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Rain water harvesting and geostatistical modelling of ground water in and around ism campus dhanbad dhirendra

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Rain water harvesting and geostatistical modelling of ground water in and around ism campus dhanbad dhirendra

  1. 1. Rain Water Harvesting and Geostatistical Modelling of Ground Water in and around ISM Campus Dhanbad, Jharkhand M.Tech Mineral Exploration Dissertation Presented by: Dhirendra Pratap Singh M.Tech (Mineral Exploration) Department of Applied geology Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad Guide: Prof. B.C.Sarkar Professor Department of Applied Geology Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad Co-Guide: Dr S.C.Dhiman Former Chairman Central Ground Water Board
  2. 2. Presentation Highlights • Artificial Recharge and Rain Water Harvesting in ISM Campus. • Geology of I.S.M. Campus. • Hydrogeological Studies. • Geophysical Studies. • Geostatistical Modelling Studies. • Ground water quality; • Groundwater Resource Estimation and Management. • Concluding Remarks.
  3. 3. Fig 2 Location map of ISM campus with recharge bore wells
  4. 4. 2006 2009 2014
  5. 5. Artificial Recharge Technique in I.S.M. • Roof Top Harvesting- In this Technique the top of the roof of the buildings in I.S.M. are used as the catchment area of rain water for harvesting using artificial recharge techniques. Need for Augmentation and Management of Ground Water Resources within I.S.M. • Steep increase of human population in the campus. • High water demand expected due to increase in developmental works and expansion program. • Conservation and management of available resource to meet the growing needs.
  6. 6. Supply Status of Water in I.S.M. Campus: Sr.No . Tube Well No. Location Discharge/Hr. (Litre) Pumping Hrs Total Discharge/ Day Units Cosumed/Day 1 Dug Well No. 1 Near Ruby hostel 15000 10 150000 55.95 2 Dug Well No. 2 Workshop Campus 12000 10 120000 55.95 3 Dug Well No. 3 Near Petroleum Building 12000 10 120000 111.90 4 Dug Well No. 4 Staff Colony 8000 10 80000 55.95 5 Dug Well No. 5 Near UGC Colony 20000 10 200000 111.90 6 Dug Well No. 6 Near CME Building 20000 10 200000 111.90 7 Dug Well No. 7 Near GJLT Hall 8000 3 24000 11.19 8 Deep Bore Well-9 Staff Colony 12000 9 108000 50.36 9 Deep Bore Well-10 Bamboo Garden 20000 12 240000 134.28 10 Deep Bore Well-11 Beside Seismology Observatory 20000 14 280000 78.33 11 Deep Bore Well-12 Jasper Hostel 8000 10 80000 37.30 12 Deep Bore Well-13 In Front Of Old EDC 8000 10 80000 37.30 13 Deep Bore Well-14 SBI ISM Campus Branch 8000 12 96000 44.76 14 Deep Bore Well-15 Beside 150 Qrts GR Side 8000 12 96000 44.76 15 Deep Bore Well-16 EDC Extension Building 8000 10 80000 37.30 Total 1954000 979.13 Total Consumption / Month 1954000x30 = 58620000 29373.90
  7. 7. Geology and General Succession of the Area: Campus geology is a part of Chotanagpur Gneissic Complex and is characterized by a diverse assemblage of igneous and metamorphic rocks. • Soils and recent sediments. • Dolerite (Intrusions). • Pegmatite, and leucogranite (intrusions). • Megacrystic porphyritic granite (intrusions). • Quartzo-feldspathic gneisses with mafic enclaves. (Basement) equivalent to Chotanagpur Gneissic complex.
  8. 8. I.S.M. contour line showing the R.L. Line showing the Ridge
  9. 9. y = -8.36x + 331.44 R² = 0.0839 0.00 100.00 200.00 300.00 400.00 500.00 600.00 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 RAINFALL MONTHLY(mm) AND ITS TREND Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec R=0.289 Decreasing Trend of Rainfall
  10. 10. • Total Rainfall in 2001 was 1516.20mm • Total Rainfall in 2014 was 984.80mm • If we Predict with linear Model what will be the situation ????? 453.40mm Its alarming 2028
  11. 11. Recharge Pit
  12. 12. Statistical Analysis of groundwater data
  13. 13. 0.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 7.00 8.00 9.00 10.00 SaphireHostel SaphireHostel SaphireHostel SaphireHostel SaphireHostel TopazHostel TopazHostel StudentActivityCentre StudentActivityCentre StudentActivityCentre AmberHostel AmberHostel AmberHostel AmberHostel BackSideofEmerald… BackSideofEmerald… FrontSideofEmerald… FrontSideofEmerald… JasperHostel JasperHostel JasperHostel HeritageBuilding DiamondHostel OpalHostel OpalHostel OpalHostel OpalHostel OldLibrary Petroleum ShantiBhawan HawaMahal HawaMahal Workshop&MME StaffColonyTypeII, StaffColonyTypeII, Lowerground LecturehallcomplexII LecturehallcomplexII HealthCentre(old) Teacherscolony Teacherscolony SBIBankISM SBIBankISM Fluctuationinm Location Fluctuation 2014 215.00 220.00 225.00 230.00 235.00 240.00 245.00 250.00 SaphireHostelpit1 SaphireHostelpit2 SaphireHostelpit3 SaphireHostelpit4 SaphireHostelpit5 SaphireHostelpit6 TopazHostelpit1 TopazHostelpit2 StudentActivityCentre… StudentActivityCentre… StudentActivityCentre… AmberHostelpit1 AmberHostelpit2 AmberHostelpit3 AmberHostelpit4 BackSideofEmerald… BackSideofEmerald… FrontSideofEmerald… FrontSideofEmerald… JasperHostelpit1 JasperHostelpit2 JasperHostelpit3 HeritageBuilding DiamondHostel OpalHostelpit1 OpalHostelpit2 OpalHostelpit3 OpalHostelpit4 OldLibrary Petroleum ShantiBhawan HawaMahalpit1 HawaMahalpit2 Workshop&MME StaffColonyTypeIIpit1 StaffColonyTypeIIpit2 Lowerground LecturehallcomplexII… LecturehallcomplexII… HealthCentre(old) Teacherscolonypit1 Teacherscolonypit2 SBIBankISMpit1 SBIBankISMpit2 GroundwatertableLevel Location Groundwater Table in Pre and Post- monsoon 2014 Pre-monsoon 2014 Post-monsoon 2014
  14. 14. Experimental semivariogram with fitted model for Pre-Monsoon period γ(h)= 3.0+23[(1.5xh/875)-1.5(h/875)3] Experimental semivariogram with fitted model for Post-Monsoon period γ(h)= 3.8+10[(1.5xh/600)-1.5(h/600)3] 0 500 1000 1500 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Experimental semi-variogram Model  Lag (h) C0 C0+C (h) (h)= 3.0+23[(1.5xh/875)-1.5(h/875)3] 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 0 10 20 Experimental semi-variogram Model(h) LAG (h) C0+C (h)= 3.8+10[(1.5xh/600)-1.5(h/600)3]C0
  15. 15. Experimental semivariogram with fitted model for Fluctuation γ(h)= 0.70+1.40[(1.5xh/800)-1.5(h/800)3] 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Model Experimental semo-variogram C0+C Lag (h) (h) (h)= 0.7+1.40[(1.5xh/800)-1.5(h/800)3] C0
  16. 16. Pre-Monsoon GW level Kriged SDKriged Estimate
  17. 17. Post-Monsoon GW level Kriged SDKriged Estimate
  18. 18. Fluctuation GW level Kriged SDKriged Estimate
  19. 19. Regression line of pre-monsoon Y = 0.7625X+ 57.166 R² = 0.8787 228 230 232 234 236 238 240 242 244 246 248 220 225 230 235 240 245 250 KE Measured Kriged Estimate Premonsoon Y = 0.6107X + 94.288 R² = 0.7603 234 236 238 240 242 244 246 248 230 235 240 245 250 255 KE Measured Kriged Estimate Postmonsoon Regression line of post-monsoon Y = 0.6049X + 0.7706 R² = 0.7757 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 KE Measured Kriged Estimate of Fluctuation Regression line of fluctuation For Pre-monsoon ‘t’calc on ‘r’ = 𝒓 𝒏−𝟐 𝟏−𝒓𝟐 = 18.40 ‘t’table (α=0.05, ν=n-2, q=1-α) = 1.68 (i) If tcalc ≤ ttable : H0 is accepted and r is insignificant (ii) If tcalc ≥ ttable : H1 is accepted and r is significant
  20. 20. For Post Monsoon ‘t’calc on ‘r’ = 𝒓 𝒏−𝟐 𝟏−𝒓𝟐 = 12.80 ‘t’table (α=0.05, ν=n-2, q=1-α) = 1.67 (i) If tcalc ≤ ttable : H0 is accepted and r is insignificant (ii) If tcalc ≥ ttable : H1 is accepted and r is significant For Fluctuation ‘t’calc on ‘r’ = 𝒓 𝒏−𝟐 𝟏−𝒓𝟐 = 11.90 ‘t’table (α=0.05, ν=n-2, q=1-α) = 1.68 (i) If tcalc ≤ ttable : H0 is accepted and r is insignificant (ii) If tcalc ≥ ttable : H1 is accepted and r is significant Monsoon recharge can be expressed as - R = (h x Sy x A) + DG Where, h = rise in water level in the monsoon season, A= area for computation of recharge, Sy = specific yield, DG = gross groundwater draft The monsoon groundwater recharge has two components – rainfall recharge and recharge from other sources. Mathematically it can be represented as – R (Normal) = Rrf (normal) + Rc + Rsw + Rt + Rgw + Rwc Rrf is the normal monsoon rainfall recharge. The other sources of groundwater recharge during monsoon season include Rc, Rsw, Rt, Rgw, Rwc which are recharge from rainfall, seepage from canals, surface water irrigation, tanks and ponds, groundwater irrigation, water conservation structures respectively
  21. 21. Groundwater quality of ISM Sr.no. Place/ Block Structure pH EC TDS TH CO3 HCO3 Ca Mg Na K Cl NO3 SO4 F PO4 SiO2 1 Ruby Hostel Annexe, ISM Recharge Well 8.04 728 473 195 ND 240 36 26 72 6 67 41 71 0.86 BDL 13 2 Shanti Bhawan, ISM Recharge Well 8.16 698 454 215 ND 252 30 34 44 3 39 16 72 0.92 BDL 12 3 Type II Qtrs, ISM Recharge Well 7.93 629 409 205 ND 215 32 30 41 4 89 7 39 0.57 BDL 15 4 Amber Hostel, ISM Recharge Well 7.83 720 468 220 ND 326 20 41 55 2 35 3 56 0.00 BDL 15 5 Sapphire Hostel, ISM Recharge Well 7.90 492 320 210 ND 148 32 19 22 8 14 29 71 1.06 BDL 2 6 Student activity centra, ISM Recharge Well 8.02 660 429 210 ND 271 28 34 38 4 53 3 38 0.00 BDL 10 7 Central Workshop, ISM Dug Well 8.11 520 338 160 ND 209 28 22 34 4 35 5 33 0.97 BDL 12 8 Environment Marg, ISM Dug Well 8.10 202 131 80 ND 92 18 9 13 2 14 0 9 0.46 BDL 1 9 Staff Colony, ISM Dug Well 7.96 218 142 85 ND 105 18 10 14 2 18 0 8 0.00 BDL 0 10 CGWB, EW, ISM Bore Well 7.66 886 576 200 ND 308 38 45 59 6 18 18 85 0.00 BDL 10 11 Near Petroleum Engineering, ISM Dug Well 7.91 904 588 235 ND 344 34 36 58 2 36 8 66 0.00 BDL 14 12 Thakurkuli, Dahiya Dug Well 7.88 1102 716 415 ND 277 44 74 54 2 89 39 107 0.62 BDL 17 13 Main Road, Saraidhela Handpump 7.93 1206 784 445 ND 185 176 1 59 3 163 43 111 0.83 BDL 16 14 Jagjeevan Nagar, Dhanbad Bore Well 7.87 819 532 285 ND 178 34 49 33 9 121 12 78 0.16 BDL 12 15 Bank More, Dhanbad Dug Well 7.95 289 188 90 ND 117 18 11 27 1 21 9 19 1.19 BDL 4 Min 7.66 202 131 80 ND 92 18.00 1.21 13.31 1 14.18 0.00 8.09 0.00 BDL 0 Max 8.10 1206 784 445 ND 344 176.00 74.11 59.19 9 163.07 43.29 110.55 1.19 BDL 17 Std Dev 0.12 407 264 145 ND 98 52.90 25.66 20.01 3 57.09 16.48 42.66 0.45 BDL 10 Avrage 7.91 703 457 229 ND 201 47.50 29.35 39.75 3 59.93 16.14 60.33 0.41 BDL 10.00 ND = Not Detected BDL = Below Detection Limit
  22. 22. The study estimated that about 83% of total volume of groundwater available is consumed and thereby maintaining a balance of about 17%. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ - Concluding Remarks The study revealed a mean rise of 2.29m in the groundwater during the year 2014. This figure of groundwater resource balance is expected to improve over the years with continued monitoring study of the fluctuating trend of the groundwater levels with rain water harvesting implemented and last but not the least, an effective groundwater management. Total replenishable volume of water recharge = (Area x fluctuation x 0.03) + Total draft during the period Here, 0.03 is the specific yield considered for hard rock as per GEC, 1997 So, The volume of water recharged is 144270 m3 x 1000 = 144,270,000 liters Consumption from ground water for the study period is 19,54,000 x 7 x 30 = 410,340,000.00 liters Total Resource:- 410,340,000 + 144,270,000 = 554,610,000 liters Groundwater Resource Estimation and Management

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