503. Ability (internal outcome confidence) -503 a. Skills -503 b. Self-confidence (efficacy)
  47. 47. 47
  48. 48. 48
  49. 49. MALWARE AND ANTI-VIRUS USE SIMILAR TACTICS 49
  50. 50. SOLO AND SOCIAL SELLING 50
  51. 51. 51 LANDING PAGE
  52. 52. 52 Proposition Source Proposition (provide pros) Motivation (intellectual) Path Call to action Call to action Removing personal barriers & friction Proposition (provide pros) Motivation (intellectual, Emotional)
  53. 53. WILL I GET SOMETHING THAT MEETS MY NEEDS? 53 Belief Attitude Trust Action Outcome confidence Intellectual evidence Emotional appeal Ability
  54. 54. http://www.my-landing-page.com 54 Benefit from this awesome value proposition Wicked benefits •You’ll gain this •You reduce this stress •You’ll save all this time Unique features •We provide all these features •You’ll be able to do all of this •This is how it works Emotionally evocative image Example of its features or how it works 100% confidence guarantee Sign-up NOW.
  55. 55. GROUP BUYING 55 Principles 1. Motivation (Proposition) 2. Framing offers 3. Scarcity and urgency 4. Social learning (norms) 5. Social diffusion 6. Source credibility 7. Trust in the source and path 8. Call to action
  56. 56. 56 Motivation (proposition) Scarcity and urgency Social learning (norms) CTA Framing offers Social diffusion Motivation (intellectual , emotional) Motivation (intellectual, emotional) Source Trust Likeable, Similar Source Scarcity and urgency Social diffusion
  57. 57. GOALS, FEEDBACK, PROGRESS 57
  58. 58. Feedback loop (self-regulation) 58 Compare goal to performance (reaction) Behavioral outcome (variable) Set a goal (reference value) Barriers & friction (disturbance) Receive feedback on performance (input) Perform behavior (output) Carver, C. and M. Scheier (2005). On the structure of behavioral self-regulation. Handbook of self-regulation. M. Boekaerts, P. Pintrich and M. Zeidner. San Diego, USA, Guilford Press.
  59. 59. 59 WITHINGS SCALE
  60. 60. LOOP TYPES Reference value (norm) Behavioral outcome (variable) - +
  61. 61. Persistence and self-confidence 61 Perform behavior (output) Evaluate expectancy of success Carver, C. and M. Scheier (2005). On the structure of behavioral self-regulation. Handbook of self-regulation. M. Boekaerts, P. Pintrich and M. Zeidner. San Diego, USA, Guilford Press. Self- regulation Success? Attain goals Yes No Give up Confident (hopeful) No Yes
  62. 62. GAMIFICATION 62 Cugelman, B. Gamification: What It Is and Why It Matters to Digital Health Behavior Change Developers. JMIR Serious Games, 1(1), e3.
  63. 63. 63
  64. 64. WHAT’S A GAME 64
  65. 65. DEFINING GAMIFICATION 65 Using game design elements in non-game contexts
  66. 66. IT’S NOT GIVING OUT SUPERFICIAL POINTS 66
  67. 67. GAMIFICATION: IT'S NOT ABOUT BADGES 67 "A soldier will fight long and hard for a bit of colored ribbon." -Napoleon Bonaparte
  68. 68. THE MOTIVATIONAL VALUE OF BADGES/POINTS 68 Cashing in your points 3. Foursquare badges 1. War hero ribbons 4. Rat race 2. World of Warcraft points 5. Nobel peace prize
  69. 69. FLOW 69Mihály Csíkszentmihályi Challenge Skilllow high high low Stress Boredom
  70. 70. TOP 10 GAMIFICATION MECHANICS 70 Mechanics 1. Providing clear goals 2. Offering a challenge 3. Using levels (incremental challenges) 4. Allocating points 5. Showing progress 6. Providing feedback 7. Giving rewards 8. Providing badges for achievements 9. Showing the game leaders 10. Giving a story or theme Hamari, J., J. Koivisto, et al. (2004). Does Gamification Work? – A Literature Review of Empirical Studies on Gamification. 47th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Hawaii, USA.
  71. 71. POINTS, BADGES, AND LEADERBOARDS 71 What’s are the principles that matter? (gigya.com plugin) LeaderboardBadgesPoints
  72. 72. GAMIFICATION AND HEALTH BEHAVIOR CHANGE 72 Gamification principles Proven health behavior change principles and techniques Cohen's d 1. Goal setting Agree behavioral contract 0.275 Goal setting (behavior) 0.245 Motivation and goals (intention) 0.229 2. Capacity to overcome challenges Time management 0.343 Action planning 0.24 Barrier identification/problem solving 0.224 Provide information on where and when to perform the behavior 0.218 Provide instruction on how to perform the behavior 0.212 Model/demonstrate the behavior 0.21 Skills 0.185 3. Feedback on performance Prompt self-monitoring of behavioral outcome 0.263 Prompt self-monitoring of behavior 0.223 Provide information on consequences of behavior relevant to the individual 0.208 Provide information about others’ approval 0.206 Memory, attention, and decision processes 0.188 4. Reinforcement Provide rewards contingent on successful behavior 0.291 5. Compare progress Prompt self-monitoring of behavioral outcome 0.263 Provide normative information about others’ behavior 0.246 Facilitate social comparison 0.226 Prompt self-monitoring of behavior 0.223 Provide information about others’ approval 0.206 6. Social participation Social influences (norms) 0.25 Plan social support/social change 0.25 Provide normative information about others’ behavior 0.246 Model/demonstrate the behavior 0.21 Provide information about others’ approval 0.206 Cugelman, B. Gamification: What It Is and Why It Matters to Digital Health Behavior Change Developers. JMIR Serious Games, 1(1), e3.
  73. 73. TIME-BASED PROCESSES OF CHANGE 73
  74. 74. INTEGRATED MODEL 74 Aware & Familiar Interest & Consideration Desire & Decision Action Maintenance & Loyalty Abandonment & Relapse Prochaska’s stages of change, adapted with commercial stages.
  75. 75. 75 COACHING: GOAL ATTAINMENT
  76. 76. PSYCHOLOGICAL ARCHITECTURE OF HEALTH BEHAVIOR CHANGE TECHNOLOGIES CUGELMAN, B., THELWALL, M., & DAWES, P. (2011) Online interventions for social marketing health behavior change campaigns: A meta-analysis of psychological architectures and adherence factors. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 13(1), e17. http://www.jmir.org/2011/1/e17/ 76 EffectSize(d) Interventions(%)
  77. 77. 77
  78. 78. DECISION BALANCE: PROS AND CONS 78 Aware & Familiar Interest & Consideration Desire & Decision Action Maintenance & Loyalty Cons of change More important in the unaware stage Pros of change More important in the action stage Adapted from Prochaska, J., Norcross, J., & DiClemente, C. (1995). Changing for Good: A Revolutionary Six-Stage Program for Overcoming Bad Habits and Moving Your Life Positively Forward: Collins Messagingvalence
  79. 79. CARROT AND STICK Good cop. Bad cop. 2. Source message 201.Proposition that motivates (explicit, implicit) Incentives +(+): -201 a. Promise they’ll gain pros +(+ +) -201 b. Promise they’ll lose cons +(- -) Loss aversion –(-): -201 c. Promise they’ll avoid losing pros -(- +) -201 d. Promise they’ll avoid gaining cons -(+ -) 202. Path or opportunity (facilitated, advocated) 203. CTA (overt, covert) 7. Audience feedback 712. Reinforcement -712 a. Reward on success -712 b. Punish on failure
  80. 80. PROGRESSIVE THREATS The opposite of the most effective health behavior change process Time Messagingvalence
  81. 81. 81
  82. 82. CLOSING 82
  83. 83. Thanks so much. 83 Next steps: 1. Stay in touch on Twitter @cugelman 2. Learn about our workshops alterspark.com/dbc 3. Learn about group training info(at)alterspark.com

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