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Indicators in M&E.pptx

  2. DEFINITIONS  Indicator is defined as “ a quantitative or qualitative factor or variable that provides a simple & reliable means to measure achievement, to reflect the changes connected to an intervention, or to help assess the performance of a development actor”  An indicator is a specific ,observable and measureable characteristic that can be used to show changes or progress a programme is making towards achieving a specific outcome  LogFrame(Logical framework) is defined as “a project planning & oversight tool consisting of indicators & milestones for key inputs, activities, outputs, outcomes & impacts”  Log frame is also called logic model/ knowledge management for global health KM4GH  This model is designed to help global public health professionals to improve health programs.
  3.  Terminologies within the Research, Monitoring and Evaluation field are the words, “input”, “activities”, “outputs”,” outcomes” and “impact”, important to distinguish between these terms.  Inputs: are those things that we use in the project to implement it. For example, in any project, inputs would include things like human resource (personnel), finances in the form of money, machinery such a vehicles, and equipment such as public address systems among others.  Inputs ensure that it is possible to deliver the intended results of a project.
  4.  Activities: They are what the personnel/employees do in order to achieve the aims of the project.  For example , In a HIV and AIDS project, activities would include things such as 1. conducting community meetings to sensitize the public on prevention measures, 2. installing condom dispensers at hot-spots, 3. collecting periodic data to monitor project progress among others.
  5.  There are 3 levels of project results associated with the project. 1. First level –called output(.what teh project has achieved in short term) 2. Second level- called Outcome(Medium term cinsequences of the project) 3. Third level- called Impact (Long term consequences of the project)
  6.  Outputs: They are usually what the project has achieved in the short term.  For example, project outputs in a HIV and AIDS project would be: 1. the number of community awareness meetings that were done 2. the number of condom dispensers installed, 3. number of HIV and AIDS infected persons referred for ARTs among others.
  7.  Outcome: Outcomes usually relate to the project goal or aim.  For example, in a safe water project, an outcome would be 1. “the percentage of households that are using chlorinated drinking water”. 2. Another outcome could be“the percentage of children suffering from diarrhea.”
  8.  Impact: it is very difficult to ascertain the exclusive impact of a project since several other projects, not similar in nature can lead to the same impact.  For example impact would be 1. reduced poverty rates, 2. reduced child mortality rates among others.  In the case of the Safe Water project: 1. increase in the number of households using treated water would directly impact on fewer cases of people suffering from diarrhe. This has a “direct impact on poverty reduction. “ 2. the number of children suffering from diarrhea may reduce, meaning that the cases of “child deaths are reduced.”
  9. Characteristics of indicators 1. Valid: Accurate measure of a behaviour, practice, task that is expected output or outcome of the intervention. 2. Reliable : Consistently measureable over time, in the same way by different observers. 3. Precise : Operationally defined in clear terms. 4. Measurable : Quantifiable using available tools and methods. 5. Timely : Provide a measurement At time intervals relevant and appropriate in terms of programme goals and activities. 6. Programmatically Important: Linked to the programme or to achieving the programme
  10. Purpose of indicators in Monitoring & Evaluation  Help to Determine whether we have achieved objectives fir a specifice program or project, or whether we have reached a threshold for action
  11. TYPES OF INDICATORS 1. Indicators that measure processes 2. Indicators that measure outputs (reach & engagement) 3. Indicators that measure outputs (usefulness) 4. Indicators that measure initial outcomes 5. Indicators that measure organizational partnerships 6. Indicators that measure adaptive practice 7. Indicators that measure social interaction
  12. Output indicators Output indicators illustrate the change related directly to the activities undertaken within the programme. For example : percentage of traditional leaders in community x who completed the training on international human rights standards related to violence against women and girls whose knowledge improved.
  13. Indicators that measure outputs reach & engagement  It measure the reach of certain knowledge management outputs to intended users and users engagement with these outputs.  Reach is defined as “ breadth(how far, such as the total number of intended users reached) and saturation (how deep , such as proportion of intended users reached) of dissemination, distribution, or referral of the KM output/product in print and/ or electronic forms.  Measuring reach quantifies how far an output was disseminated.  This can provide valuable information on the extent to which products get into the hands of intended users.  These data inform planning, promotion, and budgeting of current and future KM outputs, and can improve management of product development and production.
  14.  Engagement is defined as “suggests the intensity with which users spend time and interact with it.  Engagement can be characterized by continuous action and commitment among users to foster knowledge flow.  Data collected for this indicator is quantitative.  Data should be continually collected and analyzed to track trends over time.  The schedule for routine data collection should be determined-monthly, quarterly, semi-annually or annually- and, when applicable, the percent increase should be calculated and recorded to monitor progress.
  15. Subcategories  Indicators that measure the reach and engagement of outputs are grouped into three subcategories: 1) Primary dissemination 2) Secondary dissemination 3) Referrals and exchange
  16. Indicators that measure outputs usefulness  The indicators that measure the usefulness of various outputs  Usefulness relates to how practical ,applicable and beneficial a output is for users  The usefulness of an output is determined by quality metrics such as the user perception of and satisfaction with that output  Usefulness is determined by two factors  1.User satisfaction  2.Quality
  17. Indicators that measure initial outcomes  Outcomes are benefits to the users that may relate to knowledge,skills,attitudes,behaviors or health conditions  Outcomes are expected at several points,including the initial,intermediate,and end stages  There are two main subcategories or initial outcome  1) Learning  2) Action  Learning is further broken down into  Awareness, attitudes,and intentions  Action which is applied in
  18. Subcategories  Indicators that measures initial outcomes are grouped into two subcategories 1) Learning 2) Action Learning : measures learning stages encompassing the progression from awareness of the knowledge/innovation to ones attitudes towards the knowedge/innovation to their intention to use it Action : captures the adoptin of knowledge for decision- making purposes or for application in practice and policy
  19. Importance of indicators ? what’s the Importance of indicators in health Service delivery  Tract the progress within and across the countries over time  Aim to enhance active monitoring of service delivery to increase public acciuntability and good governance.