Indicator is defined as “ a quantitative or qualitative factor or
variable that provides a simple & reliable means to measure
achievement, to reflect the changes connected to an
intervention, or to help assess the performance of a development
An indicator is a specific ,observable and measureable
characteristic that can be used to show changes or progress a
programme is making towards achieving a specific outcome
LogFrame(Logical framework) is defined as “a project planning &
oversight tool consisting of indicators & milestones for key
inputs, activities, outputs, outcomes & impacts”
Log frame is also called logic model/ knowledge management for
global health KM4GH
This model is designed to help global public health professionals
to improve health programs.
Terminologies within the Research, Monitoring and
Evaluation field are the words, “input”, “activities”,
“outputs”,” outcomes” and “impact”, important to
distinguish between these terms.
Inputs: are those things that we use in the project to
implement it. For example, in any project, inputs
would include things like human resource
(personnel), finances in the form of money,
machinery such a vehicles, and equipment such as
public address systems among others.
Inputs ensure that it is possible to deliver the
intended results of a project.
Activities: They are what the
personnel/employees do in order to achieve the
aims of the project.
For example , In a HIV and AIDS project,
activities would include things such as
1. conducting community meetings to sensitize
the public on prevention measures,
2. installing condom dispensers at hot-spots,
3. collecting periodic data to monitor project
progress among others.
There are 3 levels of project results associated
with the project.
1. First level –called output(.what teh project has
achieved in short term)
2. Second level- called Outcome(Medium term
cinsequences of the project)
3. Third level- called Impact (Long term
consequences of the project)
Outputs: They are usually what the project has
achieved in the short term.
For example, project outputs in a HIV and AIDS
project would be:
1. the number of community awareness meetings
that were done
2. the number of condom dispensers installed,
3. number of HIV and AIDS infected persons
referred for ARTs among others.
Outcome: Outcomes usually relate to the project
goal or aim.
For example, in a safe water project, an outcome
1. “the percentage of households that are using
chlorinated drinking water”.
2. Another outcome could be“the percentage of
children suffering from diarrhea.”
Impact: it is very difficult to ascertain the exclusive
impact of a project since several other projects, not similar
in nature can lead to the same impact.
For example impact would be
1. reduced poverty rates,
2. reduced child mortality rates among others.
In the case of the Safe Water project:
1. increase in the number of households using treated
water would directly impact on fewer cases of people
suffering from diarrhe. This has a “direct impact on
poverty reduction. “
2. the number of children suffering from diarrhea may
reduce, meaning that the cases of “child deaths are
Characteristics of indicators
1. Valid: Accurate measure of a behaviour, practice,
task that is expected output or outcome of the
2. Reliable : Consistently measureable over time, in
the same way by different observers.
3. Precise : Operationally defined in clear terms.
4. Measurable : Quantifiable using available tools
5. Timely : Provide a measurement At time intervals
relevant and appropriate in terms of programme
goals and activities.
6. Programmatically Important: Linked to the
programme or to achieving the programme
Purpose of indicators in Monitoring &
Help to Determine whether we have achieved
objectives fir a specifice program or project, or
whether we have reached a threshold for action
TYPES OF INDICATORS
1. Indicators that measure processes
2. Indicators that measure outputs (reach &
3. Indicators that measure outputs (usefulness)
4. Indicators that measure initial outcomes
5. Indicators that measure organizational
6. Indicators that measure adaptive practice
7. Indicators that measure social interaction
Output indicators illustrate the change related
directly to the activities undertaken within the
For example : percentage of traditional leaders in
community x who completed the training on
international human rights standards related to
violence against women and girls whose
Indicators that measure outputs
reach & engagement
It measure the reach of certain knowledge
management outputs to intended users and users
engagement with these outputs.
Reach is defined as “ breadth(how far, such as the
total number of intended users reached) and
saturation (how deep , such as proportion of intended
users reached) of dissemination, distribution, or
referral of the KM output/product in print and/ or
Measuring reach quantifies how far an output was
This can provide valuable information on the extent to
which products get into the hands of intended users.
These data inform planning, promotion, and
budgeting of current and future KM outputs, and can
improve management of product development and
Engagement is defined as “suggests the
intensity with which users spend time and interact
Engagement can be characterized by continuous
action and commitment among users to foster
Data collected for this indicator is quantitative.
Data should be continually collected and analyzed to
track trends over time.
The schedule for routine data collection should be
determined-monthly, quarterly, semi-annually or
annually- and, when applicable, the percent increase
should be calculated and recorded to monitor
Indicators that measure the reach and
engagement of outputs are grouped into three
1) Primary dissemination
2) Secondary dissemination
3) Referrals and exchange
Indicators that measure outputs
The indicators that measure the usefulness of
Usefulness relates to how practical ,applicable
and beneficial a output is for users
The usefulness of an output is determined by
quality metrics such as the user perception of and
satisfaction with that output
Usefulness is determined by two factors
Indicators that measure initial
Outcomes are benefits to the users that may
relate to knowledge,skills,attitudes,behaviors or
Outcomes are expected at several
points,including the initial,intermediate,and end
There are two main subcategories or initial
Learning is further broken down into
Awareness, attitudes,and intentions
Action which is applied in
Indicators that measures initial outcomes are grouped
into two subcategories
measures learning stages encompassing the
progression from awareness of the
knowledge/innovation to ones attitudes towards the
knowedge/innovation to their intention to use it
captures the adoptin of knowledge for decision-
making purposes or for application in practice and
Importance of indicators
what’s the Importance of indicators in health
Tract the progress within and across the
countries over time
Aim to enhance active monitoring of service
delivery to increase public acciuntability and