The social and economic history of ancient india

DR.PREM CHANDRA THAKUR
DR.PREM CHANDRA THAKURHISTORY LECTURER at LNMU Darbhanga. à LNMU Darbhanga.
àmMrZ ^maV H$m gm‘m{OH$ Ed§ Am{W©H$ $ B{Vhmg
THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC HISTORY OF
ANCIENT INDIA
boIH$ :
S>m°. ào‘ MÝÐ R>mHw$a
<ISBN: 978-981-07-9348-7 > THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA
TIJ Research Publications Pte. Ltd., Singapore Page | 2
àmMrZ ^maV H$m gm‘m{OH$ Ed§ Am{W©H$ $ B{Vhmg
THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA
ZËdm gañdVr§Xodr§ dmJWm©{dd dÝXo nmd©Vrna‘oídam¡&&
aoIm‘mÌ‘{n jwÊUmXm‘ZmodË‘©Z: na‘² ñ‘a{nV§ OmZH$sna‘oídam¡&&
S>m°. ào‘ MÝÐ R>mHw$a(E‘. E. (B{Vhmg) nr-EM.S>r.)
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dr.premchandrathakur@yahoo.com
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<ISBN: 978-981-07-9348-7 > THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA
TIJ Research Publications Pte. Ltd., Singapore Page | 3
Xmo eãX
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‘¢ àmMrZ ^maV H$m gm‘m{OH$ Ed§ Am{W©H$ B{Vhmg boIZ ‘| H$hm± VH$ g’$b hþAm hw±± ,
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28/02 /2014 boIH$ : S>m°. ào‘ MÝÐ R>mHw$a
<ISBN: 978-981-07-9348-7 > THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA
TIJ Research Publications Pte. Ltd., Singapore Page | 4
àmMrZ ^maV H$m gm‘m{OH$ Ed§ Am{W©H$ B{Vhmg
(THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA)
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1. àmMrZ ^maVr¶ gm‘m{OH$ Ed§ Am{W©H$ B{Vhmg OmZZo Ho$ ómoV 5-12
2. dU© Ed§ Om{V ì¶dñWm 13-28
3. Aml‘ ì¶dñWm 29-39
4. g§ñH$ma Ed§ {ddmh 40-53
5. nwÌm| Ho$ àH$ma 54-57
6. àmMrZ {ejm Ed§ CZHo$ Ho$ÝÐ 58-68
7. XmgVm Am¡a Añn¥í¶Vm 69-75
8. àmMrZ ^maV ‘| {ó¶m| H$s pñWVr 76-80
9.H¥${f ì¶dñWm 81-90
10.H$a ì¶dñWm 91-104
11. g§K 105-112
12.^w-ñdm{‘Ëd 113-120
13. dm{UÁ¶, ì¶mna Am¡a CÚmoJ 121-127
14. nwñVH$ boIZ ‘| ghm¶H$ J«ÝW gy{M¶m± 128-137
<ISBN: 978-981-07-9348-7 > THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA
TIJ Research Publications Pte. Ltd., Singapore Page | 5
1.àmMrZ ^maVr¶ gm‘m{OH$ Ed§ Am{W©H$ B{Vhmg OmZZo Ho$ ómoV
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hmoVm h¡&
doXm§J Ed§ gm{h˶
<ISBN: 978-981-07-9348-7 > THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA
TIJ Research Publications Pte. Ltd., Singapore Page | 6
doXm| Ho$ gab Ed§ g‘mݶ ‘Zwî¶ Ho$ g‘P bmB©H$ ~ZmZo Ho$ {bE doXm§J H$s aMZm H$s JB© {Oggo
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Ho$ gm‘m{OH$ B{Vhmg H$m nXm©nZ hmoVm h¡&
~m¡Õ gm{h˶
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<ISBN: 978-981-07-9348-7 > THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA
TIJ Research Publications Pte. Ltd., Singapore Page | 7
H$bm CÎm‘ h¡, ~pëH$ {Vgar eVmpãX B©. ny©. H$s gä¶Vm Ho$ B{Vhmg H$s Ñ{ï> go ^r CZH$m C±Mm ñWmZ
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Zm‘H$ J«ÝWm| ‘| {‘bVm h¡&
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O¡Z gm{h˶ ‘| J«ÝW h¡ ^Ðdmhþ M[aÌ, AmMmam§J gyÌ, bmoH$ {d^mJ, H$WmH$mof, nwʶmld, ^mJdVr
gyÌ BZ g~go ^maVr¶ g‘m{OH$ B{Vhmg H$mo OmZZo ‘| H$m’$s ghm¶Vm {‘bVm h¡& n[a{eï> nd©Z ‘|
AZoH$ O¡Z g‘«mQ>m| Ho$ n[aM¶ àmá hmoVo h¡& VWm CZHo$ g‘¶ Ho$ gm‘m{OH$ B{Vhmg H$m én àX{eV
H$aVo h¡&
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dUm©l‘ ì¶dñWm lÕ d àm¶píMV {dYmZ Am{X H$m à‘wI én go dU©Z h¡& ñ‘¥{V¶m| ‘| ‘Zw,
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<ISBN: 978-981-07-9348-7 > THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA
TIJ Research Publications Pte. Ltd., Singapore Page | 8
Ho$ ~mdOwX ^r ^maVr¶ gm‘m{OH$ B{Vhmg H$m àXe©Z H$aVr h¡ &
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<ISBN: 978-981-07-9348-7 > THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA
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A{^boI
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Aݶ gmImAm| ‘| ^r A{^boI H$m ghmam boZm nS>Vm h¡& ³¶m|{H$ BgHo$ {~Zm H${R>ZVm go hr
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àmMrZ {g¸$m| go hr àmá hmoVm h¡& {gåW ‘hmoX¶ Ho$ eãXmo ‘| ""{gH$ÝXa Ho$ ^maV AmH«$‘U Ho$ g‘¶
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d§emdbr Am{X Ho$ kmZ Ho$ gmW - gmW CZHo$ emgZ H$mb H$s Am{W©H$, ì¶mnm[aH$, gm§ñH¥${VH$ d
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boIH$ Ed§ {dXoer ¶m{̶m| Ho$ d¥VmÝV
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<ISBN: 978-981-07-9348-7 > THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA
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na Am¶o VWm CÝhm|Zo ^maVr¶ amÁ¶m| Ho$ Am{W©H$, gm‘m{OH$, Ym{‘©H$ g‘ñ¶m Ed§ EH$Vm Ho$ ~mao ‘|
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Am¡a CZ {dXoer amOmAm| Ho$ H$mb {ZpíMV hmoZo Ho$ H$maU {hÝXþñVmZ {V{W H«$‘ ^r {R>H$ H$a {X¶m
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2. dU© Ed§ Om{V ì¶dñWm
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go d¡í¶m| H$m VWm MaUm| go eyÐm| H$s CËn{V hþB© h¡& {MÝVZ ‘ZZ. nR>>Z nmR>Z Ed§ g‘m{OH$ ݶm¶
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~«m÷U new Ho$ g‘mZ h¡&Bg gå~ÝY ‘| H$hm J¶m h¡ {H$
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BZ íbmoH$mo Ho$ AZwgma ewÐmo H$m Ho$db EH$ hr H$m‘© h¡& BZ VrZm| H$s godm H$aZm&
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AmË‘m CZH$s nmfmU hmoVo h¡& ì¶{º$ Ho$ JwU g‘¶mZwgma ~XbVo ahVo h¡& Omo S>mHw$ h¡ dh gÝV ^r hmo
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g˶, X¶m, j‘mXmZ, erb M[aÌ hmo dh ~«m÷U h¡&'' {dídm{‘Ì OÝ‘ go j{̶ hmoVo hþE ^r AnZo
H$‘© go ~«÷UËd H$mo àmá {H$¶m& AnZo H$‘© Ho$ H$maU hr amOm OZH$ H$mo ~«m÷U H$m gå‘mZ {‘bm&
‘h{f ì¶mg ewX« hmoVo hþE ^r AnZo H$‘© Ûmam ~«m÷U Ho$ nX àmá {H$E&
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S>m°. amYmH¥$îUZ Zo dU© ì¶dñWm H$mo H$‘© àYmZ ì¶dñWm ‘mZm h¡& BZ ‘V H$mo S>m°. Yw[a¶o, Ho$, E‘.
’${U¸$a. S>m°. {XZmZmW d‘m© Zo ^r dU© ì¶dñWm H$mo H$‘© àYmZ hr ‘mZm h¡&
g‘Ýd¶dmXr Ñ{ï>H$moU
JwU H$‘© VWm OÝ‘ ‘| go {H$gr ‘| EH$ H$mo dU© - ì¶dñWm H$m AmYma ‘mZZm Ad¡km{ZH$ àVrV
hmoVm h¡& gå~dV: H$‘© VWm JwU XmoZmo hr dU© {ZYm©aU ‘| à¶má ahm h¡& bo{H$Z Eog ^r ‘mbw‘ Zhr
nS>Vm h¡ {H$, OÝ‘ Cnojm H$s OmVr Wr& H$hZo H$m VmËn¶© h¡, {H$ OÝ‘ VWm H$‘© XmoZm| ì¶{º$ Ho$ dU©
{ZYm©aU ‘| ‘hËdnyU© h¡, Omo Bg ~mV H$mo gm{~V H$aVr h¡, {H$ dU© ì¶dñWm EH$ A˶§V bMrbr
ì¶dñWm Wr& OÝ‘ go ì¶{º$ Ho$ dU© H$m {ZYm©aU hmoVm Wm, bo{H$Z H$‘© Ûmam dU© ~Xb gH$Vm Wm&
BZ g~ ‘Vm| Ho$ Aܶ¶Z H$aZo go nVm MbVm h¡, {H$ ~«m÷U Vmo OÝ‘ go ~«m÷U Wm, {H$ÝVw Aݶ dU©
H$mo CËH$f© Ho$ {bE CÎm‘ H$‘© H$aZm nS>Vm Wm& ³¶m|{H$ Y‘© J«ÝW ‘| Eogm H$moB© ^r CXmhaU Zht {‘bm
h¡, Omo {H$ OÝ‘ ~«m÷U Ho$ Ka {b¶m hmo Am¡a dh ewÐ ‘| n[ad©VrV hmo J¶m hmo& AV: ñnï> h¡ H$s
AݶdU© H$mo ~«m÷U dU© ‘| àdoe Ho$ {bE CÎm‘ H$‘© H$aZo nS>Vo Wo&
dU© ì¶dñWm H$m ‘hËd
dU© ì¶dñWm Omo {H$ l‘ {d^mOZ Ho$ AmYma na {H$¶m J¶m hmo, ì¶{º$ H$mo Cƒ AWdm {ZåZ ñWmZ
Zht {XbmVm& ~pëH$ CgHo$ ñd^md VWm JwUm| Ho$ ~b na ¶mJ¥{V Ho$ amñVo na MbZo Ho$ {bE ào[aV
H$aVm h¡& g^r dUm} H$m ‘hËd CgHo$ gXñ¶m| Ûmam AnZo dUm} Ho$ H$V©ì¶m| Ho$ à{V {Zð>mdmZ ahZo ‘|
h¡& dU© H$V©ì¶ gwMH$ h¡, Z {H$ A{YH$ma gwMH$ & H$‘© Ho$ AmYma na dUm©o H$mo Mma ^mJm| ‘o
{d^m{OV {H$¶m J¶m Wm&
1) ~w{ÛOrdr
2) emgH$
3) ì¶mnmar
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4) l‘Ordr &
{H$gr EH$ dJ© {deof Ho$ hmW ‘| à^wgÎmm Ho$pÝXV Z hmo Bgr Ho$ {bE dU© {d^mOZ hþAm& Bgr {bE
dU© ì¶dñWm kmZ, e{º$, AW© Ed§ l‘ Mmam| à‘wI e{º$¶m| H$s {dHo$pÝÐV H$aZo gå~pÝYV dJ© H$mo
Cg e{º$ H$m à‘wI A{YH$mar ~Zm {X¶m OmVm h¡& O¡go ~«m÷U kmZ H$s e{º$, j{̶ ~b H$m,
d¡í¶ YZ H$m VWm ewÐ l‘ H$s e{º$ H$m A{YH$mar hmoVm h¡& {OgHo$ n[aUm‘ ñdén ~«m÷U AmXa
H$m, j{̶ emgZ H$m ,d¡í¶ YZ H$m VWm ewÐ AdH$me H$m nmÌ hmoVm h¡& {hÝXþ {dMmaH$m| H$m ‘V h¡,
{H$ dU© ì¶dñWm {dYmZ Ûmam dU© g§Kf© gå^m~ZmAm| H$mo H$‘ {H$¶m h¡& dU© ì¶dñWm {hÝXþ g‘mO
‘| Eogr n[apñWVr H$m ‘mJ© àeñV H$aVr h¡, {Og‘| ‘Zwî¶ H$mo d¶ñH$ hmoZo na Or{dH$monmO©Z hoVy
A{YH$ {MÝVm ¶m g§Kf© Zhr H$aZm nS>Vm & ^maV ‘| AZoH$ {eënH$mAm| Am¡a J¥h CÚmoJm| H$m àmaå^
VWm CZH$s àJ{V dU© ì¶dñWm Ho$ H$maU hr g§^d hmo gH$m AmO Ho$ AmYw{ZH$ ¶wJ ‘| {deofrH$aU
H$m H$m’$s ‘hËd h¡& {hÝXþ OrdZ àUmbr ‘| {deof j‘Vm VWm d§e na§nam ì¶{º$ H$m {deof CÚmoJr
VWm ì¶dgm¶ ‘| nma§JV H$aVr h¡& {deofrH$aU Ho$ H$maU N>moQ>o ‘m‘wbr ¶ÝÌm| go gwÝXa H$bmË‘H$
H¥${V¶m| H$m {Z‘m©U Ho$db Hw$N> {deof ì¶{º$ hr H$a nmVo h¡&
dU© H$m OÝ‘ go {ZYm©aU H$aZm {H$ ~«m÷U H$s gÝVmZ ~«m÷U Ho$ ì¶{º$JV {dH$mg ‘| ~mYH$ hmoVm
h¡& ¶h EH$ dU© ì¶dñWm H$s g~go ~S>r H$^r h¡& Xþgam Xþîn[aUm‘ {d^mOZ Ho$ H$maU CËnÞ hþAm&
dU© {d^mOZ Ho$ n[aUm‘ñdén {hÝXþOm{V AZoH$ Om{V¶m| d CnOm{V¶m| ‘| {d^m{OV hmoH$a Xþ~©b hmo
JB© h¡& BZ Xmo ‘w»¶ H${‘¶m| Ho$ ~mdOwX ^r dU© - ì¶dñWm H$m’$s Cn¶moJr g§J{R>V d ewÕ ì¶dñWm
h¡, {Og‘| g‘mO ‘| g§ajU, g§MmbZ d {dH$mg H$m ‘mJ© gm’$ hmoVm h¡&
dU© ì¶dñWm H$o ‘hËd H$mo h‘ H$B© V[aH$m| go ñnï> H$a gH$Vo h¡&
1) dU© ì¶dñWm ‘| l‘ {d^mOZ VWm {deofrH$aU H$s EH$ A{ÛVr¶ ì¶dñWm ahr h¡& dmë¶mH$mb
go hr ì¶{º$ AnZo n[adm[aH$ n¶m©daU ‘| ì¶dgm{¶H$ à{ejU àmá H$a {deofrH¥$V kmZ H$m bm^
CR>m gHo$ h¡&{d{^Þ dUm} ‘| g^r àH$ma Ho$ H$m¶© ~m±Q>H$a g‘mO H$mo àJ{V H$s Am¡a ~T>m¶m Om gH$m&
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2) dU© ì¶dñWm Zo bmoJm| H$mo dU© - Y‘m©Zwgma AnZo AnZo H$V©ì¶ nmbZ H$aZo Ho$ {bE àoaUm Xr&
CÝho AnZo CÎmaXm{¶Ëd Ho$ à{V OmJéH$ ~Zm¶m& BgHo$ AÝVJ©V {d{^Þ dUm} Ho$ AbJ - AJb
H$m‘m} H$m {ZYm©aU H$a bmoJm| H$m EH$ Xþgao Ho$ joÌ ‘| g§Kfm} go ‘wº$ aIm&
3) dU© ì¶dñWm g‘Vm H$s ar[V na AmYm[aV ahr h¡& Bg ì¶dñWm Ho$ AÝV©JV g‘mO H$m Mma dUm}
Ho$ én ‘| H$m¶m©Ë‘H$ {d^mOZ Amdñ¶ hþAm h¡& naÝVw à˶oH$ H$s godmAm| H$s gm‘m{OH$ Ñ{ï> go
g‘mZ ‘hËd {X¶m J¶m h¡&{damQ> nwéf Ho$ eara Ho$ {d{^Þ A§Jmo go Mmamo dUm} H$m CËn{V ¶hr àJQ>
H$aVr h¡ {H$ à˶oH$ A§J Ho$ n¥WH$ - n¥WH$ H$m¶© hmoVo hþE ^r H$m¶m©Ë‘H$ Ñ{ï> go g^r H$m g‘mZ
‘hËd h¡&
4) dU© ì¶dñWm EH$ Eogr gab ì¶dñWm ahr h¡, {H$ {OgHo$ A{YH$ à˶oH$ ì¶{º$ H$mo AnZo JwUm|
VWm H$‘m} Ho$ AZwgma na AnZr gm‘m{OH$ ì¶dñWmHo$ {dH${gV H$aZo H$m CÎm‘ Adga àXmZ {H$¶m
J¶m& Bg‘| ì¶{º$ H$mo AnZo JwU VWm H$‘© Ho$ AmYma na dU© n[adV©Z H$m Adga ^r àmá Wm& ¶h
ì¶dñWm g‘mO H$mo CÞV H$aZo ‘| ‘hmZ ^y{‘H$m àXmZ {H$¶m&
5) dU©ì¶dñW {d{^Þ àOmVr¶ g‘yh aº$ H$s ewÕVm H$mo ~Zm¶o aI gHo$ & AbJ - AbJ dUm} Ho$
én ‘| g§J{R>>V hmoZo go {d{^Þ àOmVr¶ g‘yhm| H$mo EH$ Am¡a a³V H$s ewÜXVm ~Zm¶o aIZo H$m Adga
àmá hþAm Am¡a Xþgar Am¡a AmgmZr go AnZr g§ñH¥$V H$mo nr{T>- Xa nrT>r ~T>mZo ‘| ghm¶Vm àXmZ
{H$¶m&
6) dU© ì¶dñWm go hr g‘mO ‘| g§VwbZ ahm& BÝhr Ho$ dOh go {d{^ÝZ e{º$¶m| Hw$N> {deof
ì¶{º$¶m| ‘| Ho$ÝÐtV Z hmo gH$m& BZ e{º$¶m| go ¶wº$ g‘yh ‘| AhH$ma Ed§ {Za§Hw$eVm ~T>oJr & Bg{bE
Mmam| dUm} Ho$ AbJ aIm J¶m h¡&
Om{V H$mo bm¡{Q>Z ^mfm ‘| H$mñQ> H$hVo h¡, {OgH$m AW© hmoVm h¡ "àOmVr¶ VËd, Zñb ¶m n¡V¥H$ JwUm|
go gånÞ& Om{V eãX g§ñH¥$V ^mfm Ho$ OZ go ~Zm h¡& {OgH$m AW© CËnÞ H$aZm ¶m CËnÝZ hmoZm h¡&
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Bg àH$ma Om{V H$m AW© g‘mZ JwUm| go OÝ‘ boZm h¡& BgH$s n[a^mfm AZoH$ {dÛmZm| Zo AnZo AnZo
Xoe go {XE h¡&
‘Ow‘Xma Ho$ AZwgma ""Om{V EH$ dÝX dJ© h¡&'' àmo. Hw$bo Ho$ AZwgma O~ H$moB© ^r dJ© nyU©V:
d§emZwH«$‘U na AmYm[aV hmo OmVm h¡, Vmo dh Om{V H$hbmVr h¡&
Ho$VH$a Ho$ eãXm| ‘| Om{V {Og én go AmO h¡, Cgo EH$ gm‘m{OH$ g‘wh Ho$ én ‘| g‘Pm Om gH$Vm
h¡, Omo ‘w»¶V: Xmo {deofVmAm| go ~ZVm h¡& nhbm BgH$o gXñ¶ OÝ‘ go hr ~Z OmVo h¡, Xþgam g^r
gXñ¶ A˶ÝV H$R>moa {Z¶‘m| Ûmam g‘yh go ~mha {ddmh H$aZo go amoH$ {X¶o OmVo h¡&''
Ama. E‘. ‘¡H$mBda Ho$ eãXm| ‘| ""O~ ì¶{º$ H$s pñW{V nyd© {ZpíMV hmoVr h¡, AWm©V ì¶{º$ O~
AnZr pñWVr ‘| {H$gr ^r Vah Ho$ n[adV©Z H$s Amem boH$a CËnÝZ hmoVm h¡, V~ dh ì¶{º$ g‘wh ¶m
dJ© Om{V Ho$ én ‘| ñnï> hmoVm h¡&''
[aObo Ho$ AZwgma ""Om{V n[adma ¶m H$B© n[admam| H$m g§H$bZ h¡, {OgH$mo EH$ g‘mݶ Zm‘ {X¶m
J¶m h¡, Omo {H$gr H$mën{ZH$ nwéf ¶m XodVm go AnZr CËn{V ‘mZVm h¡ VWm n¡V¥H$ ì¶dgm¶ H$mo
ñdrH$ma H$aVm h¡, Am¡a Omo bmJo {dMma H$a gH$Vo h¡ CZ bmoJm| Ho$ {bE EH$ gOmVr¶ g‘wh Ho$ én ‘|
ñnï> hmoVm h¡&''Om{V ì¶dñWm H$mo n[a^m{fV H$aZm A˶§V H${R>Z H$m¶© h¡, ³¶m|{H$ ¶h EH$ OQ>rb
g‘ñ¶m Ho$ én ‘| ZOa AmVr h¡&
àmo. Or. Eg. Ky[a¶o Zo {bIm h¡ {H$ ""‘wP>o Eogm bJVm h¡ {H$ {df¶ H$s O{Q>bVm Ho$ H$maU n[a^mfm
XoZo H$m à˶oH$ à¶mg Ag’$b hmoZm {ZpíMV h¡& Xþgar Am¡a Bg {df¶ na ~hþV gm gm{h˶ Bg Om{V
eãX H$s gw{ZpíMVVm Ho$ Am^md Ho$ H$maU jV {djV nS>m h¡& Om{V H$mo CËn{V H$hm± go hþB©& Om{V
Ho$ CËn{V Ho$ {gÕmÝV :
1) naånamJV {gÛmÝV : {d{^Þ {dÛmZm| H$m ‘V h¡, {H$ Om{V àWm {H$ CËn{V {hÝXþ naånam Ho$
AZwgma hþB© h¡& {hÝXþAm| Ho$ AZoH$ dJ© J«ÝWmo ‘| BgHo$ à‘mU {‘bVo h¡& d¡{XH$ gm{h˶ ‘| g~go
àmMrZ ì¶m»¶m F$½doX Ho$ nwéf gyº $‘| {‘bVr h¡& BgHo$ AZwgma ~«m÷Um| H$s CËn{V ~«÷m Ho$ ‘wI go
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j{̶m| H$s CËn{V ~mhþ go d¡í¶ H$s CËn{V O§ÚmAmo go VWm ewÕmo H$s CËn{V MaUm| go Y‘© emó
‘Zwñ‘¥{V ñ‘¥{V¶m| ‘| Eogo hr ì¶m»¶m {‘bVr h¡& JrVm ‘| H¥$îU H$hVo h¡ ""MmVwd©Ê¶î¶ ‘¶m g¥ï>§
JwUH$‘© {d^mJV: & AWm©V Mmam| dUm| H$m {Z‘m©U CZHo$ JwU VWm H$m¶m} Ho$ AmYma na ‘¢Zo ñd§¶
{H$¶m h¡& ‘Zw Ûmam BZHo$ H$m¶m©o H$m C„oI {H$¶m J¶m h¡& ~«m÷U H$m H$m¶© Aܶ¶Z - AܶmnZ H$aZm
d¡í¶ H$m H¥${f, j{̶m| H$mo Aó - eó MbmZm VWm amÁ¶ H$s ajm H$aZm VWm eyÐm| H$m H$m¶©
CƒOm{V Ho$ bmoJm| H$r godm H$aZm h¡&
2) ~«m÷Um| H$s MVwa ¶w{º$ H$m {gÕmÝV :- Hw$N> {dÛmZ Om{V ì¶dñWm H$mo ~«m÷Um| Ho$ MVwa ¶w{º$ Ho$
{gÕmÝV H$mo$ ‘mZVo h¡& ~«m÷Umo Zo gÎmm gdm}ƒ aIZo Ho$ {bE Y‘© H$m ghmam boVo hþE EH$ Eogr
¶moOZm H$m {Z‘m©U {H$¶m {Og‘| CÝhm|Zo AnZm ñWmZ g~go Cna aIm VWm Xþgao ñWmZ na j{̶m| H$mo
aIm& {Oggo do ñd¶§ gwa{jV ah gHo$& àmMrZ H$mb ‘| Y‘© H$m g~go Á¶mXm ‘hËd hmoZo Ho$ H$maU
~«m÷Um| Zo Ym[‘©H$ H$m¶moo© H$mo AnZo A{YH$ma ‘| boH$a Om{V ì¶dñWm Ho$ én ‘| EH$ Eogr ¶moOZm
~ZmB©, {OgZo {hÝXþ g‘mO ‘| CZH$s gÎmm H$mo ñWm¶r gdm©oƒVm àXmZ H$a Xr& S>m°. Yy[a¶| Ho$ eãXmo ‘|
Om{V àWm BÊS>mo Am¶©Z g§ñH¥${V Ho$ ~«m÷Um| H$s gÝVmZ h¡, Omo J§Jm - ¶‘wZm Ho$ ‘¡XmZ ‘| nbr Am¡a
dhm± go Xoe Ho$ Xþgao ^mJm| ‘| bo OmB© JB©&
3) Ym{‘©H$ {gÕmÝV :- lr H$moH$mQ>© Ho$ eãXmo ‘| {hÝXþ g‘mO H$m Om{V àWm Ho$ én ‘| l‘ {d^mOZ
Ym{‘©H$ AZwð>mZm| go hþAm& CZHo$ AZwgma Om{V {d^mOZ ‘yb én go Ym{‘©H$ H$m¶m} H$m {d^mOZ Wm&
Ym{‘©H$ H$m¶m} ‘| newAm| H$s ~br H$aZo H$m H$m¶© {ZH¥$ð> hmoZo Ho$ H$maU Xmgmo H$mo {X¶m J¶m& Omo AmJo
MbH$a ewÐ H$hbmZo bJo& Bgr àH$ma ‘§Ìmoƒma Am{X H$aZo dmbo ~«m÷U H$hbm¶o& Yrao - Yrao {^Þ
- {^Þ H$m¶© H$aZo dmbo bmoJ {^Þ - {^Þ Om{V g‘yhm| ‘| ~Q> J¶o& Bg {gÕmÝV ‘| g§emoYZ H$aVo
hþE goZmQ>© Zo H$hm h¡, {H$ Om{V H$mo CËn{V àmMrZ H$mb ‘| ^moOZ gå~ÝYr Ym{‘©H$ {ZfoYmo go hþB©&
4) ì¶mdgm{¶H$ {gÕmÝV :- lr Zog’$sëS> Ho$ ‘VmZwgma ì¶dgm¶ VWm Ho$db ì¶dgm¶ hr Om{V
àWm H$s CËn{V Ho$ {b¶o CÎmaXm¶r h¡& lr Zog’$sëS> Om{V àWm H$s CËn{V ‘| Y‘© H$mo H$moB© ‘hËd Zhr
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{X¶m h¡& CZH$m H$WZ h¡, {H$ {d{^Þ ì¶dgm¶ H$aZo dmbo bmoJ ì¶dgm¶m| H$s CƒVm VWm {ZåZVm Ho$
AmYma na hr C±Mr VWm ZrMr Om{V¶m| ‘| {d^m{OV hmo J¶o&
5) àOmVr¶ {gÕmÝV :- h~©Q> [aObo, S>m°. Yy[aE VWm S>m°. ‘Ow‘Xma Am{X Bg {gÕmÝV Ho$ à‘wI
g‘W©H$ h¡& [aObo Ho$ Am¶m} H$s ^maV Ho$ ‘yb {Zdm{g¶m| go {^ÞVm VWm AZwbmon {ddmh Ho$ àMbZ
H$s Om{V àWm H$s CËn{V H$m ‘yb H$maU ~Vbm¶m h¡& BÝS>m| Am¶© àOm{V ^maV ‘| AmZo go nyd© Mma
^mJm| ‘| {d^m{OV Wr& ^maV ‘| AmZo na Am¶mo© Zo AnZo {d^mOZ Ho$ Bg {gÕmÝV H$mo ¶hm± na bmJw
{H$¶m& BgHo$ A{V[aº$ Am¶m} ‘| bS>{H$¶m| H$s H$^r hmoZo Ho$ H$maU Am¶© nwéf ¶hm± bS>{H$¶m| go Vmo
{ddmh H$a boVo Wo& bo{H$Z AnZr bS>{H$¶m| H$mo ¶hm± Ho$ bS>H$mo Ho$ gmW {ddmh Zht H$aVo Wo
""AZwbmon {ddmh Ho$ n[aUm‘ ñdén àOmVr¶ {‘lU go hr Om{V¶m| H$s CËnm{V hþB©& S>m°. Yy[aE VWm
S>m°. ‘Ow‘Xma H$m ^r {dMma h¡, {H$ ^maV ‘| Om{V àWm Cggo gå~pÝYV d¡dm{hH$ ImZ - nmZ
ì¶dgm{¶H$ Am{X {ZfoYm| H$s CËn{V Am¶m} Ûmam AnZo aº$ H$s ewÕVm VWm g§ñH¥${VH$ loï>Vm H$s
ajm H$aZo hoVy {H$¶o J¶o à¶ËZm| Ho$ ’$bñdén hþB©&''
6) ‘mZm ¶m Am{X‘ g§ñH¥${V H$m {gÕmÝV :- XþJ©‘ ñWmZm| ‘| ahZo dmbr AZoH$ OZ Om{V¶m± ñdV§Ì
amOZ¡{VH$ VWm Am{W©H$ BH$mB¶m| Ho$ én ‘| ahVr Wr& à˶oH$ OZOm{V g‘yh EH$ hr ì¶dgm¶ H$aVm
Wm, Omo Bg ~mV H$s Amoa g§Ho$V H$aVo h¡ {H$ Am¶m} Ho$ AmZo go nhbo ^r ^maV Ho$ ‘yb {Zdmgr ‘|
ì¶dgm¶ VWm Aݶ ì¶dgm¶m| Ho$ AmYma na {d^mOZ ‘m¡OwX Wm& Am¶m} Zo Bg gm‘m{OH$ {d^mOZ
H$mo Am¡a ^r A{YH$ ñnï> H$aVo hþE AnZr pñWVr H$mo gdm}ƒ aIm&
‘mZm dh Abmo¡{H$H$ VWm AÑí¶ e{º$ h¡, Omo à˶oH$ dñVw ‘| {dY‘mZ g‘Pr OmVr h¡& {dídmg
{H$¶m OmVm h¡, {H$ ¶h e{º$ ñne© Ûmam ì¶{º$ ‘| ’¡$bVr h¡ Am¡a gwI XþI XmoZm| hr Xo gH$Vr h¡&
Ho$db A{X‘ Om{V¶m| ‘| hr Zhr ~pëH$ AmYw{ZH$ g^r g‘mOm| ‘| ^r bmoJ {H$gr Z {H$gr én ‘| Bg
e{º$ ‘| {dídmg H$aVo h¡& lr hÅ>Z Ho$ AZwgma Bg e{º$ ‘| {dídmg Zo hr Om{V àWm Ho$ d¡dm{hH$
ImZ - nmZ gå~ÝYr à{V~ÝYm| H$mo OÝ‘ {X¶m h¡&''
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Om{V ì¶dñWm H$m {dH$mg ^maV ‘| Om{V ì¶dñWm Ho$ {dH$mg Ho$ {nN>o AZoH$ H$maU h¡&
1) d¡dm{hH$ gå~ÝY :- g‘mO ‘| AZwbmon {ddmhm| Ho$ H$maU AZoH$ Om{V¶m± ~Zr& AZwbmon {ddmh
‘| CƒOm{V H$m dJ© {ZåZ Om{V Ho$ dJ© Ho$ gmW {ddmh H$aVm h¡& g‘mO Zo Eogo {ddmhmo§ H$mo ‘mݶVm
àXmZ Zhr H$s Am¡a AZoH$ ZB© Om{V¶m| BZ Om{V ~{hîH¥$V bmoJm| Zo ~Zm {b¶m& CXmhaU Ho$ {b¶o
j{̶ nwéf VWm d¡í¶ ór go ~Zr Om{V Aådï> H$hbm¶r& j{̶ nwéf Ed§ ewÐ ór go ~Zm Om{V CJ«
H$hbm¶r& à{Vbmon {ddmhm| Ho$ H$maU ^r AZoH$ Om{V¶m± ~Zr ewÐ nwéf VWm ~«måhU ór go ~Zr
Om{V Mm§S>mb H$hbmVr h¡& Bg àH$ma AZwbmon à{Vbmon {ddmhm| go AZoH$ Om{V¶m| H$m OÝ‘ hþAm&
2) ì¶dgm¶m| na AmYm[aV Om{V¶m°§ :- gä¶Vm Ho$ {dH$mg Ho$ gmW - gmW AZoH$ ZE CÚmoJmo YÝYm|
VWm ì¶dgm¶m| H$mo H$aZo dmbo ì¶{º$ AnZo ì¶dgm¶ Ho$ AmYma na Om{V¶m| ‘| n[ad{V©V hmo JB©&
CXmhaU Ho$ {bE ZmB©, Hw$åhma, gwZma, bmohma, ImVr, Zrbhma, Owbhm, Vobr B˶mXr&
3) amOH$m¶© ‘| ZdrZ Om{V¶m± :- amOm Ho$ ¶hm± {d{^Þ H$m¶m} H$mo H$maZo Ho$ {bE AbJ - AbJ
bmoJ bJm¶o J¶o & ¶o ì¶{º$ AnZo-AnZo H$m¶© Ho$ AZwgma Om{V¶m| ‘| ~Xb J¶o & CXmhaUmW© amOm
Ho$ ¶hm± Omo ì¶{º$ boIZ H$m¶© H$aVm Wm & do H$m¶ñW H$hbmZo bJo &
4) Om{V ~{hîH$ma :- AZoH$ H$maUmo go EH$ Om{V Zo AnZr hr Om{V Ho$ bmoJm| H$mo Om{V go ~{hîH¥$V
H$a {X¶m Vmo Eogo bmoJm| Zo AbJ - AbJ Om{V H$m {Z‘m©U H$a {b¶m&
5) Ym{‘©H$ gåàXm¶ :- Ym{‘©H$ gåàXm¶ Ho$ AmYma na ^r AZoH$ ZdrZ Om{V¶m± ~Zr& CXmhaUmW©
H$~ra n§Wr, ¶mXÿ n§Wr, {b§Jm¶V, gVZm‘r Am{X&
6) àXoe Ho$ AmYma na Om{V¶m± :- àXoe Ho$ AmYma na ^r AZoH$ ZdrZ Om{V¶m± ~Zr& CXmhaU Ho$
{bE ‘¡{Wb, Jm¡S>, gmañdV, Am{X˶, ga¶ynmUr, H$mݶHw$ãO Am{X&
7) {dXo{e¶m| Ho$ ^maV AmJ‘U Ho$ H$maU ^maV ‘| AZoH$mo {dXoer AmH${f©V hþE& CZ‘o ~hþV go ¶hm±
Ho$ g‘mO Ho$ A§J hmo J¶o& eH$, ¶dZ, Hw$fmU, BZ Am{X ^maV ‘| Am¶o VWm ¶hr Ho$ g‘mO ‘| g‘m
<ISBN: 978-981-07-9348-7 > THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA
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J¶o {Oggo AZoH$ Om{V¶m± ~Z JB©& Om{V ì¶dñWm go bm^ Om{V ì¶dñWm ^maV df© H$m Amaå^ go
hr à‘wI A§J h¡& Om{V ì¶dñWm Zo hr ^maV df© ‘| Amngr g‘Ý~Y ñWm{nV {H$¶m, gm‘m{OH$
ì¶dñWm àXmZ H$s VWm ‘wpñb‘ Ho$ AmJ‘Z Ho$ nyd© g‘mO H$mo EH$ aIZo ‘| g’$b ahr Wr& g‘mO
Ho$ à˶oH$ dJ© Ûmam Bgo ñdrH$ma ^r {H$¶m J¶m Wm& Ama. gr. XÎm Ho$ eãXmo ‘| Bg ar[V Ho$ ~wao ’$b
^maVdf© ‘| ‘wgb‘mZm| Zo H$o AmZo go nhbo {XImB© Zhr nS>o Wo& Bg Om{V àW‘ go g‘mO VWm amï´> Ho$
AZoH$ bm^ {‘bo&
Om{V ì¶dñWm Ho$ JþU
1) g§J{R>V g‘mO H$m {Z‘m©U Om{V ì¶dñWm Ho$ AÝVJ©V g‘mO H$mo Om{V¶m| ‘| {d^m{OV H$a {X¶m
Wm& BZHo$ n¥WH$ - n¥WH$ H$m¶© Wo& AV: CZ‘| ~oH$mar H$s g‘ñ¶m Zhr Wr& Bg{b¶o g§Kf© B©î¶m©,
Ûof, K¥Um VWm ñnYm© Am{X Zhr Wr& n¥WH$-n¥WH$ Om{V¶m°§ hmoVo hþE ^r g‘m{dï> én ‘| g^r {hÝXþ
g‘mO Ho$ A§J Wo& {hÝXþËd Ho$ H$maU CZ‘| EH$Ëd H$s à~b ^mdZm Wr& g^r Om{V¶m± nañna ào‘ H$s
^mdZm go gmW {Zdm©h H$aVo Wo&
2) aº$ H$s ewÕVm :-à˶oH$ Om{V Ho$ ImZ-nmZ VWm {ddmh gå~ÝYr AnZo {Z¶‘ Wo& BZ {Z¶‘m|
Ho$ AZwgma AÝVOmVr¶ {ddmh d{O©V Wo& AnZr hr Om{V ‘| {ddmh H$aZm A{Zdm¶© Wm& n[aUm‘V:
à˶oH$ Om{V ‘| AnZr Om{V H$m aº$ àdm{hV hmoVm ahm VWm Om{V¶ aº$ H$s ewÕVm ~Zr ahr&
3) ì¶dm{g¶H$ XjVm :-Om{V ì¶dñWm Ho$ AmYma na H$m¶© H$m {d^mOZ hmoZo go g^r H$m¶©
d§emZwJV hmo J¶o& ~mbH$ àm¶: ~MnZ go hr AnZo ‘mVm {nVm Ho$ H$m¶m} ‘o hmW ~m±Q>Vm VWm ~S>m
hmoZo na Yrao - Yrao dh AnZo {nVm H$m ñWmZ J«hU H$a boVm & n[aUm‘V: CZ {deof CÚmoJ YÝYo ‘o§
dh XjVm àmá H$a boVm Wm&
4) à{VÛpÝXVm H$m Am^md :- Om{V ì¶dñWm ‘| à˶oH$ H$m¶© H$m {d^mOZ H$a {X¶m J¶m Wm&
à˶oH$ Om{V Ho$ AnZo ì¶dgm¶ Wo& H$moB© ^r ì¶{º$ AnZr Om{V Ho$ naånamJV H$m¶© H$mo N>moS>H$a
<ISBN: 978-981-07-9348-7 > THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA
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Xþgao H$m¶© H$mo Zhr AnZm gH$Vm Wm& AV: g^r AnZo AnZo H$m¶© ‘| ì¶ñV ahVo Wo VWm à{VÛpÝXVm
VWm à{VñnYm© H$s ^mdZm H$m nwam Am^md Wm&
5) {hÝXþ Y‘© H$mo gä¶Vm VWm àmMrZ g§ñH¥${V H$s ajm Om{V ì¶dñWm Zo {hÝXþ g§ñH¥${V H$s àmMrZ
H$mb go hr ajm H$s& na OdZm|, ¶wZm{Z¶m|§, eH$mo, Hw$fmUm}, hþUmo {e{W¶Zmo Ed§ nhbdm| Am{X
Om{V¶m| Zo àmMrZ H$mb ‘| AmH«$‘U {H$E naÝVw CZ g^r H$s Bg Om{V ì¶dñWm Zo ñWmZ XoH$a AnZo
‘| nMm {b¶m& ‘ܶ H$mb ‘| Bg Xoe na ‘wgb‘mZm| H$m AmH«$‘U hþAm& CÝhm|Zo Bg na emgZ {H$¶m,
CÝhm|Zo nyU© à¶ËZ {H$¶m {H$ {hÝXþ Y‘© Ho$ ñWmZ na gånyU© ^maV ‘| B©ñbm‘ Y‘© hmo OmE& Om{V
ì¶dñWm H$s Jhar nS> MwH$s OS> Ho$ H$maU hr CZHo$ ‘Zgw~o nwao Zhr hþE& Cg {dn{Îm H$mb ‘| Om{V
- ì¶dñWm Zo hr {hÝXþ Y‘© H$s ajm H$s&
6) g‘mZVm H$s ^mdZm :- Om{V, ì¶dñWm ‘| EH$ hr Om{V ‘| C±M ZrM H$s ^mdZm Zhr hmoVr& EH$
Om{V Ho$ A‘ra - Jar~ g‘mZ hmoVo h¡& do g^r, EH$ hr Om{O‘ na ~¢R> gH$Vo h¡, VWm ñdV§ÌVmnyd©H$
AnZo {dMma 㶺$ H$aVo h¡& Bg àH$ma à˶oH$ Om{V ‘| bmoH$VÝÌrH$ ^mdZm {dY‘mZ h¡& Om{V Ho$
g‘ñV gXñ¶m| Ho$ ñdV§Ì {dMmam| H$m ñdmJV hmoVm h¡& Om{V Ho$ g^r gXñ¶ AnZo OmVr¶ ˶m¡hmam|
CËgdm| ‘| gmW - gmW hr ^moOZ H$aVo h¡&
7) Om{VJV EH$Vm H$s ^mdZm :- EH$ Om{V Ho$ bmoJm| ‘| Amng ‘| ào‘ hmoVm h¡& CZ‘| EH$Vm VWm
gh¶moJ H$s ^mdZm {dY‘mZ ahVr h¡& EH$ Xþgao Ho$ XþI - gwI ‘| gX¡d gmW XoVo h¡& OÝ‘, {ddmh,
gm‘m{OH$ CËgd ˶m¡hma VWm gwI-XþI Am{X Ho$ g‘¶ ‘| Om{V Ho$ gXñ¶ EH$ Xþgao H$m gømoJ
H$aVo h¡& AnZr Om{V Ho$ {b¶o n¥WH$ {M{H$Ëgmb¶, Y‘©embm¶|, dm~{S>¶m±, Hw$E±, {dYmb¶ VWm
‘hm{dÚmb¶ Am{X {Z{‘©V {H$¶o OmVo h¡& AnZr Om{V Ho$ Jar~ ~ƒm| H$mo N>mÌd¥Îmr¶m± àXmZ H$s
OmVr h¡& AnZr Om{V H$s CÞVr Ho$ {b¶o ˶mJ H$aZo Ho$ {bE ^r gX¡d V¡¶ma ahVo h¡&
8) Om{V ‘| nañna ào‘ ^md :- Om{V ì¶dñWm ‘| AZoH$ Om{V¶m± hmoVr h¡, {OZHo$ ñd¶§ Ho$ OmVr¶
{Z¶‘ hmoVo h¡, naÝVw ¶o ñd¶§ H$s {hÝXþ g‘mO H$m hr A§J ‘mZVr h¡& à˶oH$ Om{V H$mo AnZr pñWVr
<ISBN: 978-981-07-9348-7 > THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA
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VWm H$V©ì¶ H$m ~moY h¡, {Oggo gm‘m{OH$ ì¶dñWm {R>H$ T>§J go Mb ahr h¡& Om{V¶m± ‘| Amng ‘|
ào‘ VWm gX²^md h¡& Bg Xoe ‘| A{YH$ma H$‘©dmX VWm nwZO©Ý‘ ‘o§ {dídmg H$aVo h¡ VWm {ZåZ
Om{V¶m± ¶h {dídmg H$aVr h¡, {H$ gËH$‘© H$aZo go CZH$m Xþgam OÝ‘ Cƒ Om{V ‘| hmoJm& Bgr H$maU
¶hm± Om{V g§Kf© H$^r Zhr hþAm, ³¶m|{H$ g^r AnZr - AnZr pñWVr go gÝVwï> h¡&&
9) ~oamoOJmar H$s g‘ñ¶m H$m {ZamH$aU ^maVdf© ‘| AmYw{ZH$ ¶wJ ‘| g~go ~S>r g‘ñ¶m ~oamoOJmar
H$s g‘ñ¶m h¡& AmO ¶wdH$mo ‘| AgÝVmof ì¶má h¡ VWm dV©‘mZ gm‘m{OH$ VWm amOZ¡{VH$ T>m±Mo Ho$
{déÕ {dÐmoh H$s ^mdZm¶| OmJ¥V hmo ahr h¡, {H$ÝVw àmMrZ H$mb ‘| ~oH$mar H$s H$moB© O{Q>b g‘ñ¶m
Zht Wr& à˶oH$ Om{V Ho$ H$m¶© {ZpíMV Wo VWm à˶oH$ ¶wdH$ H$mo ‘mby‘ Wm, {H$ Cgo ³¶m H$aZm h¡&
10) Agm‘m{OH$ H$m¶m} na amoH$, Om{V ì¶dñWm ‘| à˶oH$ Om{V H$s AnZr AmMma g§{hV h¡& à˶oH$
gXñ¶ H$mo CZ {Z¶‘m| H$m nmbZ H$aZm nS>Vm h¡& Omo ì¶{º$ Om{V Ho$ {Z¶‘m| H$m Cb§KZ H$aVm h¡, Cgo
Om{V Ûmam ~{hîH¥$V H$a {X¶m OmVm h¡& Bg{bE ì¶{º$ ‘Z‘mZo T>§J go H$m¶© Zhr H$a gH$Vo& ‘Zwî¶
Hw$H$‘m} go ~MVm h¡, nmn H$‘m} ¶m JbV H$m¶© H$aZo go S>aVm h¡& Cgo H$m¶© H$aVo g‘¶ ¶h ܶmZ ahVm
h¡,{H$ dh Eogo H$moB© JbV H$m¶© Zht H$ao {Oggo CgHo$ OmVr¶ Jm¡ad H$mo {H$gr ^r àH$ma H$s R>og
nhþ±Mo&Om{V ì¶dñWm Ho$ H$maU e{º$ H$m ^r {d^mOZ hmo J¶m& ~«m÷Um| Ho$ nmg Ym{‘©H$, e¡{jH$
VWm AܶmpË‘H$ e{º$ Vmo, j{̶m| H$o nmg emg{ZH$ VWm g¡{ZH$ e{º$, Vmo d¡í¶m| Ho$ nmg KZ e{º$
^maV Ho$ ^yVnyd© amï´>n{V S>m°. amYmH¥$îUZ Zo {bIm h¡ {H$ ""Om{V ì¶dñWm Ho$ ahVo H$^r g¡{ZH$
VmZmemhr ñWm{nV Zhr hmo gH$Vr& ~«m÷Umo Zo {ZewëH$ {ejm H$m àMma {H$¶m, VWm amOnwÌm| Zo Xoe
H$s ajm Ho$ {b¶o AmË‘~{bXmZ VWm d¡í¶m| Zo ì¶mnma, ì¶dgm¶ VWm H$bm Ho$ joÌ ‘| h‘oem amï´> Ho$
{bE V¡¶ma aho& Bgr H$maU Bg Xoe ‘| h‘oem dñVwH$bm, {MÌH$bm g§JrV H$bm, {eënH$bm, bKw
Ed§ Hw$Q>ra CÚmoJ ‘| CÞVr {H$¶m& Bg Xoe ‘| gX¡d hr B§{O{ZAa ^dZ {Z‘m©VmAm|, ‘y{V©H$amo,
{MÌH$mam| H$m ~hþVm¶V ahm&
Om{V ì¶dñWm Ho$ Xmof
<ISBN: 978-981-07-9348-7 > THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA
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^maV df© H$m namYrZ hmo OmZm Om{V ì¶dñWm Ho$ H$maU hr ^maVdf© hOmamo dfm] VH$ nam{YZ ahm&
BgH$m à‘wI H$maU ¶h Wm, {H$ Om{V ì¶dñWm Ho$ AmYma na emgZ H$aZo VWm Xoe H$s gwajm H$m
H$m¶© Ho$db ‘mÌ j{̶mo§ H$mo gm¡§n {X¶m J¶m Wm& Xþgar Om{V¶m| Ho$ {b¶o goZm ‘| àdoe d{O©V Wm&
j{̶m| Ho$ A{V[aº$ ~«m÷U d¡í¶ VWm {ZåZ Om{V¶m± ¶wÕ H$m¶m} ‘| CXmgrZ hmo J¶o CYa BZ amOnwVm|
H$s Om{V¶m| H$s e{º$ H$m H«$‘e: hmg hmoZo bJm& O~ {dXo{e¶m| Zo CZ na AmH«$‘U {H$¶o V~ do ¶wÕ
‘| nam{OV hmo J¶o& Xþgar Om{V¶m| Zo CZH$s H$moB© ghm¶Vm Zhr H$r, Om{V ì¶dñWm Zo ¶hm± Ho$ bmoJm|
H$o gmoMZo H$s e{º$ BVZr H$‘Omoa H$a {X¶m H$s Xoe H$s naVÝÌVm H$m à^md g^r na nS>oJm Z {H$
amOnwVm| na hr& n[aUm‘ñdén hOmamo§ dfm} VH$ Bg Xoe H$m emofU hmoVm ahm VWm Xoe H$m {dH$mg
Mmam| Am¡a go éH$ J¶m&
2) g¡{ZH$ e{º$ H$m hmg :- Om{V ì¶dñWm Ho$ AÝVJ©V Ho$db j{̶ hr goZmAm| ‘| ^Vu hmo gH$Vo
Wo& Aݶ Om{V¶m| Ho$ ì¶{º$ Mmho emararH$ Ñ{ï> go {H$VZo hr ñdmñW ³¶m| Z hmo do goZm ‘| àdoe Zhr
bo gH$Vo Wo& AV: Aݶ Om{V¶m| Ho$ bmoJm| H$mo g¡{ZH$ à{ejU àmá H$aZo H$m H$moB© A{YH$ma Zhr
Wm& j{̶m| Ho$ ñd¶§ ‘| ’y$Q> Wr do EH$ - Xþgao H$mo ZrMm {XImZo H$m {ZaÝVa à¶mg H$aVo ahVo Wo&
‘ܶH$mb ‘| Xoe H$m gå~ÝY Aݶ {díd go Nw>Q> J¶m& ^maV ‘| dhr naånamJV eóm| H$m àMbZ ahm
O~{H$ {díd ‘| Aݶ Z¶o eóm| H$m A{dîH$ma hmo MwH$m Wm& n[aUm‘V: g¡{ZH$ e{º$ {ZaÝVa jrU
hmoVr ahr& {dXo{e¶m| Zo ¶hm± H$s goZmAm| H$mo nam{OV H$a ¶hm± emgZ ñWm{nV H$a {b¶m Wm& ¶hr
Om{V ì¶dñWm H$m gdm}n[a Xmof Wm&
<ISBN: 978-981-07-9348-7 > THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA
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3 Aml‘ ì¶dñWm
Aml‘ eãX ""l‘'' go ~Zm h¡& {OgH$m AW© h¡, EH$ Eogm OrdZ {Og‘| ì¶{º$ A˶m{YH$ l‘
H$aVm h¡& BgH$mo g§ñH¥$V ^mfm ‘| H$hm J¶m h¡, {H$ Amlm嶧pÝV Apñ‘Z B{V Aml‘:& {Og àH$ma
g‘mO H$mo gwMmé g§J{R>V, {Z¶{‘V T>§J go MbmZo Ho$ {bE dU© ì¶dñWm H$m {Z‘m©U {H$¶m J¶m Wm&
R>rH$ Cgr àH$ma EH$ ì¶{º$ Ho$ gånyU© OrdZ H$mo {Z¶{‘V VWm C{MV {Xem ‘| {dH$mg Ho$ {bE
Aml‘ ì¶dñWm H$m {Z‘m©U {H$¶m J¶m Wm& Bgr ì¶dñWm go ‘Zwî¶ H$m gdm©{JH$ {dH$mg àmaå^
hmoVm h¡& S>m°. dr. E‘. qgh Zo {bIm h¡ {H$ ""Aml‘ H$m AW© OrdZ H$m dh {d^mJ h¡, {Og‘| ‘Zwî¶
à¶ËZ H$aVm h¡&''
à^w Ho$ eãXm| ‘| ""Aml‘m| H$mo OrdZ Ho$ ApÝV‘ bú¶ Ma‘ ‘w{º$ H$s {Xem ‘| ‘Zwî¶ H$s ¶mÌm ‘|
AmZo dmbo {‘bZ ñWmZm| Ho$ én ‘| g‘PZm Mm{hE&''
Bg Vah ñnï> h¡ {H$ dh ñWmZ Ohm± {ZpíMV g‘¶ Ho$ {b¶o {ZpíMV ¶m {deof {ejm Ho$ kmZ Ho$ {b¶o
gmYZ H$s OmVr h¡, Aml‘ H$hbmVm h¡& ‘Zwî¶ H$s ‘m¡{bH$ Amdí¶H$VmAm| H$s ny{V© Ho$ {b¶o g‘ñV
{H«$¶mAm| H$s gwì¶dpñWV én go {ZX}{eV H$aZo H$s à{H«$¶m hr Aml‘ ì¶dñWm h¡& ‘Zwî¶ H$s ‘m¡{bH$
Amdí¶H$Vm¶o§ kmZ àmá H$aZm, ‘m¡{bH$ gwI H$m AmZÝX boZm VWm AÝV ‘| ‘moj àmá H$aZm hr h¡&
AV: h‘ H$h gH$Vo h¡, {H$ ""Aml‘ ì¶dñWm dh à{H«$¶m h¡, {Og‘| ‘mZd kmZr go ^moJr ^moJr go
{daº$, {daº$ go ¶moJr ~ZH$a ñd¶§ H$mo na‘mË‘m ‘| brZ H$a boVm h¡&'' Aml‘ ì¶dñWm H$m
Y‘©emó ‘| Mma {d^mJm| ‘| C„oI àmá hmoVm h¡& {d{eï> Y‘© gwÌ Ho$ AZwgma ~«÷M¶©, J¥hñW,
dmZàñW VWm gݶmgr& AmnñVå~ Y‘© gwÌ Ho$ AZwgma ""~«÷M¶©, J¥hñW, JwéXoh ^y{‘ én ‘| ahZm
VWm dZ ‘| ahZm&'' Jm¡V‘ ‘wZr Zo ^r Mma Aml‘m| H$m C„oI {H$¶m h¡& ~«÷M¶© J¥hñW, {^jw VWm
d¡ImZg&''‘Zw Zo ^r Mma Aml‘m| H$m C„oI {H$¶m h¡& CÝhmoZo {bIm h¡ {H$ ""eVmnwV} nwéf'' AWm©V
nwéf H$m OrdZ 100 dfm] H$m hmoVm h¡& AV: BZ Mmam| H«$‘m| H$m H$mb 25 -25 dfm] hmo gH$Vm h¡&
n«W‘ 25 df© ‘| ì¶{³V H$mo ~«÷Mmar OrdZ ì¶VrV H$aZm Mm{hE Am¡a Jwé Ho$ Ka na ahH$a {dÚm
<ISBN: 978-981-07-9348-7 > THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA
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J«hU H$aZr Mm{hE& 25 go 50 df© H$s Ad{Y H$mo J¥hñW Ho$ én ‘| ì¶VrV H$aZm Mm{hE VWm Bgr
H$mb ‘| gÝVmZmoËn{V Ûmam {nV¥F$U VWm ¶k H$aHo$ Xod F$U MwH$mZm Mm{hE &50 df© Ho$ ~mX ì¶{º$
H$s O§Jbmo ‘| OmH$a AamYZm H$aZr Mm{h¶o VWm 75 df© Ho$ ~mX EH$ gݶmgr Ho$ én ‘| OrdZ
ì¶VrV H$aZm Mm{h¶o& Bg àH$ma Aml‘ ì¶dñWm Mma h¡&
~«÷M¶© Aml‘
EH$ ì¶{º$ Ho$ OrdZ ‘| gd©à‘wI Aml‘ ~«÷M¶© h¡& S>m°. nr. nr. H$mU} Zo {bIm h¡, {H$ ""~«÷Mm¶©
‘| ì¶{º$ H$mo AZwemgZ VWm g§H$ën Ho$ AZwgma ahZm nS>Vm Wm Cgo AVrV H$mb Ho$ gm{h˶rH$
^ÊS>ma H$m kmZ àmá H$aZm nS>Vm Wm& Cgo AmkmH$arVm, AmXa gmXo OrdZ VWm Cƒ {dMma Ho$
gXJwU grIZo nS>Vo Wo& ~«÷Mm¶© Aml‘ dmñVd ‘| {dÚmWu OrdZ H$mb hmoVm Wm, {Og‘| ì¶{º$
AnZo Jwé Ho$ Ka OmH$a {ejm J«hU H$aVm Wm& ~«÷Mmar H$mo Jwé Ho$ Xmofm| H$mo Zhr XoIH$a Ho$db
CgHo$ JwUm| H$mo J«hU H$aZm Mm{hE& O~ Jwé gmo Om¶ Vmo gmoZm Mm{hE Ed§ Od Jwé OJo Vmo Cggo nwd©
hr OJZm Mm{hE, ~«÷Mmar H$mo O‘rZ na gmoZm Mm{hE& S>m°. H$nm{S>¶m Zo Bg g§~§Y ‘| {bIm h¡, {H$
Jwé Am¡a {eî¶ H$m g§~§Y AQy>Q> Wm& Jwé H$mo na‘mË‘m H$o g‘H$j ‘mZm OmVm Wm& Jwé Am¡a {eî¶
{‘bH$a EH$ Eogo g‘mO H$m {Z‘m©U H$aVo Wo& {Og‘| àmMrZ ^maV Ho$ g‘Ýd¶ Ho$ g^r VËd {dÚ‘mZ
Wo& Aml‘ ì¶dñWm H$m dU©Z JrVm VWm ‘hm^maV ‘| ^r {H$¶m J¶m h¡& Aml‘ ì¶dñWm Ho$ ~mao ‘|
‘hm^maV ‘| {bIm J¶m h¡, {H$ ¶h Aml‘ ì¶dñWm énr Mma nXm| dmbr grT>r h¡, Omo ~«÷m H$s Amoa
H«$‘e: bo OmVr h¡& Omo Bg grT>r na MT>Zo ‘o g‘W© hmoH$a MT> OmVm h¡, dh AÝV ‘| ~«åh bmoH$ ¶m
‘moj àmá H$a boVm h¡& Aml‘ ì¶dñWm H$s àW‘ grT>>r ~«÷Mm¶© h¡& Bg‘o ~mbH$ H$mo AnZm OrdZ
dhm± ì¶VrV H$aZm hmoVm Wm, Ohm± Jwé Hw$bmo H$m n{dÌ dm¶w ‘ÊS>b {nV¥Vwë¶ drVamJ AmMm¶© ‘Zrfr
Cnmܶm¶ dJ© go emar[aH$, ‘mZ{gH$ Am¡a AmpË‘H$ CÞ{V H$m gwAdga àmá hmoVm Wm& Bg H$mb ‘|
{dÚm{W©¶mo H$mo doXm{X emóm| H$m Aܶ¶Z VWm kmZ {dkmZm| H$m CnmO©Z H$aZm hmoVm Wm& ~«÷M¶©
eãX H$m AW© ñnï> H$aVo hþE& J«ÝWmo Zo {bIm J¶m h¡, {H$ ~«åh AWm©V B©ída H$s àm{á VWm doX Ho$
¶WmW© kmZ gånmXZ Ho$ {bE {deof d«V H$m Zm‘ ~«åhM¶© aIm OmVm Wm& BZ H$mbm| Ho$ Zm‘ dgw éÐ
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VWm Am{X˶ Wo & Omo 춺$s H$‘ go H$‘ 24 df© VH$ ~«åhM¶© H$m nmbZ H$aVo Wo, do Am{X˶
~«åhMmar H$hbmVo Wo& emar[aH$, dm{MH$, ‘mZ{gH$ n{dÌVm VWm nwU© g§¶‘ ~«åhM¶© d«V H$m
‘ybmYma Wm& ~«÷M¶© Ho$ Ûmam hr 춺$s H$m emar[aH$, ‘mZ{gH$ {dH$mg gå^d hmo gH$Vm Wm&
{dÛmZm| Zo Bg H$mb H$mo Vnñ¶m H$m H$mb H$hm h¡ & Bg H$mb ‘| {dÚmWu¶m| H$mo ‘hmàH¥$Vr Ho$ gmW
g‘Ýd¶ ñWm{nV H$aZo H$s {ejm H$s OmVr h¡ & ~«÷M¶© H$mb H$s à‘wI {deofVm ¶‘-{Z¶‘ H$m
nmbZ H$aZm VWm àH¥$Vr ‘| {ZhrV g‘ñV eº$s go àUpÝdV hmoZm Wr&
~«÷M¶© Aml‘ ‘o ~«÷Mm[a¶m| H$mo ‘Zw Zo OwVm N>mVm Am{X YmaU H$aZm {ZfoY ~Vm¶m , ³¶mo§H$s Bg
H$mb ‘| Cn{O©V e{º$, kmZ, g§¶‘, J¥hñWml‘ H$s Ym{‘©H$ àd¥{Îm, dmZàñW H$s Vnñ¶m Am¡a
gݶm{g¶mo§H$m ~«÷kmZ g^r d«V, Vn, VWm, dr¶©, ajm na hr {Z^©a H$aVo h¡& Bg g§~§Y ‘o ‘Zw Zo
H$hm Wm {H$ "~«÷Mmar H$mo Jwé Aml‘ ‘| ahVo hþE, BpÝж g§¶‘ H$aHo$ Vnmo~b ~T>mZo Ho$ {b¶o
g‘w{MV {Z¶‘m| H$m nmbZ H$aZm Mm{h¶o& ~«åhMmar H$mo Vob ‘X©Z, Am§Imo ‘| A§O‘, nmXþH$m, N>Ì
YmaU Zht H$aZm Mm{h¶o Am¡a Z hr H$m‘, H«$moY, bmo^, {‘϶m, ~MZ, {ó¶m| Ho$ à{V H$Q>mj ¶m
AmqbJZ Am{X Zht H$aZm Mm{h¶o& BgHo$ A{V[aº$ ‘Zw Zo ~«÷Mmar H$o {b¶o Hw$N> Eogo {Z¶‘m| ~Vm¶o
h¡& {OZHo$ nmbZ ‘| ~«÷Mmar H$r Vnñ¶m ‘| ì¶dYmZ CnpñWV Zht hmo gH$Vm& dh {ZÛ¡ÝX, em[a[aH$,
‘mZ{gH$, e{º$ g§M¶ H$aVm hþAm B©ída H$s àm{á H$aZo ‘| g‘W© hmo gH$Vm h¡& àm¶: g§gma ‘| ¶h
XoIm OmVm h¡, {H$ EH$ dñVw AWdm H$m¶© go ‘Zwî¶ àYmZV:, Am{Y‘¡{VH$, Am{XX¡{dH$ ¶m
AܶmpË‘H$ CÞVr H$a gH$Vm h¡& bo{H$Z ~«åhM¶© VrZm| e{º$¶m| H$mo g§{MV H$aZo H$m EH$‘mÌ AmYma
h¡& Bg gådݶ ‘| ‘wÊS>H$mon{ZfX²> ‘| {bIm J¶m h¡, {H$ g˶ Vnñ¶m kmZ Am¡a ~«÷M¶© Ho$ Ûmam
AmË‘m H$s CnbpãY hmoVr h¡& ~«÷M¶© kmZ ê$n àXrn Ho$ {b¶o V¡b ê$n h¡& Am¡a g§gma g‘wÐ ‘|
nW^«ï àm{U¶m| Ho$ {bE AmH$meXrn Ho$ g‘mZ h¡& Bgr ~«åhM¶© Ho$ nmbZ go AmܶmpË‘H$ {~«{dK
CÞ{V H$aVm hþAm& ‘mZd na‘mË‘m H$m gmjmËH$ma H$a boVm Wm&~«h‘M¶© H$mo OrdZ H$m ¶k Ed§ Bï>
H¥$˶ dVm¶m h¡& Bg ~«÷M¶© Ho$ Ûmam hr ‘Zwî¶ AmË‘m H$mo àmá hr OmVm h¡& doXkmVm ‘Zrfr {OgH$mo
na‘ nwéf H$hm OmVm h¡, dmgZm a{hV g{VJU na‘nX H$s BÀN>m ‘o gmYH$ hmoH$a ~«÷M¶© H$m nmbZ
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H$aVo h¡& ~«÷Mm¶© H$mo ñnï> H$aVo hþE JrVm ‘| {bIm J¶m h¡, {H$ ""{Og e{º$ Ho$ Ûmam ‘h{f©JU
àmMrZ H$mb ‘| ~«÷kmZ H$mo àmá H$aHo$ {X½XJÝV ‘| CgH$s ÜdOm ’$hamVo Wo Am¡a {Og e{º$ Ho$ Ûmam
CZHo$ g‘m{Y ewÐ A§V:H$aU ‘| doX H$s Á¶mo{V à{V’$b[V hþAm H$aVr Wr dh e{º$ ‘hm{f¶m| ‘| ~«÷
H$s hr e{º$ h¡& ~«÷ kmZ H$s àm{á ~«÷M¶© Ho$ Ûmam hr hmoVr h¡& ~«÷mOr Zo gd©àW‘ ~«÷kmZ àmá
H$aZo Ho$ {b¶o Xod - XmZdm| H$mo ~Îmrg - ~Îmrg dfm} H$m g‘¶ {X¶m Wm, bo{H$Z BÝÐ hr ~«åh H$m
kmZ àmá H$a gH$m& BgHo$ ~mX ^r dh AZoH$ dfm©o VH$ H$m¶© H$a gH$m& ‘Z, dm¶w, dr¶© VrZmo H$m
nañna gå~ÝY h¡& {H$gr EH$ Ho$ ~er^wV hmo OmZo na ~m±H$s XmoZmo VËd ^r ~er^wV hmo OmVo h¡& ¶hr
~«÷M¶© H$m AmܶmpË‘H$ bm^ h¡& ~«÷M¶© H$m nmbZ H$aZo go Am{X X¡{dH$ CÞVr VWm na‘ e{º$
àmá hmo OmVr h¡&
~«÷M¶© H$m nmbZ H$aZo go ~«÷bmoH$ H$s àmár hmo OmVr h¡& ~«÷bmoH$ ‘| {gÕnwéf hr H$m‘Mmar hmoVr
h¡& ¶h g~ ~«÷M¶© Ho$ Ûmam hr gå‘d h¡& X¡dr e{º$ àmá hmoZo na hr ^rî‘ {nVm‘h H$mo BÀN>m ‘¥Ë¶w
àmá hþB© Wr Am¡a eae¡æ¶m na e¶Z H$aVo hþE ~«÷kmZ H$m CnXoe {X¶m Wm& ~«÷Mm¶© Ho$ gå~ÝY ‘|
H$m{bXmg Zo {bIm h¡, {H$ ""dmñVd ‘| ñWwb eara - ajm Ho$ {~Zm ‘Zwî¶ gdm©JrU {dH$mg Zhr H$a
gH$Vm& ‘Zwî¶ H$s emararH$ Ed§ ‘mZ{gH$ CÞ{V ñdñW eara na hr {Z^©a h¡& ñdmñW ~«÷M¶© na hr
{Z^©a h¡& ~«÷M¶© H$m nmbZ H$aZo Ho$ gå~ÝY ‘| Xj g§{hVm ‘| {bIm h¡, {H$ ñ‘aU {H$V©Z Ho$ Xe©Z
Jwá dmVm©bmn g§H$ën Moï>m Am¡a {H«$¶m g‘m{á ¶o hr ‘¡WwZ Ho$ AmR> A§J h¡& BgHo$ {dnarV ~«÷M¶© h¡
Omo gX¡d nmbZ ¶mo½¶ h¡& ~«÷M¶© H$m nmbZ H$aZo Ho$ {b¶o eara, ‘Z ~w{Õ VrZm| H$m hr g§¶V aIZm
~«÷Mmar H$m H$V©ì¶ h¡& ~«÷Mmar H$mo gmpËdH$ Amhma H$aZm Mm{hE&
~«÷M¶© Ho$ àH$ma :- J«ÝWm| ‘| ~«÷M¶© Xmo àH$ma H$m ~Vm¶m J¶m h¡& EH$ Z¡{ð>H$ Xþgam CnHw$f©U
~«åhM¶© & Omo ì¶{º$ Z¡{ð>H$ ~«÷Mmar hmoVo h¡, CZH$mo J¥hñWml‘ H$mo Amkm Zhr h¡& Bg‘| AmOÝ‘
~«÷M¶© H$m nmbZ H$m {dYmZ h¡& ¶{X {eî¶ ‘| AmOÝ‘ nmbZ H$aZo H$s j‘Vm h¡, Vmo Jwé Cgo Z¡{ð>H$
~«÷Mmar ~ZZo H$s Amkm XooVo Wo& Bg gå~ÝY ‘| Omdmb ‘w{Z H$m {dMma h¡, {H$ ""~«÷M¶© Aml‘
g‘má H$aHo$ J¥hñWr hmoZo& J¥hñWr Ho$ ~mX dmZàñWr ~Zo, dmZàñW Ho$ ~mX gݶmg J«hU H$a|& d¡am½¶
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H$m CX¶ hmoVo hr gݶmg bo& Bg àH$ma ^maVr¶ g‘mO ì¶dñWm ‘| ~«÷M¶© Aml‘ H$m gdm}n[a
‘hËd h¡& d¡{XH$ {dYmZ Ho$ AZwgma ^maVr¶ g‘mO ‘| Aml‘m| H$s ì¶dñWm gdm©{YH$ nwamZr h¡& Mmam|
Aml‘m| ‘| J¥hñWml‘ H$m ‘mZd OrdZ ‘| ‘hËdnyU© ñWmZ h¡& d¡{XH$ {dMmaYmam Ho$ AZwgma
J¥hñWml‘ ‘| àdoe H$aZo Ho$ {b¶o doXmo ‘o Am¶w 25 df© {ZYm©[aV h¡&
d¡{XH$ {dMmaYmam Ho$ AZwgma ‘mZd OrdZ ‘| J¥hñWml‘ H$m Amaå^ {ddmh g§ñH$ma Ho$ gmW
hmoVm h¡& {ddmh g§ñH$ma J¥hñWml‘ H$m g~go àYmZ g§ñH$ma h¡& doXm| ‘o {ddmh g§ñH$ma Ho$ {ZåZ
CXoí¶m| H$mo {ZYm©[aV {H$¶m J¶m h¡&
1) B©ída H$s ^{º$ H$m Aä¶mg &
2) JbV àd¥{Îm H$m {damoY &
3) nwÌmoËnmXZ Ûmam d§e H$s ajm&
{Zð>mdmZ ~«÷Mmar Ho$ {bE {dYmZ {ZYm©[aV {H$¶m J¶m h¡ {H$ CgHo$ g‘ñV F$U kmZmonmO©Z go CÌ¥U
hmo OmVo h¡& ‘Zwî¶ H$mo ̶ F$Um| go ‘wº$ hmoZo H$s H$moB© Amem Zhr h¡& CgHo$ F$U kmZ ¶k ‘o§ hr b¶
hmo OmVo h¡& {H$ÝVw EH$ J¥hñWr H$mo {nV¥ F$Um{X go CÌ¥U hmoZo Ho$ {bE Cna {Z{Xï> AmMaU H$aZm
Mm{hE&
‘mZd H$m ‘Z àm¶ : M§Mb hmoVm h¡& ‘Zwî¶ H$mo BpÝX¶m± M§Mb ‘Z H$m gmW XoVr h¡& Bg g§gma MH«$
‘| Zmar Ed§ nwéf H$m {dYmZ h¡, {H$ ‘Zwî¶ H$m ‘Z ñdV§ÝÌ hmoZo H$o H$maU ^moJ {dbmg H$s Am¡a
AJ«ga hmoVm h¡& à˶oH$ ‘mZd Ho$ ôX¶ ‘| Zmar Ho$ à{V Am¡a Zmar Ho$ ôX¶ ‘| ‘mZd Ho$ à{V a{V^md
hmoVm h¡& ¶h a{V^md àH¥${V H$s hr XoZ h¡& ¶{X Bg a{V^md H$mo ‘w³V ^moJ H$s Am¡a AJ«ga H$a {X¶m
OmE Vmo ‘mZd H$m {dZme Adí¶å‘mdr hmo OmEJm& ‘mZd Ûmam ñWm{nV g‘ñV ‘mݶVm¶o Am¡a
ì¶dñWmAm| H$m g§MmbZ H$aZo Ho$ {bE EH$ nwéf Am¡a EH$ ór H$mo nañna Y‘© ^mdZm Ho$ gmW
~m±YH$a ^md ew[Õnwd©H$ {d{^Þ {Z¶‘m| ‘| AmdÛ H$a gm‘{OH$ ì¶dñWm Ho$ g§MmbZ Ho$ {b¶o
J¥hñWml‘ ‘| {ddmh g§ñH$ma H$m {dYmZ {H$¶m J¶m h¡&
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{ddmh g§ñH$ma H$m CXoí¶ gÝVmZmoËn{V go d§e H$s ajm H$aZm Am¡a {nV¥F$j go CF$U hmoZm h¡& Bg
gå~ÝY ‘| ‘Zw Zo {bIm h¡ {H$ ""F${fF$U XodF$U Am¡a {nV¥F¥$U VrZm| F$Um| go ‘wº$ hmoH$a ‘moj ‘|
{MÎm H$mo bJmZm Mm{hE & Omo ì¶{º$ BZ VrZm| F$Um| go ‘wº$ hþE {~Zm Y‘© H$m nmbZ Ed§ Aml¶ boVm
h¡, dh nVZ H$s Am¡a AJ«ga hmoVm h¡& F${f F$U go ‘wº$ hmoZo Ho$ {b¶o ñdmܶm¶, {nV¥F$U go
nwÌmoËn{V VWm Xod F$U go ‘wº$ hmoZo Ho$ {b¶o ¶k H$s Amdí¶H$Vm hmoVr h¡&
J¥hñW Aml‘
~«÷M¶© Ho$ ~mX ì¶{º$ J¥hñW Aml‘ ‘| àdoe H$aVm Wm& Bg Aml‘ ‘| àdoe H$aZo Ho$ {b¶o ¶h
Amdí¶H$ Wm, {H$ {d{Y {dYmZ Ho$ AZwgma ì¶{º$ EH$ H$ݶm go {ddmh gånÞ H$ao& Bg Aml‘ ‘|
춺$r OrdZ H$s g^r AmH$m§jmAm| H$mo nwVu H$aVm h¡ VWm EH$ Hw$eb ZmJ[aH$ eãXm| ‘| ~«÷M¶© Ho$
CnamÝV ì¶{º$ {ddmh H$aZm Wm, J¥hñWr hmoVm Wm, OrdZ H$m Cn¶moJ H$aVm Wm, gÝVmZmoËn{V H$aZm
Wm, AnZr gÝVmZm|, {‘Ìm| gå~pÝY¶m| VWm nS>mo{g¶m| Ho$ à{V AnZo H$V©ì¶ H$m nmbZ H$aVm Wm& V~
dh Cn¶moJr n[al‘r VWm ¶mo½¶ ZmJ[aH$ hmoVm Wm, VWm EH$ Hw$b H$m g§ñWmnH$ hmoVm Wm& Bg
Aml‘ ‘| ì¶{º$ AnZo OrdZ Ho$ 25 dfm©o H$mo ì¶VrV H$aVm Wm&
¶h Aml‘ g‘ñV Aml‘m| go loð> ~Vbm¶m J¶m h¡& ‘Zwñ‘¥{V H$m ‘V h¡, {H$ O¡go Ord dm¶w Ho$ ghmao
OrVo h¡, R>rH$ Bgr àH$ma J¥hñW Ho$ ghmao g^r Aml‘ hmoVo h¡& Jm¡V‘ VWm ~moYm¶Z H$m ^r ‘V h¡,
{H$ dmñVd ‘| Aml‘ Ho$db EH$ hr h¡ Am¡a dh h¡ J¥hñWml‘& ~«÷M¶© Aml‘ BgH$m EH$ àmapå^H$
MaU h¡, Omo BgH$s V¡¶mar Ho$ {b¶o ~Zm¶m J¶m h¡& dmZàñW VWm OrdZ ¶mnZ H$m {ZX}e H$aZo dmbo
h¡& ì¶mg ñ‘¥{V ‘| {bIm h¡, {H$ Omo J¥hñWml‘ ‘| àdoe H$aZo H$o níMmV ^r {OVopÝж h¡, CÝho Ka ‘|
hr g^r VrWm] Ho$ ’$b {‘bVo h¡ VWm nmnm| go ‘wº$ hmo OmVo h¡&
{hÝXþ Xe©Z ‘| Mmam| Aml‘m| ‘| J¥hñWm l‘ H$mo gd©loð> ~Vm¶m J¶m h¡& ‘hm^maV ‘| J¥hñWml‘ H$m
Jm¡ad JmZ Aݶ emóm| H$s Anojm A{YH$ {‘bVm h¡& empÝVnd© ‘| H$hm J¶m h¡, {H$ O¡go ‘mVm Ho$
AmYma na g~ àmUr OrVo h¡, d¡go hr Aݶ Aml‘m| H$s pñWVr J¥hñW Ho$ AmYma na h¡& J¥hñWml‘
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H$mo g~go CƒñWmZ H$s pñWVr J¥hñW Ho$ AmYma na h¡& ~¥hñWml‘ H$mo g~go Cƒ ñWmZ àXmZ {H$¶m
J¶m h¡& EH$ ~ma ¶w{Õ{ð>a ~hþV emoH$mHw$b hmo J¶o Am¡a J¥hñWml‘ H$mo ˶mJ H$a dmZàñW Aml‘ ‘|
àdoe H$aZo H$s gmoMZo bJo& V~ ã¶mg F${f Zo Hw$N> ~«m÷U ¶wdH$mo H$m Ñï>mÝV XoH$a CÝho Eogm H$aZo go
amoH$m& CÝho g‘Pm¶m {H$ n{dÌVm àm{á H$m C{MV ‘mJ© J¥hñWml‘ Ho$ H$V©ì¶ C{MV én go nwao H$aZo
‘| hr h¡& ì¶mg F${f Ho$ AZwgma Cggo Cƒ Y‘© O¡gm H$s emómo Zo ñdrH$ma {H$¶m h¡& J¥hñdm‘r H$mo
nwao g‘¶ VH$ J¥hñWml‘ Ho$ H$V©ì¶ H$m C{MV VarHo$ nmbZ H$aZo ‘| hr h¡&
‘Zwñ‘¥{V Ho$ AZwgma ""{Og àH$ma g^r OÝVw dm¶w Ho$ ghmao OrVo h¡, Cgr àH$ma g^r Aml‘ J¥hñW
go hr OrVo h¡& g^r Aml‘m| Ho$ ì¶{º$ H$s ³¶m|{H$ J¥hñWml‘ go hr n{dÌ kmZ Ed§ ^moOZ àmá H$aZm
hmoVm h¡& Bg{bE J¥hñWml‘ hr loï> Aml‘ h¡& {Og àH$ma g^r N>moQ>r Am¡a ~S>r Z{X¶m± A§V ‘| g‘wÐ
‘| g^m OmVr h¡& Cgr àH$ma g^r Aml‘ J¥hñW go hr gwajm ñWm{¶Ëd àmá H$aVo h¡& J¥h ñWml‘ H$mo
{ZåZ{b{IV H$maUmo§ go gd©loð> H$hm J¶m h¡&
1) gd©gmYmaU H$m H$ë¶mU :- J¥hñWm Aml‘ Ho$ A{V[aº$ g^r Aml‘ ì¶{º$JV H$ë¶mU H$s
Am¡a ܶmZ XoVo h¡& na gm‘w{hH$ Aml‘ H$mo Ho$db J¥hñWml‘ hr ‘hËd XoVo h¡& O¡go - ~«÷M¶© Aml‘
ì¶{º$JV én go Ho$db kmZ H$s àm{á Am¡a ì¶{º$JV JwUm| H$mo àmá H$aZo H$s Ñ{ï> go hr ‘hËdnyU© h¡,
dmZàñV VWm g§Ý¶mg Aml‘ ‘| ^r ì¶{º$ AHo$bo hr ñd¶§ H$mo ‘moj àm{á Ho$ AZwHw$b ~ZmZo H$m
à¶mg H$aVm h¡& Bg àH$ma VrZmo Aml‘ gm‘y{hH$ H$ë¶mU H$s Am¡a H$moB© Zhr XoVo h¡& J¥hñWml‘
gm‘m{OH$ ‘wë¶mo go ^r gå~mpÝYV h¡& EH$ J¥hñW VrZm| Aml‘m| ‘o§ ì¶{º$¶m| H$s à˶j én go
ghm¶Vm H$aZm h¡, {OgHo$ {~Zm {H$gr ^r Aml‘ ‘| ì¶{º$ AnZo Y‘© H$m nmbZ Zhr H$a gH$Vo& Ho$.
E‘. H$nm{S>¶m Ho$ AZwgma ""J¥hñV go ~«m÷U|§ H$mo ^oQ> {dÚm{W¶m| H$mo Aܶ¶Z ewëH$ XmoZm| H$s XmZ
amo{J¶mo H$mo Am¡f{Y VWm Jar~mo H$mo {^jm XoZo H$mo Anojm H$s OmVr Wr& Cggo A{V{W, Zd{ddm{hV,
~mbé½U, ì¶{º$ VWm J^©dVr ñÌr H$mo ^moOZ XoZo H$s Amem H$s OmVr Wr& M°y§{H$ Aݶ VrZ Aml‘m|
Ho$ ì¶{º$ J¥hñW Ûmam nwZrV kmZ Ed§ CÎm‘ ^moOZ àmá H$aVo Wo, AV: J¥hñWml‘ H$mo gdm}n[a Aml‘
‘mZm OmVm Wm& J¥hñW H$m H$V©ì¶ Ho$db n{j¶m| newAm| Am¡a H$sQ> nV§Jmo H$mo hr gÝVwï> H$aZm Zhr
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Wm, A{nVw CZ ‘Zwî¶m| H$s ^r Omo {H$ gm‘m{OH$ AWdm Z¡{VH$ ñVa ‘| {ZåZVa Wo, ¶m A¶mo½¶ Wo ,¶m
Or{dH$mnmO©Z Ho$ Cn¶wº$ Zhr Wo& AñVw J¥hñW Ho$ H$m¶© CZH$s n[admarH$ n[agr‘m ‘| hr Zhr ahVo
A{nVw ì¶{º$¶m| Am¡a Ordmo§ Ho$ {dñV¥V g‘yh H$m ^r AmqbJZ H$aVo Wo&
2) nwéfmWm} H$s ny{V© :- J¥hñWml‘ ‘| Mmaoo nwéfmWm} Y‘©, AW©, H$m‘ Ed§ ‘moj H$s nw{V© H$s Om
gH$Vr h¡& J¥hñWml‘ g^r nwéfmWm] H$m g‘Ýd¶ Ho$ÝÐ h¡& Bg‘| J¥hñW Y‘©, AW© Am¡a H$m‘ VrZ
nwéfmWm} H$aVo hþE ‘moj H$m ‘mJ© àeñV H$aZo H$m à¶mg H$aVm h¡&
3){d{^Þ ¶km| Ho$ g§nmXZ hoVw Cn¶wº$ {hÝXþ OrdZ ‘| F$U go CF$U hmoZo Ho$ {bE ¶km| H$m H$aZm
Amdí¶H$ h¡& J¥hñWml‘ ‘| ahH$a hr ‘Zwî¶ nm±M ‘hm¶km| H$s ny{V© H$a gH$Vm h¡& ¶o nm±M ¶k h¡
~«÷¶k, {nV¥¶k Xod ¶k, ^yV¶k VWm Z¥O¶& ‘Zwñ‘¥{V Ho$ AZwgma BZ ¶km| ‘| ~«÷ H$mo doX
‘ÝÌmoƒmaU go {nVam| H$mo VnU ¶m lmÜX Ûmam, XodVmAm| H$mo A{¾ Amhþ{V Ûmam ^yVm| H$mo ~{b Ûmam
‘Zwî¶>m| H$mo A{V϶ gËH$ma Ûmam àgÞ {H$¶m OmVm Wm& BZ g~ ¶km| H$mo J¥hñWml‘ ‘| hr nËZr, nwÌ
Am{X H$s ghm¶Vm go gånÞ {H$¶m Om gH$Vm h¡& {hÝXþ emóH$mam| Zo BZ nm±M ‘hm¶km| H$mo ~hþV
A{YH$ ‘hËd {X¶m h¡ VWm ñnîQ> én go 춺$ {H$¶m h¡, {H$ nm±M ‘hm¶km| go ‘mZd eara ñdmW©
Am{X ‘{bZVmAm| go ‘wº$ hmoH$a ~«÷ H$m¶m} Ho$ {bE Cn¶wº$ hmo OmVm h¡& Omo ì¶{³V BZ nm±M
‘hm¶km| Ho$ à{V gånmXZ ‘| Ag’$b hmoVm Wm dh Or{dV hmoVo hþE ^r ‘am hþAm ‘mZm OmVm h¡&
dmZàñW Aml‘
Bg g‘¶ ‘| ì¶{º$ 50 df© H$mo AdñWm go 75 df© H$mo AdñWm VH$ ahVm h¡& S>m°. H$U} Ho$ eãXm| ‘|
50 df© Ho$ bJ^J AdñWm hmo OmZo na ì¶{º$ g§gma Ho$ gwI VWm dmgZmAm| H$s ^wI ‘| C~ OmVm
Wm, VWm ~Z H$s amh boVm Wm, Ohm± dh AmË‘m {ZJ«hr Vnñdr VWm {ZanamY OrdZ ì¶VrV H$aVm
Wm& ~mZàñW Ho$ {bE ""d¡ImZg'' eãX H$m à¶mo¶ {H$¶m J¶m h¡ H$m{bXmg Zo AnZr ‘hmZ aMZm
eHw$ÝVbm ‘| H$Êd F${f H$s nU©Hw$Q>r ‘| ahVr Wr& eHw$ÝVbm Ho$ OrdZ H$mo d¡ImZg d¥V H$hm h¡&
dmZàñW Aml‘ ‘| ì¶{³V H$~ àdoe H$ao BgHo$ ~mao ‘| Xmo ‘V àM{bV h¡& Odmbmof {ZfX Ho$
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‘V O~ EH$ ì¶{º$ N>mÌ OrdZ Ho$ ~mX Hw$N> df© J¥hñW Ho$ én ‘| ì¶VrV H$a boZm h¡, Vmo Cgo
~mZàñW ‘| àdoe H$aZm Mm{hE& ‘Zw H$m {dMma h¡, {H$ O~ J¥hñWr AnZo eara na Pw[a¶m XoIo CgHo$
~mb nH$ Om¶o Am¡a O~ CgHo$ nwÌmo Ho$ nwÌ hmo Om¶o Vmo dZ H$s amh boZr Mm{hE& Hw$N> {dMmaH$m| H$m
‘V h¡, {H$ 55 df© H$s AdñWm dmZàñW Ho$ {b¶o C{MV h¡& à‘wI emók ‘Zr{f¶m| Zo J¥hñWml‘ H$s
Ad{Y H$m dU©U H$aVo hþE {bIm h¡ {H$ ""OrdZ Ho$ bJ^J 25 df© J¥hñWml‘ ‘| ahH$a g‘mO H$m
{hV H$aZo Ho$ CnamÝV ewÕ, ào‘, X¶m, ghmZw^y{V, H$éUm, Ed§ ñdmW© ˶mJm{X JwUm| go ¶wº$ hmo
dmZàñW Aml‘ ‘| ‘Zwî¶ H$mo à{dï> hmoZm Mm{hE&
{díd à{gÕ ‘Zrfr ‘Zw Zo dmZàñWml‘ Ho$ g‘¶ Ed§ {d{eîQ> n[apñW{V¶m| Ho$ gå~ÝY ‘| {ZX}{eV
H$aVo hþE {bIm h¡, {H$ ñZmVH$ {ÛO J¥hñWml‘ Y‘© H$m nmbZ H$aHo$ ¶Wm{d{Y {OVopÝж ahVm hþAm
dmZàñWml‘ ‘| à{dîQ> hmo& J¥hñW O~ XoIo {H$ d¥ÕmdñWm Ho$ bjU {XImB© nS>Zo bJo h¡, Am¡a nwÌ
H$m nwÌ hmo J¶m h¡& Cg g‘¶ Cgo dmZàñW H$s Xrjm hmo J¶m h¡& Cg g‘¶ Cgo dmZàñW H$s Xrjm bo
boZr Mm{h¶o& J«m‘ Ho$ Amhma - {dhma Ed§ n[apÀN>m{X H$m n[a˶mJ H$a ór H$mo nwÌ Ho$ nmg ahH$a
AWdm ór Ho$ gmW hmo ~Z ‘| Mbm OmE &dmZàñWml‘ ‘| ahH$a J¥hñWr {ZñdmW©^md go {d{^Þ
emóm| H$m ñdmܶm¶ H$aVm hþAm&
{eî¶m| H$mo {dÚmXmZ H$aVm Wm& ‘Zwî¶ Ûmam {ZñdmW© ^md go {H$¶m J¶m& ¶h H$m¶© g‘m{OH$
Aä¶wX¶ H$m H$maU ~ZVm Wm& ‘Zwî¶ Ûmam {H$¶m J¶m H$m¶© Am{W©H$ g‘ñ¶m H$m gm‘mYmZ H$aVm Wm&
¶h H$m¶© AmZo dmbr nr{T>¶m§ Ho$ {bE g‘mO ‘| ñWmZ [aº$ H$aVm Wm& Bg àH$ma Ho$ VËdXeu
dmZàpñW¶m| Zo Cn{ZfX VWm Xe©Z O¡go kmZ H$m A{d^m©d {H$¶m& O~ VH$ ^maVr¶ g‘mO ‘| Bg
àH$ma Ho$ ˶mJr ‘Zrfr Xho V~ VH$ ^maVr¶ gm‘m{OH$ ì¶dñWm g§Vw{bV ahr& dmZ àñWml‘ VWm
‘wî¶ H$s OrdZM¶m© {Zd¥Îmr ‘mJ© H$m Ûma h¡& dmZàñWmnZ ‘| g§¶‘ OrdZ ì¶VrV H$aHo$ ‘Zwî¶ nwʶ
nmn go ‘wº$ hmoH$a CÎmam¶a nW go A‘¥V A춺$ nwê$f Ho$ bmoH$ ‘| OmVo Wo&
gݶmg Aml‘
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ì¶{º$ H$mo ApÝV‘ g‘¶ ‘| ì¶VrV H$aZm Mm{h¶o& gmYmaU 75 df© VH$ 100 df©o H$s AdYr
(25 df©o) Bg Aml¶ Ho$ {bE {ZYm©[aV H$s OmVr h¡& gݶmgr H$mo g§nwU© g§gma Ho$ H$ë¶mU Ho$ {bE
H$m¶© H$aZm Mm[hE& ¶hr H$maU h¡ {H$ Cgo EH$ ñWmZ na ahZo Ho$ {b¶o Zht H$hm J¶m h¡& EH$ gݶmgr
H$s {ZåZ{bIrV {Z¶‘m| H$a nmbZ H$aZm A{Zdm¶© h¡&
1) ì¶{º$ H$mo AnZr gmar g§nÎmr nwamo{hVm| X[aÐm| VWm Aghm¶m| ‘| ~mQ> XoZr Mm{hE&
2) Cgo AnZo Ka H$m ˶mJ H$a XoZm Mm{hE& Ka nËZr, nwÌmo, VWm YZ H$m ˶mJ H$a XoZm Mm{hE& Ka
nËZr, nwÌm| VWm YZ H$m ˶mJ H$aHo$ gݶmgr H$mo Jm±d Ho$ ~mha ahZm Mm{hE&
3) dmñVm{dH$ gݶmgr H$mo AHo$bm ahZm Mm{hE& VWm CÝho Mma àH$ma Ho$ H$m‘ H$aZo Mm{hE&
A) ܶmZ ~) em¡M H$) {^jm S) EH$mÝVerbVm&
4) gݶmgr H$mo h‘oem AmZÝX dñVw go Xÿa ahZm Mm{hE&
4) gݶmgr H$mo ~«÷Mmar OrdZ ì¶VrV H$aZm Mm{hE&
5) gݶmgr H$mo {^jm ‘m±J H$a ^moOZ H$aZm Mm{hE& dh ^r ^a noQ> Zht&
6) gݶmgr H$mo Hw$N> ^r AnZo nmg Zhr aIZm Mm{hE&
7) dó CVZm hr YmaU H$aZm Mm{hE {Oggo CZHo$ Jwám§J T>Ho$ aho&
8) g§Ý¶mgr H$mo g‘ñV dU© Y‘© O¡go g˶Vm, Aàd§MZm, H«$moYhrZVm, {dZrVm, n{dÌVm, ^bo- ~wao
H$m ^oX, ‘Z {Z‘§ÌU, BpÝж {ZJ«h VWm AmË‘ kmZ àmá H$aZm Mm{hE&
g§Ý¶mg Y‘© ‘| àdoe H$aZo H$m A{YH$ma Ho$db ~«m÷U H$mo hr Wm& Bg Aml‘ ‘| àdoe H$aVo hþE
à˶oH$ ~«m÷U H$mo ¶h à{Vkm boZr nS>Vr Wr, {H$ ""AmO ‘¢Zo nwÌ {df¶H$ YZ Am¡a ¶e {df¶H$
H$m‘ZmAm| H$m gd©Wm n[a˶mJ H$a {X¶m h¡, VWm ‘oao go à˶oH$ ì¶{º$ H$mo A^¶ àmá h¡&''gݶmgr
bmoJ Bg àH$ma H$m gd©OZ {hVm¶ d«V YmaU H$aHo$ {díd Ho$ H$ë¶mU hoVw Xoe - dm{g¶m| Ho$ ~rM
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^«‘U H$aVo Wo Am¡a bmoJm| H$mo CnXoe XoVo Wo& ¶o bmoJ ^maVr¶ kmZ H$m XmZ {H$¶m H$aVo Wo& empÝV H$m
àMma {H$¶m H$aVo Wo& ^maV ‘| Bg àH$ma Ho$ gݶm{g¶m| H$mo hr AJ«OÝ‘m H$hm OmVm Wm& gݶm{g¶m|
Ho$ gå~ÝY ‘| ‘Zw Zo {bIm h¡, {H$ ¶hr ~«÷kmZr, em§V, XmÝV OrdZ Ho$ AZw^dm| Ho$ AkmZmÝYH$ma ‘|
{Z‘¾ ì¶{º$¶m| H$mo XmZ Xr{á go Ambmo{H$V {H$¶m H$aVo Wo& Bgr àH$ma Ho$ ì¶{º$¶m| H$mo {OÝhm|Zo
AnZo dmZ àñWr OrdZ ‘| gÝVwbZ àmá {H$¶m h¡, gd©ñd ˶mJH$a gݶmgml‘ ‘| àdoe H$aZm
Mm{hE&
‘Zw Zo gݶmgl‘ ‘| àdme Ho$ {dYmZ H$m dU©Z H$aVo hþE {bIm h¡, {H$ ""Am¶w H$m V¥{V¶ ^mJ ¶Wm
e{º$ dmZàñWml‘ ‘| ì¶VrV H$aHo$ Am¶w Ho$ MVwW© ^mJ ‘| {Z:g§J hmoH$a gݶmg J«hZ H$a|& EH$
Aml‘ go Xþgao Aml‘ H$mo J«hU H$aVm hþAm A{YZ ÐmoÌm{X hmo‘ g‘má H$aHo$ {OVopÝжVm Ho$ gmW
O~ {^jm, ~{b Am{X H$‘m} go lmÝV hmo O~ gݶmg J«hU H$aZo go nabmoH$ ‘| CÞ{V hmoVr h¡& ''
‘mZd OrdZ Ho$ g‘J« {d{Y {dYmZm| H$mo nyU© H$aZo H$m ¶h H«$‘mZwgma {dYmZ h¡& ‘mZd OrdZ H$m
EH$ Xþgam én ^r h¡& O~ ~«÷M¶© Aml‘ go ^r AnZo gm‘϶© Ho$ AZwén g§Ý¶mgml‘ J«hU hmoVm h¡&
{dÛmZm| Zo g§Ý¶mgl‘ H$mo {Zd¥{V H$s nyU© M[aVmW©Vm ‘mZm h¡& ‘mZd {Og d«V H$m nmbZ ~«÷M¶©
Aml‘ ‘o§ H$aVm h¡, CgH$r nyU©Vm MVwW© Aml‘ ‘| hmoVr h¡& g§Ý¶mgl‘ nyU© {ZîH$m‘r ì¶{º$ Ho$ {bE
‘mZm J¶m h¡& ^JdmZ H¥$îU Zo JrVm ‘| H$hm {H$ ""gݶmgr Cgr H$mo H$hm OmVm h¡, Omo H$‘© ’$b H$s
BÀN>m Z H$aHo$ H$V©ì¶ H$‘© ahVm h¡, dhr gݶmgr AWdm ¶moJr h¡, {Zam{¾ H$m A{H«$¶ hmoZo go hr H$moB©
ì¶{º$ g§Ý¶mgr Zhr hmoVm h¡& H$å¶ H$‘m} H$m ˶mJ Zhr H$hbmVm& gݶmgr H$m na‘ H$V©ì¶ {ZîH$m‘
OZ H$ë¶mUH$a H$m¶© h¡& gݶmgr {ZîH$m‘ H$‘© Ûmam AnZr gÎmm H$mo {damQ> gÎmm go {‘bmH$a
g{ƒXmZÝX ñdén H$mo hr àmá H$aVm h¡&''AÝV ‘| ¶h H$hm Om gH$Vm h¡, {H$ ""^maVr¶ g§ñH¥${V H$mo
gX¡d ^maVr¶ àmMrZ Aml‘ ì¶dñWm Zo hr à^m{dV {H$¶m h¡ Ohm± H$s ^mdZmAm| VWm ahZ ghZ H$mo
^r à^m{dV {H$¶m& BZ Aml‘ ì¶dñWm| g‘mO ‘| ì¶mnH$ ñVa na gÝVwbZ ñWm{nV {H$¶m&
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4. g§ñH$ma Ed§ {ddmh
g§ñH$ma
g§ñH$ma eãX H$m {díbofU {d{^Þ AWm] ‘| {H$¶m J¶m h¡& A§J«Or ‘| g§ñH$ma eãX "{gamo‘Zr amB©Q>'
¶m ñH«$s‘oÝQ> Am{X eãXmo H$m à¶moJ {H$¶m J¶m h¡& {H$ÝVw {gamo‘Zr amBQ> eãX à¶wá CMrV Zhr bJVm
& ñH«$s‘oÝQ> eãX Bggo H$hr A{YH$ C{MV VWm Cn¶wº$ àVrV hmoVm h¡& BgH$m AW© h¡, {H$ ""Ym{‘©H$
{d{Y - {dYmZ ¶m dh H¥$˶w Omo AmÝV[aH$ VWm AmܶmpË‘H$ gm¡ÝX¶© H$m ~«÷Ñí¶ àVrV ‘mZm OmVm
h¡&
g§ñH¥$V gm{h˶ ‘| g§ñH$ma eãX H$m à¶moJ {ejm, g§ñH¥${V, à{ejU, gm¡Oݶ nyU©Vm, ì¶mH$aU,
gå~ÝYr ew{Õ g§ñH$maU, n[aîH$aU emo^m, Am^wfU, à^md ñdén, ñd^md {H«$¶m, N>mn, ñ‘aU
e{º$ na ~S>Zo dmbo à^md, ewpÕ {H«$¶m, Ym{‘©H$ {d{Y - {dYmZ, A{^foH$ {dMma, ^mdZm,
YmaUm, H$m¶© H$m n[aUm‘ {H«$¶m H$s {deofVm Am{X AWm} ‘| hþAm h¡&
O¡{‘Zr gyÌmo§ ‘| "g§ñH$ma' eãX H$m à¶moJ Cg {H«$¶m Ho$ {b¶o {H$¶m OmVm h¡, {OgHo$ H$aZo go H$moB©
nXmW© Cn¶mo{JVmnyU© ~Z OmVm h¡& ñda Ho$ AZwgma ""g§ñH$ma dh h¡, {OgHo$ gånmXZ ‘| H$moB© nXmW©
¶m ì¶{º$ {H$gr H$m¶© Ho$ ¶mo½¶ hmo OmVm h¡&''
VÝ‘d{V©H$ Zo {bIm h¡, {H$ g§gma {H«$¶m¶o VWm [a{V¶m± h¡, Omo ¶mo½¶Vm àXmZ H$aVr h¡& Bg ¶mo½¶Vm
Ho$ Xmo àH$ma ~Vm¶| J¶o h¡, àW‘ nmnnyU© {H«$¶mAm| H$mo Zï> H$aZo H$s ¶mo½¶Vm, {ÛVr¶, ZdrZ JwUm| go
CËnÞ ¶mo½¶Vm ‘| d¥pÕ H$aZm& amOdbr nmÊS>o Ho$ AZwgma ""{hÝXþ g§ñH$mam| ‘| AZoH$ Ym{‘©H$ {d{Y -
{dYmZ, Amapå^H$ {dMma, CZHo$ g‘dVu {Z¶‘ VWm AZwð>mZ ^r gpå‘{bV h¡, {OZH$m CXoí¶
Ho$db, Am¡nMm[aH$ X¡{hH$ g§ñH$ma hr Zhr H$a ì¶{º$ Ho$ gånyU© ì¶{º$Ëd H$m n[aîH$ma, ew{Õ VWm
nyU©Vm ^r h¡&''
a{dÝÐZmW ‘wH$Ou Ho$ AZwgma ""g§ñH$ma H$m AW©, CZ n{dÌ AZwð>mZm| go h¡, Omo emararH$
<ISBN: 978-981-07-9348-7 > THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA
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~m¡{ÛH$, gm‘m{OH$, VWm AmܶmpË‘H$ n[aîH$ma Ho$ {b¶o {H$¶o OmVo h¡&{ZîH©$fV: H$hm Om gH$Vm h¡,
{H$ g§ñH$ma H$m A{^àm¶ H$m ew{Õ H$s Ym{‘©H$ {H«$¶mAm| VWm ì¶{º$ Ho$ ‘mZ{gH$, emararH$ Am¡a
~m¡pÕH$$n[aîH$ma Ho$ {b¶o {H$¶o OmZo dmbo AZwð>mZm| go h¡, {Oggo dh g‘mO H$m nyU© {dH${gV
gXñ¶ hmo gHo$& g§ñH$ma OÝ‘ go boH$a ‘¥Ë¶ww VH$ gånÞ {H$¶o OmVo h¡& g§ñH$ma gmobh àH$ma Ho$ hmoVo
h¡&
1) J^©YmZ g§ñH$ma EH$ ‘hËdnyU© g§ñH$ma h¡, VWm à˶oH$ ‘mVm - {nVm H$s ¶hr AmH$m§jm ahVr h¡,
{H$ CZHo$ n[adma ‘| gw¶mo½¶, gwnmÌ gÝVmZ CËnÞ hmo& BgHo$ {bE O~ nwéf H$s Am¶w nƒrg df©
VWm ór H$r Am¶w H$‘ go H$‘ gmobh df© hmoZr Mm{h¶o& AÀN>m ‘whÿV© {ZH$mbH$a {XZ ‘| ¶k H$aHo$
am{Ì ‘| J^m©YmZ H$m àYmZ aIm J¶m& n{V nËZr H$m ¶h gå~ÝY ñWm{nV {H$¶m OmVm h¡, {Oggo {H$
J^© ‘| AmZo dmbm Z¶m àmUr gw¶mo½¶ hmo& ¶h ‘Zwî¶ Ho$ OrdZ H$m àW‘ g§ñH$ma h¡& Ohm± go g¥{ï> H$m
CX¶ Amaå^ hmo OmVm h¡& Bgo g§ñH$ma H$r àW‘ H$S>r H$hVo h¡&
2) nwgdZ g§ñH$ma :- ‘mVm Ûmam J^© YmaU H$aZo Ho$ Xmo ¶m VrZ ‘mh níMmV ¶h g§ñH$ma {H$¶m
OmVm h¡¡& gwÝXa, ñdmñW, gw¶mo½¶, nwÌàmár Ho$ {b¶o XodVmAm| go àmW©Zm H$s OmVr h¡ VWm J^© H$mo
‘O~wV H$aZo Ho$ {bE {d{eï> àH$ma Ho$ nm¡{ï>H$ ^moOZ Ed§ Am¡f{Y¶m| H$m à¶moJ H$adm¶m OmZm gwé
{H$¶m OmVm h¡&
3) gr‘mÝVmo¶Z g§ñH$ma :- ¶h g§ñH$ma Vrgao ¶m Mm¡Wo ‘mh ‘| {H$¶m OmVm h¡& Bg g§ñH$ma ‘| n{V
AnZo n{ËZ Ho$ Ho$gm| H$mo gOmH$a Cg‘| ‘m±J H$mQ>Vm h¡& Bg CËgd na gm‘y{hH$ ^moO {H$¶m OmVm h¡&
AV: Bg àH$ma {eew H$m gr‘mÝVmo¶Z g§ñH$ma hmoVm h¡&
4) OmVH$‘© g§ñH$ma :- ~mbH$ Ho$ OÝ‘ Ho$ níMmV ¶h g§ñH$ma hmoVm h¡& d¡{XH$ ¶wJ ‘| amoQ>r nH$mH$a
A{¾ ‘| S>mbr OmVr Wr& ~mbH$ H$mo JmoX ‘| boH$a XþY, Kr Am{X go hdZ {H$¶m OmVm Wm& Xhr,
ehX, VWm Kr H$mo {‘{lV H$a ñdU© H$s ebmH$m go {eew H$mo MQ>m¶m OmVm Wm, VWm CgHo$ {XK©
OrdZ Ho$ {bE àmW©Zm {H$¶m OmVm h¡& {nVm ~mbH$ Ho$ H$mZ ‘| CgHo$ XrKm©¶w, ~w{Õ‘mZ hmoZo Ho$ {bE
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Hw$N> ‘ÝÌ ~mobVm Wm& CgHo$ ~mX ‘mVm Cgo XþY {nbmVr Wr& bmoJ Ka na CnpñWV hmoVo VWm {eew
H$mo Am{e©dmX XoVo Wo ¶h g§ñH$ma AmO ^r {hÝXþ g‘mO ‘| CnpñWV h¡&
5) Zm‘m§H$Z g§ñH$ma :- OÝ‘ H$o Xgd|, ½¶mahd| ¶m ~mahd| {XZ Omo ^r ew^ KS>r ‘| hmo ¶h g§ñH$ma
‘Zm¶m OmVm h¡& {nVm {dÛmZ AmMm¶© Ho$ nam‘e© go Xmo Mma eãXm| H$m gwÝXa Zm‘ {eew Ho$ {b¶o aIVm
h¡& Bg Adga na ¶k, hdZ Am{X go J¥h ew{Û H$s OmVr Wr VWm ^moO H$m Am¶moOZ ^r {H$¶m OmVm
Wm ¶h àWm AmO ^r Cgr én ‘| àMm{bV h¡&
6) {ZîH«$‘U g§ñH$ma :- {eew O~ Mma ‘mg H$m hmoVm h¡, V~ {H$gr ew^ {XZ go ew^ KS>r na Cgo
nhbr ~ma gy¶©Xod H$m Xe©Z Ed§ am{Ì ‘| MÝX‘m Ho$ Xe©Z H$am¶o OmVo h¡& Eogm ‘mZm OmVm h¡, {H$ [eew
Ho$ emararH$ VWm ‘mZ{gH$ {dH$mg ‘| BgH$m ~hþV AÀN>m à^md nS>Vm h¡&
7) AÞàmíZ g§ñH$ma :- O~ {eew N>h ‘mg H$m hmo OmVm h¡, Vmo Cgo nhbr~ma Amhma {X¶m OmVm
h¡& ewé ‘| Mmdb ,‘Yw, Xhr VWm K¥V {‘{lV ^moOZ XoVo h¡, ~mX ‘| Vab ^moOZ d T>mog ^moOZ XoZm
àmaå^ H$a {X¶m OmVm h¡& AmO H$b ^r S>m³Q>am| Ûmam Cgr AZwgma N>h ‘mh dmX ^moOZ àmaä^
H$admZo H$m nam‘©e XoVm h¡&
8) MwS>m H$‘© g§ñH$ma :- ~mbH$ O~ VrZ df© H$m hmo OmVm h¡, V~ {eew Ho$ OÝ‘ Ho$ ~mbm| H$mo H$Q>dm
{X¶m OmVm h¡, VWm Ho$db MwS>m ñdmo{V N>moS> Xr OmVr h¡& Hw$b H$s naånam Ho$ AZwgma EH$ VrZ ¶m
nm±M H$m {dYmZ h¡& Ho$e H$Q>mZo ¶m MmoQ>r aIZo H$m ^r ñdmñW na AÀN>m à^md nS>Vm h¡&
9) H$U© ^oX g§ñH$ma :- ~mbH$ Ho$ OÝ‘ Ho$ Vrgao ¶m nm±Mdo df© ‘| ¶h g§ñH$ma ‘Zm¶m OmVm h¡& eara
H$mo ñZmZm{X go ñdÀN> ~ZmH$a gwÝXa dó YmaU H$amH$a AÀN>o d¡Y Ho$ Ûmam ewé ‘| X{hZm H$mZ VWm
~mX ‘| ~m¶o H$mZ ~oYm OmVm h¡& Bggo Am±V H$m ~T>Zm éH$ OmVm h¡& eara H$mo Am^yfU H$s ñV¥{V go
gmW Jwé Ho$ nmg Aja kmZ Amaä^ H$adm¶m OmVm h¡& Bg àH$ma {dYmkmZ H$m Amaä^ hmo OmVm h¡&
11) CnZ¶Z g§ñH$ma : Bgo ¶kmondrV g§ñH$ma ^r H$hVo h¡& ~«m÷U Ho$ ~mbH$ H$m nm±Mdo df© ‘| ,
j{̶ Ho$ N>T>o df© ‘| VWm d¡í¶ Ho$ ~mbH$ H$m AmR>d| df© ‘| ¶kmondrV YmaU H$aZo H$m {ZX}e Y‘©
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J«ÝW XoVo h¡& {dÚmWu ñZmZm{X H$aHo$ ‘wÊS>Z H$admH$a, CÎmar¶ dó ‘oIbm VWm XÊS> YmaU H$aVm h¡&
dh CnZ¶Z g§ñH$ma H$o {b¶o AmMm¶© Ho$ gm‘Zo ~¡R>Vm h¡, VWm AmMm¶© ¶k hmo‘ H$admVm h¡& dh
{dÚmWu Ho$ H$mZ ‘| Jm¶Ìr ‘§Ì H$m CƒmaU H$aVm h¡& dh Cgo ~«÷Mmar OrdZ ì¶VrV H$aZo H$m
CnXoe XoVm h¡ VWm {ZX}e XoVm h¡, {H$ Vw‘ ~«÷Mmar hmo, Ob nrAm| H$m‘ H$amoo, {XZ ‘| ‘V gmoAmo,
AmMm¶© Ho$ AmYrZ hmoH$a doX H$m Aܶ¶Z H$amo& nhbo H$ݶmAm| H$m ^r CnZ¶Z g§ñH$ma hmoVm Wm,
naÝVw ~mX ‘| CZH$m CnZ¶Z g§ñH$ma ~§X hmo J¶m &
12) doXmaä^ g§ñH$ma :- Bg CnZ¶Z g§ñH$ma Ho$ níMmV {ejm OJV Ho$ Ûma {dÚmWu Ho$ {b¶o Iwb
OmVo Wo& dh doXm| Cn{ZfXm| H$m Aܶ¶Z àmaå^ H$a XoVm Wm, VWm AnZm dm¡{XH$ {dH$mg H$aZm
àmaä^ H$a XoVm Wm& dh Z¶o OrdZ ‘| àdoe H$aVm VWm AnZr AmܶmpË‘H$ àJ{V Ho$ nW na AJ«ga
hmo OmVm Wm& AmO ^r Cƒ {ejm ‘o doXm| Ho$ kmZ H$s Vah kmZ H$m EH$ én h¡&
13) Ho$gmÝV ¶m JmoXmZ g§ñH$ma :- ¶~ ~mbH$ {H$emoamdñWm H$mo nma H$aVm h¡, V~ XmT>r, ‘y±N>, ga
Ho$ ~mb Am{X H$mo H$Q>dm¶m OmVm h¡ , VWm ~«÷Mmar Ho$ n[adma dmbm| H$s Am¡a go Cg g‘¶ Jwé H$mo
XmZ H$s OmVr Wr& Bg{b¶o Bg g§ñH$ma H$mo JmoXmZ g§ñH$ma ^r H$hVo h¡&
14) g‘mdV©Z g§ñH$ma :- Bgo XrjmÝV g§ñH$ma ^r H$hVo h¡& doXm| H$m Aܶ¶Z nyU© hmoZo Ho$ ~mX Cgo
nwZ: J¥hñW OrdZ ‘| àdoe H$aZo H$s Jwé Amkm XoVm VWm Amerdm©X àXmZ H$aVm Wm& {eî¶ ^r Jwé
H$mo ¶Wmo{MV X{jUm XoH$a Jwé H$m Amerdm©X àmá H$a J¥hñW OrdZ ‘| àdoe H$aVm Wm& Bg g§ñH$ma
Ho$ níMmV dh ~«÷M¶© Aml‘ H$mo ˶mJ H$a J¥hñW Aml‘ ‘| àdoe H$aVm Wm&
15) {ddmh g§ñH$ma :Am¶m} Ho$ OrdZ ‘| Bg g§ñH$ma H$m ~hþV ‘hËd ahm h¡& Bg g§ñH$ma Ho$ gmW
¶wdH$ J¥hñW OrdZ ‘| àdoe H$aVm h¡, VWm dYw EH$ Xþgao Ho$ ~mao ‘| nyU© OmZH$mar H$a {ddmh gyÌ ‘|
~ÝY OmVo h¡& do XmoZm| AmOrdZ EH$- Xþgao Ho$ gmW ahZo H$s à{Vkm H$aVo h¡&
16) AÝ˶o{ï> g§ñH$ma :- dh g§ñH$ma ì¶{º$ Ho$ ‘a OmZo Ho$ ~mX gånÞ hmoVm h¡& Cg g‘¶ AZoH$
Ym{‘©H$ {dYmZm| Ho$ gmW Xmh {H«$¶m H$r OmVr h¡&
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{ddmh
g§ñH¥$V gm{h˶ ‘| {ddmh Ho$ {bE H$moB© eãX H$m à¶moJ {H$¶o JE h¡, O¡go CXdmh ,n[aU¶ Cn¶‘,
nm{UJ«hU Am{X & "{ddmh' H$m empãXH$ AW© ã¶w{Vn{V H$r Ñ{ï> go bo OmZm hmoVm h¡& Bg àH$ma
{ddmh H$m AW© dYw H$mo CgHo$ Ka go {deof én go bo OmZm ¶m nËZr ~ZmZo Ho$ {b¶o bo OmZm h¡& Bg
AW© H$s nw{ï> hoVw g§ñH¥$V gm{h˶ ‘| C{„{IV eãXm| Ho$ AWm} H$mo àñVwV {H$¶m Om gH$Vm h¡& CXdmh
H$m AW© h¡, dYw H$mo CgHo$ {nVm Ho$ Ka go bo OmZm& "Cn¶‘' H$m AW© h¡, {H$gr H$mo {ZH$Q> bmH$a
AnZmZm& n[aU¶ H$m AW© h¡, Mmam| Am¡a Kw‘mH$a ¶m A{¾ H$s n[aH«$‘m H$aZm&'
{dÛmZm| Zo {ddmh H$mo H$B© àH$ma go n[a^m{fV {H$¶m h¡& H$B© {dÛmZm| Zo Bgo ñWm¶r ¶m¡Z gå~ÝY H$s
g§km Xr h¡& O~{H$ AZoH$ {dÛmZm| H$m ‘V h¡, {H$ {hÝXþ {ddmh EH$ Ym{‘©H$ g§ñH$ma h¡& Hw$N> {dÛmZ
‘mZVo h¡, {H$ ¶h EH$ gm‘m{OH$ g‘Pm¡Vm ‘mÌ h¡& bo{H$Z Hw$N> {dÛmZ H$hVo h¡, {H$ {hÝXþ {ddmh ‘o
Y‘©, àOmoËn{V VWm am{V Am{X Ho$ ^m¡{VH$, gm‘m{OH$ d AܶmpË‘H$ à¶moOZm| go EH$ ór nwéf
nañna ñWm¶r gå~ÝY ‘| ~§Y OmVo h¡& ¶h gm‘m{OH$ g‘Pm¡Vm ‘mÌ Zht hmo gH$Vm ¶h nyU©V:
Ym{‘©H$ g§ñH$ma h¡&
à^w Ho$ eãXm| ‘| ""{h§ÝXþ {ddmh dmñVd ‘| EH$ Eogm Am¡nMm[aH$ Ym{‘©H$ H¥$˶ h¡, {OgHo$ Ûmam EH$
ì¶{º$ AnZm J¥hñW OrdZ àmaå^ H$a nmVm h¡& {ddmh H$m Ame¶ Cg CËgd go h¡, {OgH$o Ûmam
nËZr H$m OrdZ àmaå^ H$a nmVm h¡& {ddmh H$m Ame¶ Cg CËgd go h¡, {OgHo$ Ûmam nËZr H$m n{V
Ho$ Ka go bo AmZm h¡& naÝVw {ddmh H$s nwar añ‘ H$mo hr BgH$m Zm‘ {X¶m OmZo bJm&
ñnï> h¡, {H$ {hÝXþ {ddmh EH$ gm‘m{OH$ g‘Pm¡Vm ¶m emararH$ gå~ÝY H$s Amkm ‘mÌ Z hmoH$a EH$
ñWm¶r gå~ÝY h¡& BgH$m CXoí¶ emararH$ ‘mÌ Z hmoH$a AmܶmpË‘H$ h¡&
F$½doX ‘| {ddmh H$m CXoí¶ J¥hñW OrdZ ‘| àdoe H$aHo$ XodVmAm| H$mo àgÞ H$aZo Ho$ {bE ¶k H$aZm
d gÝVmZmoËn{V H$aZm h¡& H$‘© {‘‘m§gm ‘o§ ^r {ddmh Ho$ CXoí¶ àñVwV {H$¶m J¶o h¡, {H$ {ddmh Ho$
Ûmam ór Ymam nwéf Ymam‘¶r hmoH$a H¡$dë¶ H$s A{YH$marUr ~ZVr h¡& {ddmh Ûmam hr ór-nwéf H$s
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A{Z¶pÝÌV H$m‘d¥Îmr {Z¶pÝÌV hmoH$a XmoZm| H$mo emararH$, ‘mZ[gH$, ~m¡{ÕH$, nabm¡{H$H$,
Bhbm¡{H$H$ VWm AmܶmpË‘H$ àJ{V àXmZ H$aVr h¡& {dÛmZm| Zo {ddmh Ho$ à‘wI CXoí¶m| H$mo Mma
^mJm| ‘| {d^º$ {H$¶m h¡&
1. Ym{‘©H$ CXoí¶ :- {dÛmZm| Ûmam {ddmh Ho$ à‘wI Ym{‘©H$ CXoí¶ {ZåZ{b{IV ~Vm¶o J¶o h¡&
1) ¶mkdëd¶ ñ‘¥{V ‘| n{V Ho$ Ym{‘©H$ H$‘m} ‘| npËZ H$s A{Zdm¶©Vm {ZYm©[aV H$s JB© h¡& CgH$s
‘¥Ë¶w Ho$ níMmV Ym{‘©H$ H¥$˶m| Ho$ {b¶o nwZ:{ddmh H$s Amkm Xr JB© h¡&
2) eVnW ~«m÷U Zo nËZr - n{V Ho$ AmYo ^mJ H$s nwaH$ ‘mZr OmVr h¡&AWm©V nËZr Ûmam hr n{V
nyU© hmoVo h¡&
3) F$½doX Ho$ AZwgma XodVmAm| Ho$ nwOZ ‘| n{V nËZr EH$ - Xþgao Ho$ ghm¶H$ h¡&
4) V¡Var¶ ~«m÷U Ho$ AZwgma ""nËZrhrZ ì¶{º$ ¶k gånÞ H$aZo H$m A{YH$mar Zhr h¡&
5) O¡{‘Zr Ho$ eãXm| ‘| g‘ñV ¶m{kH$ H$m¶m} ‘| n{V - nËZr H$mo EH$ Xþgao H$m gømoJr hmoZm Mm{hE&
6) nwamUm| ‘| Y‘© ,AW©, H$m‘ VWm nwÌ H$s àmár hoVy nËZr H$mo Amdí¶H$ ‘mZm J¶m h¡& nËZr H$mo
˶mJ H$a {H$¶m OmZo dmbo Ym{‘©H$ H¥$˶m| H$m H$moB© bm^ Zhr {‘bVm&
ñnï> h¡, {H$ {hÝXþ emóm| Zo ór H$mo g‘ñV Y‘© gå~ÝYr {H«$¶mAmo Ho$ {b¶o Amdí¶H$ ‘mZm h¡& AnZo
H$WZ H$s nw{ï> hoVy do am‘MÝÐOr H$m CXmhaU àñVwV H$aZo h¡& grVm H$s AZwnpñW{V ‘| am‘MÝÐ Or Zo
¶k ‘o§ grVm H$s gmoZo H$s à{Vkm aIr Wr& Bg àH$ma {ddmh H$m CXoí¶ Ym{‘©H$ ‘mZm J¶m&
a{V gwI
àmMrZ H$mb go hr {ddmh, a{V gwI àmá H$aZo H$m gwgå^ VWm Amdí¶H$ gmYZ ‘mZm OmVm h¡&
¶Û{n {ddmh Ho$ CXoí¶m| ‘| Bgo Jm¡U ñWmZ àmá h¡, naÝVw {’$a ^r ¶h EH$ Amdí¶H$ CXoí¶ ‘mZm
OmVm ahm h¡& d¡{XH$ ¶wJ ‘| gå^moJ H$mo emoH$ H$m AÝV H$aZo dmbm VWm AmZÝX H$m Ma‘ gwI ‘mZm
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OmVm Wm& H$m¡{Q>ë¶ Ho$ AZwgma ""Y‘© Am¡a AW© go {damoY Z aIZo dmbo H$m‘ H$m godZ H$aZm C{MV
h¡& ‘Zw Ho$ eãXm| ‘| a{V {ddmh H$m àYmZ CXoí¶ h¡&
gÝVmZmoËn{V
‘Zw Ho$ eãXm| ‘| {ó¶m| H$mo ‘mVm VWm nwéf H$mo {nVm ~ZZo Ho$ {bE hr ^JdmZ Zo n¡Xm {H$¶m h¡&
Bg{bE Y‘© H$m AmMaU ór d nwéf XmoZm| H$mo {‘bH$a hr H$aZm Mm{hE& ^maVr¶ Y‘© emóm| ‘|
nwÌmoËn{V H$mo ‘moj H$m gmYZ ‘mZm h¡& BgHo$ AZwgma "nwéf Ho$ Cna VrZ àH$ma Ho$ F$U hmoVo h¡, {OÝh|
CgH$mo AnZo OrdZ H$mb ‘| hr MwH$mZm nS>Vm h¡& ‘Zw Zo BZ F$Um| H$mo MwH$mZo Ho$ gmYZ H$m Adga
~Vm¶o h¡& àW‘ F${f F$U, H$mo doX ,doXm§J> Ho$ ñdmܶm¶ Ûmam& {ÛVr¶ Xod F$U H$mo ¶km| Ho$ gånmXZ
H$aZo Ho$ Ûmam ,V¥Vr¶ {nV¥ F$U H$mo nwÌ CËnZ H$aZo Ho$ Ûmam& ‘hm^maV ‘| (12/9/90) VWm F$½doX
(10/85/36) ‘| ^r {ddmh H$m CXoí¶ gÝVmZmoËn{V hr ‘mZm h¡& F$½doX Ho$ AZwgma {ddmh H$a
CXoí¶ CÎm‘ VWm Ym{‘©H$ gÝVmZ CËnÞ H$aZm h¡&
g‘mOrH$aU
àmMrZ H$mb go hr {ddmhrV hmoZm gå‘mZ VWm AmXa H$m gyMH$ Ed§ M[aÌ H$m à‘mU ‘mZm OmVm
h¡& hf©M[aÌ ‘| C„oI h¡, {H$ "O~ hf© Ûmam ~mU na XþíM[aÌ hmoZo H$m Amamon bJm¶m J¶m Vmo CgZo
AnZo M[aÌdmZ hmoZo Ho$ à‘mUñdén ñd§¶ H$mo {ddmhrV ~Vm¶m Wm& Bg àH$ma ñnï> h¡ {H$ {ddmhrV
hmoZm g‘mO ‘o AmXaZr¶ ‘mZm OmVm h¡& {ddmh g^r OJh Zhr {H$¶o Om gH$Vo h¡& {ddmh Ho$ ^m±Vr
hr ~{h{ddmh àM{bV h¡ & BgHo$ AZoH$ én h¡&
JmoÌ ~{h{ddmh
JmoÌ ~{h{ddmh Ho$ gå~ÝY ‘| {dÛmZm| Zo {d{^Þ ‘V àñVwV {H$E h¡& à^w Ho$ eãXm| ‘| "~{h{ddmh Ho$
{Z¶‘m| Ho$ gå~ÝY ‘| à¶wº$ VrZ eãX JmoÌ, àda Am¡a {nÊS> AnZo àmaå^ go boH$a AZoH$ ¶wJmo ‘|
AnZo AW© Am¡a A{^àm¶ Ho$ gå~ÝY ‘| BVZo A{YH$ n[adV©Zm| Am¡a g§emoYZmo go JwOao h¡, {H$ CZHo$
<ISBN: 978-981-07-9348-7 > THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA
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‘yb A{^àm¶ H$mo nm boZm bJ^J Agå^d gm hmo OmVm h¡& {^Vmjam ݶm¶ H$o AZwgma JmoÌ H$m
AW© aº$ H$s {ZH$Q>Vm h¡&
g˶mfmT>, {haʶ§H$erómoVgyÌ Ho$ AZwgma JmoÌ AmR> F${f¶m| H$s gÝVmZ Ho$ {b¶o H$hVo h¡& ¶o AmR>
F${f h¡ {dídm{‘Ì, ^maÛmO, Jm¡V‘, {d{eï>, A{¾, AJñ˶, O‘Xm{¾ VWm H$í¶n & ‘oKm{VWr Ho$
eãXm| ‘o§ JmoÌ H$m AW© ¶h Zhr h¡ {H$ do {H$gr {deof g‘¶ ‘| CËnÞ hþE F${f {H$ gÝVmZ h¡& BgHo$
{dnarV {Og àH$ma naånam Ho$ AZwgma Hw$N> H$mo ~«m÷U ‘mZm OmVm h¡& Cgr àH$ma JmoÌ ^r
naånamJV d§e H$m Zm‘ h¡& ~m¡Ym¶Z Zo JmoÌm| H$s g§»¶m H$amoS>mo VH$ ~VmB© h¡& O~{H$ nm{U{Z Ho$
AZwgma ""nm¡Vo EH$ H$s gÝVmZ EH$ JmoÌ H$s hmoVr h¡& '' nV§Obr Ho$ eãXmo§ ‘| AmR> F${f¶m| H$s
gÝVmZ EH$ JmoÌ H$s hmoVr h¡&
‘¡³g‘yba Ho$ eãXmo§ ‘| ""EH$ ñWmZ na Jm¶ ~m±YZo dmbo bmoJ Eogo ñWmZ na ahZo dmbo
nyd© F${f H$s gÝVmZ ‘mZo OmVo Wo VWm do g‘mZ JmoÌ Ho$ H$hbmVo Wo& ‘Zw ñ‘¥{V ‘| ^r g§JmoÌ go
{ddmh H$aZm {ZfoY {H$¶m h¡&
Ag{nÊS>m M¶m ‘mVwagJmoÌm M ¶m {nVw:&
gm àeñVm {N>OmVrZm§Xma H$‘©{U ‘¡WwZo&&
~moYm¶Z Zo ^r g§JmoÌ H$ݶm go {ddmh H$aZo na "MÝÐm¶U' Zm‘H$ àm¶píMV H$m àdYmZ ~Vm¶m h¡&
AnamH$ Ho$ AZwgma OmZ ~wPH$a g§JmoÌ go {ddmh hmoZo go CËnÞ hmoZo dmbr gÝVmZ "MmÊS>mb'
H$hbmVr h¡, VWm Eogo {ddmh H$aZo dmbo H$mo Om{V go ~mha H$a {X¶m OmVm h¡& JmoÌ H$m {ZYm©aU
{^Þ {^Þ Om{V Ho$ h¡& amOnyVm| ‘o AZoH$ {dOoVmAm| VWm d§e Ho$ A{X nwéf Ho$ Zm‘ na amOnyVm| Ho$
JmoÌ h¡& j{̶m| ~ d¡í¶m| ‘| CZHo$ nwamo{hVm| Ho$ JmoÌ ‘mZo OmVo h¡& Bg‘| d§e naånam F${f¶m| go Z hmoH$a
CZHo$ {H$gr {eî¶Ûmam MbVr h¡&
{nÊS> ~{h{ddmh
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[hÝXþ g‘mO ‘| g{nÊS>{ddmh {ZfoY h¡& ~¥hñn{V Zo ‘mVm Ho$ nm±M VWm {nVm Ho$ gmV nrT>r VH$
gå~pÝYV gÝVmZ g{nÊS> ‘mZo OmVo h¡& Bg‘| {ddmh {ZfoY h¡&
{‘Vmjam gåàXm¶ go g{nÊS> CÝho ‘mZm OmVm h¡, {OZ‘| EH$ hr {nÊS> go Ad¶n hmo AWm©V ‘m±, ~mn,
XmXm, XmXr VWm ZmZm - ZmZr, ~wAm ‘m‘m Am{X go gå~pÝYV g{nÊS> ‘mZo OmVo h¡&^maV H$o Hw$N>
ñWmZ na ‘m± H$s nr{T>¶m| H$mo g{nÊS> Zhr ‘mZm OmVm&
{‘{Wbm ‘| nm±M Ho$ nm±M nrT>r VH$ H$mo g{nÊS> ‘mZo OmVo h¡& {Og‘| MmMm Ho$ AWm©V {nVm Ho$ ~S>o
^mB© AWdm N>moQ>o ^mB© Ho$ nwÌ ¶m nwÌr,Xþgam {nVm Ho$ ~hZ Ho$ nwÌ AWdm nwÌr, Vrgam ‘mVm Ho$ ^mB©
Ho$ nwÌ ¶m nwÌr, Mm¡Wm ‘mVm Ho$ ~hZ Ho$ nwÌ AWdm nwÌr, nm±Mdm {nVm Ho$ ‘m‘m H$o nwÌ ¶m nwÌr Ho$
gmW {ddmh d{O©V h¡& ³¶m|{H$ ¶h g{nÊS> ‘mZo OmVo h¡& ~m¡Ym¶Z Y‘© gwÌ Ho$ AZwgma ‘m‘m d ~wAm
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The social and economic history of ancient india
The social and economic history of ancient india
The social and economic history of ancient india
The social and economic history of ancient india
The social and economic history of ancient india
The social and economic history of ancient india
The social and economic history of ancient india
The social and economic history of ancient india
The social and economic history of ancient india
The social and economic history of ancient india
The social and economic history of ancient india
The social and economic history of ancient india
The social and economic history of ancient india
The social and economic history of ancient india
The social and economic history of ancient india
The social and economic history of ancient india
The social and economic history of ancient india
The social and economic history of ancient india
The social and economic history of ancient india
The social and economic history of ancient india
The social and economic history of ancient india
The social and economic history of ancient india
The social and economic history of ancient india
The social and economic history of ancient india
The social and economic history of ancient india
The social and economic history of ancient india
The social and economic history of ancient india
The social and economic history of ancient india
The social and economic history of ancient india
The social and economic history of ancient india
The social and economic history of ancient india
The social and economic history of ancient india
The social and economic history of ancient india
The social and economic history of ancient india
The social and economic history of ancient india
The social and economic history of ancient india
The social and economic history of ancient india
The social and economic history of ancient india
The social and economic history of ancient india
The social and economic history of ancient india
The social and economic history of ancient india
The social and economic history of ancient india
The social and economic history of ancient india
The social and economic history of ancient india
The social and economic history of ancient india
The social and economic history of ancient india
The social and economic history of ancient india
The social and economic history of ancient india
The social and economic history of ancient india
The social and economic history of ancient india
The social and economic history of ancient india
The social and economic history of ancient india
The social and economic history of ancient india
The social and economic history of ancient india
The social and economic history of ancient india
The social and economic history of ancient india
The social and economic history of ancient india
The social and economic history of ancient india
The social and economic history of ancient india
The social and economic history of ancient india
The social and economic history of ancient india
The social and economic history of ancient india
The social and economic history of ancient india
The social and economic history of ancient india
The social and economic history of ancient india
The social and economic history of ancient india
The social and economic history of ancient india
The social and economic history of ancient india
The social and economic history of ancient india
The social and economic history of ancient india
The social and economic history of ancient india
The social and economic history of ancient india
The social and economic history of ancient india
The social and economic history of ancient india
The social and economic history of ancient india
The social and economic history of ancient india
The social and economic history of ancient india
The social and economic history of ancient india
The social and economic history of ancient india
The social and economic history of ancient india
The social and economic history of ancient india
The social and economic history of ancient india
The social and economic history of ancient india
The social and economic history of ancient india
The social and economic history of ancient india
The social and economic history of ancient india
The social and economic history of ancient india
The social and economic history of ancient india
The social and economic history of ancient india

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The social and economic history of ancient india

  • 1. àmMrZ ^maV H$m gm‘m{OH$ Ed§ Am{W©H$ $ B{Vhmg THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA boIH$ : S>m°. ào‘ MÝÐ R>mHw$a
  • 2. <ISBN: 978-981-07-9348-7 > THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA TIJ Research Publications Pte. Ltd., Singapore Page | 2 àmMrZ ^maV H$m gm‘m{OH$ Ed§ Am{W©H$ $ B{Vhmg THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA ZËdm gañdVr§Xodr§ dmJWm©{dd dÝXo nmd©Vrna‘oídam¡&& aoIm‘mÌ‘{n jwÊUmXm‘ZmodË‘©Z: na‘² ñ‘a{nV§ OmZH$sna‘oídam¡&& S>m°. ào‘ MÝÐ R>mHw$a(E‘. E. (B{Vhmg) nr-EM.S>r.) b.Z. {‘. {díd{dÚmb¶,H$m‘oída ZJa, Xa^§Jm Composed By: K. Patil Computers, Pune – 411 041. Published By: TIJ Research Publications PTE. LTD., 51, Goldhill Plaza, Singapore www.tijrp.com | www.mye-book.sg nÌmMma nVm: S>m°. ào‘ MÝÐ R>mHw$a dr.premchandrathakur@yahoo.com ‘wpÝÐH$m -am‘ ‘mJ©, J«m‘-Xodam‘, nmoñQ> -Zoham,{Obm - Xa^§Jm ({‘{Wbm) {nZ - 847233 {~hma (^maV)gånH©$ Xþa^mf :- +919308242591.
  • 3. <ISBN: 978-981-07-9348-7 > THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA TIJ Research Publications Pte. Ltd., Singapore Page | 3 Xmo eãX {චnmR>H$JU, àmMrZ ^maV H$m gm‘m{OH$ Ed§ Am{W©H$ B{Vhmg Amn bmoJm| Ho$ ~rM àW‘ g§ñH$aU àñVwV H$aVo hþE, ‘wPo Anma hm{X©H$ Iwer hmo ahr h¡& OZ‘mZg Ho$ ~rM àmMrZ ^maV H$m gm‘m{OH$ Ed§ Am{W©H$ B{Vhmg nwñVH$ H$s H$‘r ‘wPo dfm} go Xþ{IV H$a ahr Wr& Bg H$‘r H$mo nwam H$aZo Ho$ {bE ‘¡oZo àmMrZ ^maV H$m gm‘m{OH$ Ed§ Am{W©H$ B{Vhmg d¡km{ZH$ Am¡a Eo{Vhm{gH$ énm| ‘o AmnHo$ gm‘Zo àñVwV H$a ahoo h¡& {Og‘| d¡{XH$ g§ñH¥${V Ho$ H$mb H$m Eo{Vhm{gH$ Ed§ Am{W©H$ $ pñW{V na gm‘mݶ én go ¶Wm-gå^d àH$me S>mbZo H$m à¶ËZ {H$¶m J¶m h¡& Omo AZwg§YmZmo Ho$ AmYma na nyU© én go IS>m hmo gHo$& nwñVH$ boIZ ‘| JhZ {dMma-{d‘e© Ed§ gm‘{J«¶m| H$mo Om±Mm-naIm J¶m h¡& {’$a ^r ¶{X nwñVH$m| H$mo {bIZo ‘| H$ht AnyU©Vm hmo Vmo AJbo g§ñH$aUm| VH$ nmR>H$m| go j‘m¶mMZm H$aVo h¢& nwñVH$ boIZ Ho$ g§doXZ{eb jU ‘| {nVm lr am‘ ~hmXwa R>mHw$a ‘mVm lr‘Vr ‘wpÝÐH$m Xodr H$m Am{edm©X Ed§ nËZr lr‘Vr ‘Zw R>mHw$a, AZwO Jmonmb Or R>mHw$a, nwÌ ho‘ÝV Hw$‘ma R>mHw$a empÊS>ë¶, gwYm§ew Hw$‘ma R>mHw$a empÊS>ë¶, nwÌr nÙmdVr, {dÚmdVr, à^mdVr, {‘Ìm| Ed§ {à¶OZm| Ho$ gh¶moJ Ho$ {bE Am^mar hw±& ‘¢ àmMrZ ^maV H$m gm‘m{OH$ Ed§ Am{W©H$ B{Vhmg boIZ ‘| H$hm± VH$ g’$b hþAm hw±± , BgH$m {ZU©¶ nmR>H$ Amn ñd¶§ H$a|Jo& Bg nwñVH$ H$mo Am¡a A{YH$ gmaJ{^©V ~ZmZo ‘| AmnHo$ gwPmd H$m h‘| gXm B§VOma ahoJm& dS>Jm§d, nwUo, ‘hmamï´> 28/02 /2014 boIH$ : S>m°. ào‘ MÝÐ R>mHw$a
  • 4. <ISBN: 978-981-07-9348-7 > THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA TIJ Research Publications Pte. Ltd., Singapore Page | 4 àmMrZ ^maV H$m gm‘m{OH$ Ed§ Am{W©H$ B{Vhmg (THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA) {df¶ - gyMr 1. àmMrZ ^maVr¶ gm‘m{OH$ Ed§ Am{W©H$ B{Vhmg OmZZo Ho$ ómoV 5-12 2. dU© Ed§ Om{V ì¶dñWm 13-28 3. Aml‘ ì¶dñWm 29-39 4. g§ñH$ma Ed§ {ddmh 40-53 5. nwÌm| Ho$ àH$ma 54-57 6. àmMrZ {ejm Ed§ CZHo$ Ho$ÝÐ 58-68 7. XmgVm Am¡a Añn¥í¶Vm 69-75 8. àmMrZ ^maV ‘| {ó¶m| H$s pñWVr 76-80 9.H¥${f ì¶dñWm 81-90 10.H$a ì¶dñWm 91-104 11. g§K 105-112 12.^w-ñdm{‘Ëd 113-120 13. dm{UÁ¶, ì¶mna Am¡a CÚmoJ 121-127 14. nwñVH$ boIZ ‘| ghm¶H$ J«ÝW gy{M¶m± 128-137
  • 5. <ISBN: 978-981-07-9348-7 > THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA TIJ Research Publications Pte. Ltd., Singapore Page | 5 1.àmMrZ ^maVr¶ gm‘m{OH$ Ed§ Am{W©H$ B{Vhmg OmZZo Ho$ ómoV ^maVr¶ gm‘m{OH$ B{Vhmg H$m H$moB© H«$‘~Õ g‘¶ Zht hmoZo Ho$ H$maU à‘m{UH$ kmZ CnbãY Zhr hmoVm& {H$ÝVw B{VhmgH$mam| Zo H${R>Z n[al‘ H$a emoY {ZH$mbm h¡& ¶Û{n {d{^Þ B{VhmgH$mam| Zo AnZo-AnZo nwñVH$m| ‘| {^Þ {^Þ {dMma àñVwV {H$E h¡& Bg gå~ÝY ‘o B{VhmgH$ma AbdéZr Zo {bIm h¡ {H$, qhXþ bmoJ B{Vhmg H$s Amoa {deof ܶmZ Zht XoVo& H$mbH«$‘mZwgma d§e n[aM¶ ‘| ^r ~S>r AgmdYmZr aIVo h¡ Am¡a O~ gwMZm XoZo Ho$ {bçoo {dde {H$¶m OmVm h¡, Vmo {H$H$V©ì¶ {d^yT> hmoH$a H$WmE Amaå^ H$a XoVo h¡& ¶h H$WZ nwU©V: g˶ Zhr h¡& gmYZm| Ho$ Am^md ‘| {H$gr Xoe H$m B{Vhmg g‘má Zht hmoVr & ³¶m|{H$ ^maVr¶ AZoH$ Jm¡adnyU© H$m¶© {H$E {H$ÝVw {díd Bggo AZ{^j ahm& àmMrZ ^maV Ho$ B{Vhmg H$mo X©emZo dmbm AZoH$ lmoV h¡& AZ¡{Vhm{gH$ J«ÝW ^maVr¶ gm‘m{OH$ {OdZ H$mo X©emZo ‘| Omo ^w{‘H$m AZ¡{Vhm{gH$ J«ÝW Zo àñVwV {H$¶m h¡& do g^r V϶m| go gdm}n[a h¡& Bg gm‘m{OH$ B{Vhmg H$mo àñVwV H$aZo ‘| doX H$m ñWmZ ‘hËdnyU© h¡& doX ^maVr¶ gm‘m{OH$ B{Vhmg Ho$ ‘hÎmm H$mo àXe©Z H$aZo ‘| doX H$m Omo ñWmZ àmá h¡& dh Aݶ J«ÝWm| H$mo Zht & doX H$s CËn{V {dX go hþAm h¡, {OgH$m AW© kmZ hmoVm h¡& AWm©V ‘Zwî¶ ‘| O~ go kmZ h¡& V~ go doX h¡, doX Ho$db {hÝXþAm| H$m hr Zht ~pëH$ g‘nwU© ‘mZd g‘mO H$m g~go àmMrZ J«ÝW h¡& doX H$s ‘hÎmm H$m dU©U H$aVo hþE {hÝXþñVmZ Ho$ nyd© amï´>n{V S>m°. Eg. amYmH¥$îUZ Zo {bIm h¡ {H$ ""àmMrZ H$mb ‘r H$ënZm ‘| Omo Hw$N> ^r gdm©{YH$ amoMH$ h¡, CgH$s à¶m©á OmZH$mar ~oXm| go {‘bVr h¡&'' doXm| ‘| ^maV H$s g‘ñV àH$ma H$s àmMrZ gm‘m{OH$ ì¶dñWmAm| H$m {díbofU àmá hmoVm h¡& doXm§J Ed§ gm{h˶
  • 6. <ISBN: 978-981-07-9348-7 > THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA TIJ Research Publications Pte. Ltd., Singapore Page | 6 doXm| Ho$ gab Ed§ g‘mݶ ‘Zwî¶ Ho$ g‘P bmB©H$ ~ZmZo Ho$ {bE doXm§J H$s aMZm H$s JB© {Oggo {H$ doXm| Ho$ ^md g^r g‘P gH|$& Bggo B©. ny©. EH$ hOma go nm±M hOma VH$ Ho$ ^maVr¶ gm‘m{OH$ OrdZ H$m nVm MbVm h¡& BgHo$ A{V[aº$ gm{h˶ gwÌ go ^r Cg g‘¶ H$s gm‘m{OH$ KQ>ZmAm| H$m nVm MbVm h¡& Cn{ZfX VWm ~«m÷U ~«m÷U ^r doXm| H$m EH$ A§e h¡& Bg J«ÝWm| ‘| eVnW, n§M{de, EoVao¶ H$m’$s à{gÕ h¡& BZ J«ÝWm| Ho$ Ûmam Cg g‘¶ H$s gm‘m{OH$ OrdZ H$m {dñVma go emë¶, Hw$é, n§Mmb, J§Yma Am¡a {‘{Wbm amÁ¶ H$m dU©U {‘bVm h¡&BZ J«ÝWm| Ûmam n[a{jV {OZHo$ ¶hm° AmpíVH$ ‘wZr nwamo{hV Wo& CZH$s ^r ¶VmW©Vm H$mo àX{e©V H$aVm h¡& {dpå~gma Omo ‘JY g‘«mÁ¶ H$m emgH$ Wm, CZH$m dU©U Cn{Zf©Xmo go àmá hmoVm h¡& nwamU ^maVr¶ gm‘m{OH$ OrdZ H$mo OmZZo ‘| nwamUm| H$m Cƒ ñWmZ àmá h¡& Hw$b {‘bmH$a AR>mah nwamU h¡& BZ‘| {dîUw, JéS>, ‘Ëñ¶, ^{dî¶, dm¶w, ^JdV Am{X à‘wI h¡& nwamUm| H$s ‘hÎmm ^maVr¶ g‘mO ‘| H$m’$s h¡& nwamUm| Ho$ ‘hËd H$m dU©U S>m°. ^r Eg. {gåW H$aVo hþE {bIm h¡ {H$ ""¶{X nwamUm| H$m Aܶ¶Z gmdYmZr nyd©H$ {H$¶m OmE Vmo BZHo$ Ûmam ‘wë¶dmZ Eo{Vhm{gH$ JmWm¶o àmá hmo gH$Vr h¡ & ""nwamU H«$‘~Õ àmá Zhr hmoVm & BZ nwamUm| ‘| d¥údmHw$, ew±J Ed§ H$m¡ad Am{X amÁ¶d§em| Ho$ gm‘m{OH$ B{Vhmg H$m nXm©nZ hmoVm h¡& ~m¡Õ gm{h˶ ^maV Ho$ gm‘m{OH$ B{Vhmg H$mo OmZZo Ho$ {bE ~m¡Õ gm{h˶ H$m {deof ñWmZ h¡& VËH$mbrZ ~m¡Õ g§JR>Zm| H$s pñWVr H$m kmZ aIZo Ho$ {bE ~m¡Õ J«ÝW {Ì{n{Q>H$ H$m ñWmZ h¡& gwn{gÕ O‘©Z {dÛmZ {dÝQ>a{ZQ>O Zo {bIm h¡, {H$ OmVH$ Ho$db Bg{bE hr A‘wë¶ Zhr h¡, {H$ CZH$m gm{h˶ VWm CZH$s
  • 7. <ISBN: 978-981-07-9348-7 > THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA TIJ Research Publications Pte. Ltd., Singapore Page | 7 H$bm CÎm‘ h¡, ~pëH$ {Vgar eVmpãX B©. ny©. H$s gä¶Vm Ho$ B{Vhmg H$s Ñ{ï> go ^r CZH$m C±Mm ñWmZ h¡& ‘m¡¶©H$mb H$s gm‘m{OH$ Xem H$m kmZ Xrnd§e ‘hmd§e, {Xì¶mdmXZ, ‘§Owlr, ‘wbH$ën Am{X J«ÝWm| go àmá hmo OmVm h¡& VËH$mbrZ g‘mO H$s Xem H$m dU©Z b{bV {dñVma d {‘{bÝX àíZ Zm‘H$ J«ÝWm| ‘| {‘bVm h¡& O¡Z gm{h˶ O¡Z gm{h˶ ‘| J«ÝW h¡ ^Ðdmhþ M[aÌ, AmMmam§J gyÌ, bmoH$ {d^mJ, H$WmH$mof, nwʶmld, ^mJdVr gyÌ BZ g~go ^maVr¶ g‘m{OH$ B{Vhmg H$mo OmZZo ‘| H$m’$s ghm¶Vm {‘bVm h¡& n[a{eï> nd©Z ‘| AZoH$ O¡Z g‘«mQ>m| Ho$ n[aM¶ àmá hmoVo h¡& VWm CZHo$ g‘¶ Ho$ gm‘m{OH$ B{Vhmg H$m én àX{eV H$aVo h¡& ñ‘¥{V J«ÝW ^maV Ho$ gm‘m{OH$ B{Vhmg H$s OmZH$mar XoZo ‘| ñ‘¥{V¶m| H$m ^r {deof ¶moJXmZ h¡& ñ‘¥{V J«ÝWm| ‘| dUm©l‘ ì¶dñWm lÕ d àm¶píMV {dYmZ Am{X H$m à‘wI én go dU©Z h¡& ñ‘¥{V¶m| ‘| ‘Zw, ~¥hpñnV, {dîUw, namea Am{X à‘wI h¡& Omo gm‘m{OH$ {OdZ H$mo g‘PZo ‘| ¶moJXmZ XoVo h¡& Eo{Vhm{gH$ gmú¶ :- ^maVr¶ gm‘m{OH$ B{Vhmg H$mo OmZZo ‘| Hw$N> Eo{Vhm{gH$ J«ÝWm| Zo {deof ^y{‘H$m {Z^mB© h¡, O~{H$ ¶o J«ÝW ~hþV H$‘ ‘mÌm ‘| CnbãY h¡, {OZH$m {ddaU Bg àH$ma h¡& ã¶mH$aU Ed§ amOZr[V gå~ÝYr J«ÝW AmO Omo ^r àmMrZ J«ÝW h¡, do H$‘ ‘mÌm ‘| CnbãY h¡& AmYw{ZH$ ¶wJ ‘| ^maV Ho$ àmMrZ B{Vhmg Ho$ Omo ñnï> J«ÝW CnbãY h¡& CZ‘| Á¶mXmVa amOZr[V Ed§ ì¶mH$aU na Aml¥V h¡& amOZr[V gå~pÝY nwñVH$ ‘| H$m¡{Q>ë¶ H$m {bIm hþAm AW©emó VWm, H$‘ÝXH$m H$m {bIm Zr{VemñÌ h¡& Zr[VemñÌ go Jwá H$mb Ho$ ^maVr¶ g‘m{OH$ B{Vhmg H$m nVm MbVm h¡& gmW hr AW©emó go ‘m¡¶© ¶wJ H$m OmZH$mar àmá hmoVr h¡& nm{UZr VWm nV§O{b Ûmam aMrV ‘hm^mî¶ ì¶mH$aU gå~ÝYr J«ÝW hmoZo
  • 8. <ISBN: 978-981-07-9348-7 > THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA TIJ Research Publications Pte. Ltd., Singapore Page | 8 Ho$ ~mdOwX ^r ^maVr¶ gm‘m{OH$ B{Vhmg H$m àXe©Z H$aVr h¡ & M[aÌ-OrdZ dmU ^Å> Ûmam a{MV "hf© M[aÌ' OrdZ gå~ÝYr boIZ ‘| gdm}n[a h¡& hf©M[aÌ go nyd© {H$gr ^r g‘«mQ> Ho$ OrdZ Ho$ {df¶ ‘| {MÌU Zht {H$¶m J¶m h¡& hf© M[aÌ Ho$ ní¶mV n¥ÏdramO amgmo, MÝÐJwᑲ, {dëhU, ‘wÐmamjg, hå‘ra amgmo Am{X à‘wI h¡& BZ J«ÝWm| ‘| amOmAm| Ho$ g‘m{OH$ ì¶dñWm H$m ñnï>rH$aU hmoVm h¡& gmW hr amOm Ûmam {H$E JE gm‘m{OH$ H$m¶mo© H$m dU©U àmá hmoVm h¡& nwamVËd : ^maV H$m gm‘m{OH$ B{Vhmg H$mo OmZZo ‘| gdmo}n[a nwamVËd gm‘J«r Zo ^r {deof ¶moJXmZ {X¶m h¡& nwamVËd H$bm Ho$ VËdm| H$m dU©Z AJ« àH$ma go {H$¶m J¶m h¡ & ñ‘maH$ àmMrZ ^maV Ho$ gm‘m{OH$ B{Vhmg Ho$ {bE CËIZZ go àmá ñ‘maH$m| H$m {deof ñWmZ h¡& ¶o ñ‘maH$ gm{hp˶H$ gmYZm| H$s H$^r H$mo nwam H$aVo h¡& Bg{bE BZH$m gm§ñH¥${VH$ Ñ{ï> go H$m’$s ‘hËd h¡& àmMrZ ñ‘maH$m| H$s ajm Ho$ {b¶o ^maV gaH$ma Ûmam EH$ nwamVËd {d^mJ H$s ñWmnZm H$s JB© h¡ & Omo {d^mJ haßnm, hpñVZmnwa, ‘Wwam, H$m{g¶m, Vj{ebm, ^ahwV, gmaZmW, nmQ>{bnwÌ Am{X ñWmZm| H$m ImoO H$s h¡& hS>ßnm Am¡a ‘mohZOmoXS>mo H$s IwXmB© go ^maVr¶ gm‘m{OH$ B{Vhmg H$m EH$ ‘hËdnyU© g‘ñ¶m hb hmo JB© Wr& Bg CËIZZ ‘| bJ^J nm±M hOma df© nyd© H$m g‘ñ¶m gm‘mYmZ hmoVm h¡& hS>ßnm Am¡a ‘mohZOmoXS>m| Ho$ IwXmB© go àmá gm‘J«r H$m ‘hËdnyU© ñWmZ h¡& ³¶m|{H$ Bggo Cg gä¶Vm Ho$ bmoJm| H$m amOZ¡{VH$ Ed§ Am{W©H$ go ^r Á¶mXm gm‘m{OH$ g‘ñ¶m H$m gm‘mYmZ hmoVm h¡& Vj{ebm Ho$ IwXmB© go àmá gm‘J«r ‘wVu¶m± J§Yma H$mo e¡br H$mo COmJa H$aVm h¡& Adeofmo§ Ho$ gå~ÝY ‘| gwà{gÕ B{VhmgH$a B©ídZ Ho$ eãXm| ‘o ¶h Adeof ñnï>V: ¶h Kmo{fV H$aVm h¡, {H$ ¶hm± Ho$ {Zdmgr {hÝXþ Wo, Omo {ed, nmd©Vr Ed§ ZXr H$s godm H$aVo Wo& dmñV{dH$Vm Vmo Omdm ‘| dmoamo~Xþa H$m ‘pÝXa VWm H$å~wO H$m AÝH$moadma à‘wI h¡&
  • 9. <ISBN: 978-981-07-9348-7 > THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA TIJ Research Publications Pte. Ltd., Singapore Page | 9 A{^boI ^maV Ho$ àmMrZ KQ>Zm H$m g‘¶ A§{H$V H$aZm A˶§V H${R>Z H$m¶© h¡& {OZH$m {V{W ghr ghr AZw‘mZ bJmZm A˶§V XþñH$a h¡& Eogr KQ>Zm Ho$ {V{W H$mo A{^boI à‘m{UV H$aVo h¡& nmfmU {ebmAm| VWm [dñV¥V ñV^m| VWm Aݶ Cƒ ^wIÊS>m| na A§{H$V ¶o A{^boI AnZo g§X{^©V ¶wJ H$s gm‘m{OH$ d Am{W©H$ Xem H$s Am¡a {d{eï> na go g§Ho$V H$aVo h¡& âbrQ> Ho$ AZwgma àmMrZ ^maV Ho$ B{Vhmg H$m kmZ h‘o Ho$db A{^boI Ho$ Y¡¶©nyd©H$ Aܶ¶Z H$aZo go hr àmá hmo gH$Vm h¡& ^maV Ho$ Aݶ gmImAm| ‘| ^r A{^boI H$m ghmam boZm nS>Vm h¡& ³¶m|{H$ BgHo$ {~Zm H${R>ZVm go hr A{^boI H$m {V{W {ZYm©[aV {H$¶m Om gH$Vm h¡& ¶o CZ g~ ‘| EH$ H«$‘ CËnÞ H$aVo h¡, Omo h‘| gm{h˶, naånamJV H$WmAm|, {g¸$mo, H$bm-{eën ¶m Aݶ {H$gr gmYZ go àmá hmoVm h¡& Bg àH$ma ^maV Ho$ gm‘m{OH$ B{Vhmg H$m kmZ H$aZo ‘o ¶o A{^boI {deof ^y{‘H$m AmXm H$aVr h¡& ‘wÐm¶o ^maV H$m àmMrZ g‘¶ ‘| XþañV àmÝVm| go AÀN>m gå~ÝY Wm& gmW hr CZH$m ì¶mnma H$m’$s {dñV¥V Wm& {OgH$mo ‘wÐm¶| g§Vw{bV {H$¶m Wm& AV: ^maV Ho$ àmMrZ B{Vhmg H$mo OmZZo ‘| ‘wÐmAm| H$m ‘hËd H$‘ Zhr h¡ & ³¶m|{H$ BZH$m gå~ÝY amo‘ go Wm& ^maVr¶ B{Vhmg H$m ¶h ‘wë¶dmZ V϶ àmMrZ {g¸$m| go hr àmá hmoVm h¡& {gåW ‘hmoX¶ Ho$ eãXmo ‘| ""{gH$ÝXa Ho$ ^maV AmH«$‘U Ho$ g‘¶ à˶oH$ ¶wJ ‘| ¶o ‘wÐm B{VhmgH$mam| Ho$ AÝdoeZ H$m¶© ‘| A‘wë¶ ghm¶Vm àXmZ H$aVr ahr h¡ Am¡a nm{W©¶Z Ho$ amOd§emo H$mo OmZZo ‘| EH$ ‘mÌ gmú¶ h¡& BZ {g¸$m| go CZHo$ g‘«mÁ¶ {dñVma H$m¶m}, d§emdbr Am{X Ho$ kmZ Ho$ gmW - gmW CZHo$ emgZ H$mb H$s Am{W©H$, ì¶mnm[aH$, gm§ñH¥${VH$ d gm‘m{OH$ gyI g‘¥[Õ H$m ^r kmZ àmá hmoVm h¡& boIH$ Ed§ {dXoer ¶m{̶m| Ho$ d¥VmÝV ^maVr¶ gm‘m{OH$, amOZ¡{VH$, Am{W©H$, ì¶dñWm, H$mo Xem©Zo ‘| {dXoer ¶m{̶m| Ho$ {ddaU ^r AnZm {d{eï> ‘hËd aIVo h¡& h‘mao Xoe ‘| ¶yZmZr, MrZr, {Vã~Vr Ed§ ‘wpñb‘ ¶mÌr g‘¶ - g‘¶
  • 10. <ISBN: 978-981-07-9348-7 > THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA TIJ Research Publications Pte. Ltd., Singapore Page | 10 na Am¶o VWm CÝhm|Zo ^maVr¶ amÁ¶m| Ho$ Am{W©H$, gm‘m{OH$, Ym{‘©H$ g‘ñ¶m Ed§ EH$Vm Ho$ ~mao ‘| {bIo & Omo {ddaU ^maV Ho$ gm‘m{OH$ B{Vhmg H$mo nyU©V: gmú¶ H$aVo h¡& ¶yZmZr ¶mÌr ^maV ‘| ¶yZmZr ¶mÌr àm¶: VrZ MaUm| ‘| Am¶o ¶wZmZr ¶m{̶m| H$m àW‘ MaU {gH$ÝXa go nhbo H$m Wm, {Og‘| WmBb¡³g, {hHo${Q>¶g, {‘boQ>g, hoamoS>oQ>g VWm Ho${gAg Zm‘H$ ¶mÌr ^maV ‘| Am¶o Wo & ^maV Ho$ {df¶ ‘| g~go A{YH$ OmZH$mar BZ ¶m{̶mo§ ‘| go hoamoS>oQ>g H$s {hñQ´>r[aH$m go àmá hmoVr h¡& {gH$ÝXa Ho$ g‘¶ ‘| AmZo dmbo ¶m{̶m| H$m MaU Wm, Od{H$ A[añQ>modwbg, Mma˶, {OAmH$g©, ¶y‘oZrg Am{X ¶mÌr ^maV ‘| Am¶o Wo& BZ ¶m{̶mo§Ho$ dU©Zmo‘o {gH§$ÝXa Ho$ AmH«$‘U Ho$ gmW gmW ^maV H$s gm‘m{OH$ pñWVr Am[X H$m {dñV¥V dU©Z {H$¶m J¶m Wm& {gH§$Xa Ho$ ~mX ^maV AmZo dmbo ¶wZmZr ¶m{̶m| H$m V¥Vr¶ MaU Wm& Bg H$mb ‘o g~go A{YH$ à{gÕ ¶wZmZr ¶mÌr ‘oJñWZrO Wm& Omo goë¶wH$g Ho$ amOXþV Ho$ én ‘| ^maV Am¶m Wm & BgH$s gwà{gÕ nwñVH$ BpÊS>H$m ‘| MÝÐJwá ‘m¡¶© Ho$ emgZH$mb H$s gm‘m{OH$ Am{W©H$ B{Vhmg ‘| ^maVr¶ OZ-OrdZ Ho$ {df¶ ‘| {bIo J¶o ‘oJñWZrO Ho$ dU©Z {ZíM¶ hr {deof ‘hËd aIVo h¡ & BgHo$ ní¶mV Aݶ ¶wZmZr ,à‘wI ¶m{̶m| ‘o, {OZHo$ dU©Zm| ‘| ^maV H|$ gm‘m{OH$ B{Vhmg H$mo OmZZo ‘| {deof ¶moJXmZ {X¶m, CZ‘| S>m¶‘oH$g, S>m¶moZr{g¶g, E[a¶Z, H${Q>©¶g, O[ñQ>Z VWm ñQ´>¡dmo AmXr à‘wI h¡& {Vã~Vr ¶mÌr {Vã~V H$s Amoa go gd©àW‘ bm‘m VmamZmW: {Vã~Vr boIH$ Ho$ én ‘| ^maV Am¶m& BgZo ^maV Ho$ OZ OrdZ d gm‘m{OH$ Am{W©H$ B{Vhmg Ho$ {df¶ ‘| {dñV¥V {ddaU {X¶m & Bg Xþ[îQ> g| CgH|$ Xmo J«ÝWmo {dfoe én g| à{gÕ h¡, V§½¶wa VWm H§$½¶wa BZ J«ÝWm| ‘| nm{W©¶Z VWm Hw$fmUm| Ho$ A{V[aº eH$ g‘mO H$m dU©U àmá hmoVm h¡&$ MrZr ¶mÌr
  • 11. <ISBN: 978-981-07-9348-7 > THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA TIJ Research Publications Pte. Ltd., Singapore Page | 11 ^maV H$o {df¶ ‘| {bIZo dmbm gd©àW‘ MrZr ¶mÌr; ew‘merZ Wm& {OgZ| nhbr eVmãXr ‘| hr AnZr B{Vhmg H$s nwñVH$ {bIr Wr& Aݶ {M{Z boIH$mo ‘| ~m¡Õ {^jwH$ Wo, {OÝhmoZo g‘ñV ^maV ‘| Kw‘-Kw‘H$a ^maVr¶ OZ‘mZg d ^maVr¶ g‘mO H$mo {ZH$Q go> XoIm-naIm ^wJVm Am¡a AnZr nwñVH$mo§ ‘| CgH$m {dñV¥V én go dU©Z {H$¶m& Bg Xþï>r go "’$mh¶mZ'H$m Zm‘ gd©àW‘ Ed§ gd© à‘wI h¡& Omo Jwá g‘«mQ> MÝÐJwá Ho$ emgZ H$mb ‘| ^maV Am¶m & JwáH$mb Ho$ gm‘m{OH$ d Am{W©H$ B{Vhmg Ho$ à˶oH$ nhbw na {dñVma én go àH$me S>mbm& gZ 620B© Ho$ Amg nmg g‘m«Q> hf©Ho$ g‘Z ‘| hdoZËgm§J ^maV Am¶m& CÝhm|Z| ^maVr¶ g‘m{OH$ KQ>Zm H$mo KQ>rV hþB© {dñV¥V dU©U {H$¶m h¢& 16 df© VH$ ^maVr¶ g‘mO Ho$ ‘ܶ ahm Am¡a g‘ñV ^maV ‘| Kw‘-Kw‘H$a ¶hm± Ho$ {df¶ ‘| {dñV¥V én go dU©U {H$¶m& gZ 673 B© ‘o ^maV Am¶m MrZr ¶mÌr BpËg§J Zo ^r {hÝXþñVmZ H$s gm‘m{OH$ ì¶dñWm H$m {dñVma go {díboofU {H$¶m h¡& Bg àH$ma {hÝXþñVmZ H$s B{Vhmg H$r gmjr aIZo ‘| MrZr ¶mÌr H$m ^r {dfoe ñWmZ h¡& Omo {H$ H${R>Z n[al‘ H$a {hÝXþVmZ H$s gm‘m{OH$ OrdZ H$mo {MÌU {H$¶m h¡& ‘wpñb‘ ¶mÌr ‘wpñb‘ ¶mÌr ‘| g~go Á¶mXm ñWmZ VharHo$ {hÝX Ho$ B{VhmgH$ma "Abdê$Zr' H$m Zm‘ h¡& [OÝhmoZo "VharHo$ {hÝXþ' Zm‘H$ nwñVH$ H$mo 1030 B©. ‘| {b[n~Õ {H$¶m& ¶Ú{n Bg boIH$ Zo ^maVr¶ g‘mO H$mo YaVr na Z XoIH$a H$mJO na Á¶mXm XoIm h¡& {H$ÝVw {’$a ^r Bg boIH$ Ho$ ^maVr¶ g‘mO {df¶H$ {ddaUmo§ H$mo H$‘ Zhr ‘hÎd {X¶m Om gH$Vm h¡& BZHo$ A{V[aº$ AbBîVIar, BãZhm¡H$b, AbCVdr, {‘ZhmOwÔrZ hgZ, {ZOm‘r, ’$[aíVm Ho$ A{V[aº$ AZoH$ {dÛmZm| Zo VËH$mbrZ gm‘m{OH$ d Am{W©H$ XemAm| H$m dU©Z {H$¶m h¡& S>m°. a‘me§H$a {ÌnmR>r Ho$ eãXm| ‘| {dXoer d¥VmÝVm| go ^maVr¶ {V{W H«$‘ H$s JwpËW¶m± gwbPmZo ‘| n¶m©á ghm¶Vm {‘br h¡& BZH$s ghm¶Vm go {H$VZr hr ~ma ^maVr¶ amOmAm| H$s g‘H$mbrZVm {dXoer amOmAm| go ñWm{nV hmo JB© h¡,
  • 12. <ISBN: 978-981-07-9348-7 > THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA TIJ Research Publications Pte. Ltd., Singapore Page | 12 Am¡a CZ {dXoer amOmAm| Ho$ H$mb {ZpíMV hmoZo Ho$ H$maU {hÝXþñVmZ {V{W H«$‘ ^r {R>H$ H$a {X¶m J¶m h¡& g^r ¶mÌr¶m| Ho$ Anojm ‘wpñb‘ ¶mÌr¶m| Ûmam {b{IV {hÝXþñVmZ Ho$ gm‘m{OH$, Am{W©H$ Ed§ amOZ¡{VH$ XemAm| H$m {ddaU àmá hmoVm h¡& AV: ¶mÌr¶m| ‘| ‘wpñb‘ ¶mÌr¶m| H$m {dfoe ñWmZ h¡& Cnamoº$ {dddaU Ho$ AmYma na ñnï> h¡ {H$ ^maVr¶ gm‘m{OH$ -Am{W©H$ Ed§ amOZ¡{VH$ B{Vhmg H$mo OmZZo Ho$ AZoH$ ómoV h¡, {OZH$m Y¡¶©nyd©H$ Aܶ¶Z H$aZm hr h‘| bú¶ VH$ nhþ±Mm gH$Vm h¡& dñVwV BZ àmMrZ ómoVmo§ go ^maV Ho$ ¶hm± amOZ¡{VH$ B{Vhmg H$m kmZ hmoVm h¡, dhr CgHo$ gm‘m{OH$, Am{W©H$ B{Vhmg H$mo àX{e©V H$aZo ‘| ^r nyU©V: gj‘ h¡&
  • 13. <ISBN: 978-981-07-9348-7 > THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA TIJ Research Publications Pte. Ltd., Singapore Page | 13 2. dU© Ed§ Om{V ì¶dñWm ^maVr¶ ^mfm ‘| g§ñH¥$V H$m gdm}n[a ñWmZ ahm h¡& O¡go Vra H$o {bE H$‘mZ Am¡a H$‘mZ Ho$ {bE Vra d¡go hr ^maV Ho$ {bE g§ñH¥$V ^mfm H$m ñWmZ àmá h¡, ^maV Ho$ BÝhr ^mfmAm| Ho$ Ûmam dU© ì¶dñWm H$m CX¶ hþAm dU© eãX H$s CËn{V g§ñH¥$V ^mfm Ho$ "d¥U' YmVw go hþB© h¡, {Og eãX H$m AW© "MwZmd H$aZm' hmoVm h¡ & AV: dU© eãX H$m à¶moJ gå^dV: ì¶dgm¶ H$mo MwZmd go {H$¶m OmVm hmoJm& Bg{bE "dU©' bmoJm| H$m dh g‘wh h¡, Omo {H$gr {d[eï> ì¶dgm¶ H$mo MwZ boVm h¡& àmMrZH$mb ‘| {hÝXþ g‘mO H$m dU© {d^mOZ ì¶dgm{¶H$ {d^mOZ hmo gH$Vm h¡& {OZ bmoJm| Zo AnZo JwUm| Ed§ H$‘m} Ho$ AmYma na {H$gr {ZpíMV ì¶dgm¶ H$mo MwZ {b¶m h¡, dh dU© H$hbmZo bJm& dU© eãX H$m Xþgam AW© a§J Ho$ AmYma na ‘mZm OmVm h¡& gwà{gÕ {dÛmZ H$U} Ho$ eãXm| ‘| àmMrZ H$mb ‘| dU© eãX H$m Cn¶moJ Jmoao a§J H$o Am¶© Ed§ H$mbo a§J Ho$ ¶hm± Ho$ ‘wb {Zdm{g¶m| Ho$ a§J ^oX> H$mo ñnï> H$aZo Ho$ {bE {H$¶m OmVm Wm& BgHo$ ~mX dUm} H$m {d^mOZ ~«m÷U, j{̶, d¡í¶, ewÐ, Zm‘H$ Mma dUm} ‘| hmo J¶m& {dÛmZm| Zo ‘mZm h¡, {H$ dU© H$m AmYma H$‘© Wm, Z {H$ OÝ‘ Am¡a ¶o JwUm| go {ZpíMV hmoVo h¡, Z {H$ a§J go, Bg{bE ¶h H$hm Om gH$Vm h¡ {H$, dU© ì¶dñWm l‘ {d^mOZ H$s hr ì¶dñWm H$m Xþgam Zm‘ Wm& dU© H$s CËn{V àmMrZ {hÝXþ Ym{‘©H$ J«ÝWm| ‘| Bg ~mV H$m C„oI {‘bVm h¡, {H$ VËH$mbrZ {hÝXþ g‘mO Mma dUm} ‘| {d^m{OV Wm Am¡a Bg {d^mOZ H$m AmYma H$‘© Wm, Z {H$ OÝ‘& Hw$N> Ym{‘©H$ J«ÝW Bg àH$ma BZH$m {ddaU H$aVo h¡& F$½doX : dU© H$s CËn{Îm Ho$ gå~ÝY ‘| F$½doX {bIm h¡, $ ""~«måhUmo@>ñ¶ ‘wI‘mgrX dmhþ amOݶ: H¥$V& Cé VXñ¶ ¶Ð¡í¶ nX^¶m± eyÐmo: Om¶V:&&'' F$½doX ‘| BZ íbmoH$ H$m AW© h¡ {H$ ^JdmZ Ho$ ‘wI go ~«m÷Um| H$m, ~mhþ go j{̶m| H$m, O§KmAm|
  • 14. <ISBN: 978-981-07-9348-7 > THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA TIJ Research Publications Pte. Ltd., Singapore Page | 14 go d¡í¶m| H$m VWm MaUm| go eyÐm| H$s CËn{V hþB© h¡& {MÝVZ ‘ZZ. nR>>Z nmR>Z Ed§ g‘m{OH$ ݶm¶ énr dMZ XoZo dmbm ‘wI H$mo ~«måhUm| go OmZm OmVm h¡& gmW hr g‘mO H$s gwajm Ed§ gm‘m{OH$ {dH$mg énr hmW H$mo j{̶m| {H$ g§km Xr OmVr h¡,VWm H¥${f Ed§ dm{UÁ¶ H$m¶© H$aZo dmbm| H$mo d¡í¶ énr g§km Xr OmVr h¡& gmW hr BZ VrZm| dUm| H$s godm H$aZo dmbmo H$mo AWm©V gånyU© eara H$s ^ma ~hZo dmbo MaU H$mo ewÐ H$s g§km Xr OmVr h¡ & ‘Zwñ‘¥{V VWm dU© dU© H$s CËn{V Ho$ {df¶ ‘| ‘Zwñ‘¥{V Zo {bIm h¡, ""bmoH$m§Zr Vw {dd¥ÚW© ‘wI dmhþ énmXV:& ~«m÷U§ j{̶ d¡í¶ ewÐí¶ {ZIV©¶V²&&'' BZ íbmoH$ H$m AW© hmoVm h¡& g§gma ‘| à^w Zo g‘mO H$ë¶mU Ho$ {bE AnZo ‘wI, dmhþ,O§Km VWm MaUm| go H«$‘e: ~«m÷U, j{̶, d¡í¶ VWm ewÐ H$s g¥{ï> H$s& dUm} Ho$ Y‘© {hÝXþ g§ñH¥$V ‘| dUm} Ho$ Y‘© Ho$ gå~ÝY ‘| à˶oH$ dU© H$m AnZm - AnZm H$‘© {ZYm©[aV h¡& ~«m÷U Y‘© ‘Zwñ‘¥{V Zo {dñVma nyd©H$ ~«måhU Y‘© Ho$ én ‘| {bIm h¡, ""AܶmnZ‘Ú¶m§ ¶OZ§, ¶mOZ§ VWm XmZ§ à{VJ«í¶¡¶ ~«åhUmZm‘ H$ënWV''&& BZ íbmoH$ H$m AW© hmoVm h¡,{H$ ~«åhUm| H$m H$m¶© Aܶ¶Z AܶmnZ, ¶k H$admZm, XmZ XoZm Am¡a XmZ boZm h¡& ~«m÷U Y‘© doX H$m Aܶ¶Z H$aZm ^r h¡& BZ gå~ÝY ‘| ‘Zwñ‘¥{V Zo {bIm h¡ {H$ "" dh ~«m÷U Omo doXmo H$mo ˶mJ H$a Aݶ ì¶dgm¶m| VWm emóm| ‘| n[al‘ H$aVm h¡, AnZo OrdZ ‘o Hw$b g{hV ewÐVm H$mo àmá hmoVm h¡& AWm©V ~«m÷U H$mo Aܶ¶Z Ho$ {bE g~go Cna doX h¡& doX {~Zm
  • 15. <ISBN: 978-981-07-9348-7 > THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA TIJ Research Publications Pte. Ltd., Singapore Page | 15 ~«m÷U new Ho$ g‘mZ h¡&Bg gå~ÝY ‘| H$hm J¶m h¡ {H$ ""doX {d{hUm§ ~«m÷U| new^r g‘mZm & '' j{̶ Y‘© ‘Zwñ‘¥{V Zo {dñVma nyd©H$ j{̶ Y‘© Ho$ én ‘| {bIm h¡, ""àOmZm§ ajU§ ÐmZ{^Á¶mܶZ ‘od M & {dofd àg{º$í¶ j{̶ñ¶ g‘mgV:&'' BZ íbmoH$mo H$m AW© hmoVm h¡, {H$ àOmAm| H$s ajm XmZ ¶j, Aܶ¶Z VWm Z¥Ë¶ ^moJm{X {df¶m| ‘| Ag{º$ àOm nmbZ ‘| ~mYm S>mbVr h¡& Bg{bE j{̶m| H$mo BZ g~ go Xþa ahH$a àOmAm| {H$ godm H$aZm na Y‘© h¡& d¡í¶ Ho$ Y‘© ‘Zwñ‘¥{V Zo {dñVma nyd©H$ d¡í¶ Y‘© Ho$ én ‘| {bIm h¡, ""new¶m° ajU§ XmZ{^Á¶mܶZ‘od M& d{UdnW§ Hw$gm©X M d¡í¶ñ¶ H¥${f‘od M&'' BZ íbmoH$ H$m AW© hmoVm h¡ newAm| H$m ajm H$aZm, XmZ H$aZm, ¶j H$admZm XmZ XoVm, ã¶mO boZm, H¥${f H$aZm B˶mXr d¡í¶ Y‘© h¡& ewÐ Y‘© ‘Zwñ‘¥{V Zo {dñVma nyd©H$ ewÐ Y‘© Ho$ én ‘| {bIm h¡, ""EH$‘od Vw ewÐí¶ à^w; H$‘© g‘m{XeV& EoVofm‘od dUm©Zm§ ewlmfm‘Zgw¶¶m&''
  • 16. <ISBN: 978-981-07-9348-7 > THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA TIJ Research Publications Pte. Ltd., Singapore Page | 16 BZ íbmoH$mo Ho$ AZwgma ewÐmo H$m Ho$db EH$ hr H$m‘© h¡& BZ VrZm| H$s godm H$aZm& Y‘© ì¶dñWm Ho$ AmYma OÝ‘ ¶m H$‘© àmMrZH$mb ‘| ^maVr¶ dU© ì¶dñWm H$m AmYma OÝ‘ Wm ¶m H$‘© Wm, Bg {df¶ na {dÛmZm| ‘| AZoH$ ‘V^oX h¡& BZ H$mo h‘ VrZ ^mJm| ‘| {d^º$ H$a gH$Vo h¡& 1) OÝ‘ Ho$ AmYma na 2) H$‘© OÝ‘ Ho$ AmYma na 3)OÝ‘ Ed§ H$‘© XmZm| Ho$ AmYma na OÝ‘ Ho$ AmYma na OÝ‘ H$mo dU© ì¶dñWm ‘mZZo dmbo {dÛmZm| H$m {dMma h¡, {H$ ì¶{³V H$mo CZHo$ JwU OÝ‘ go àmá hmoVm h¡& AV: dU©ì¶dñWm H$m AmYma ì¶{º$¶m| Ho$ JwU H$mo ‘mZZo go hr H$h gH$Vo h¡ {H$ àmMrZ H$mb ‘| dU© ì¶dñWm H$m AmYma OÝ‘ Wm&dr. Ho$. Mamonmܶm¶ Ho$ AZwgma ¶w{Õ{ð>a Ho$ JwU ~«m÷U O¡go Wo {’$a ^r do j{̶ hr ‘mZo OmVo Wo& ÐmoUmMm¶© Ho$ JwU j{̶ O¡go Wo {’$a ^r do ~«måhU Wo& AídeWm‘m Ho$ JwU ~«m÷U O¡go Zhr Wo {’$a ^r do ~«m÷U hmoZo Ho$ H$maU hr JbV H$m¶© H$aZo Ho$ {bE nmÊS>dmo Zo ‘¥Ë¶wXÊS> Zhr {X¶m& AV: BZ VH$m} go$ñnï> én go à‘m{UV {H$¶m Om gH$Vm h¡, {H$ OÝ‘ hr dU© H$m AmYma Wm& H$‘© OÝ‘ Ho$ AmYma na JwU H$‘© H$mo dU© ì¶dñWm ‘mZZo go AZoH$ g‘ñ¶m¶o AmVr h¡& àm¶ : ì¶{º$¶m| Ho$ JwU CZHo$ dU© AZwgma Zhr ñnï> hmoVo & Bg AmYma go {H$gr Ho$ JwU XoIZo go {H$gr H$m dU© Zhr ñnï> {H$¶m Om gH$Vm& OÝ‘ Ed§ H$‘© XmZm| Ho$ AmYma na ì¶{º$ Ho$ JwU ~mø én go àH$Q> Zht hmoVo & ³¶mo[H$ ì¶{º$ XoIZo ‘| gw{eb bJVm h¡& na
  • 17. <ISBN: 978-981-07-9348-7 > THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA TIJ Research Publications Pte. Ltd., Singapore Page | 17 AmË‘m CZH$s nmfmU hmoVo h¡& ì¶{º$ Ho$ JwU g‘¶mZwgma ~XbVo ahVo h¡& Omo S>mHw$ h¡ dh gÝV ^r hmo OmVm h¡& ì¶{º$ Ho$ Hw$N> {deof pñWVr hmoZo go AnZo JwU AÝXa aI JbV én go ^r àX{e©V hmoVo h¡& AV: JwU - H$‘© Ho$ AmYma na dU© {ZU©¶ Zhr {H$¶m Om gH$Vm h¡& E¡go pñWV ‘| {H$gr H$mo H$‘© Ho$ AmYma na dU© {ZpíMV H¡$go {H$¶m Om gH$Vm h¡& JwU Ed§ H$‘© dU© ì¶dñWm H$m AmYma JwU Ed§ H$‘© XmZm| H$mo dU© H$m AmYma ‘mZZm àm¶: g˶ h¡& Am¡a {d[^Þ {dÛmZm| Zo ^r BgH$m g‘W©Z {H$¶m h¡& Bg ì¶dñWm H$mo {dÛmZm| Ho$ A{V[aº$ Y‘©J«§W ^r ‘mZm h¡& F$½doX ‘o dU© H$m Omo C„oI {H$¶m J¶m h¡& CZ‘o H$‘© H$mo hr dU© H$m AmYma ‘mZm h¡& ‘hm^maV JrVm XmoZm| ‘| JwU - H$‘© H$mo dU© H$m AmYma ‘mZm h¡& dm¶w nwamU Ho$ 91 íbmoH$ ‘| ^r JwU H$‘© Ho$ AmYma na hr dU© {ZU©¶ {H$¶m J¶m h¡& ¶mkdë¶H$ ñ‘¥{V ‘| dU© n[adV©Z H$m íbmoH$ h¡, ""Om˶wËH$fm} ¶wJo k¡¶: n§M‘| gá‘g[ndm& ì¶Ë¶¶o H$‘©Um§ nyd©dÀ¶mKamoVa‘²&&'' ì¶{º$¶m| H$m dU© CËH$f© 20 go 28 df© Ho$ AÝXa hmo gH$Vm h¡ VWm H$‘m} H$m Cb§KZ hmoZo na Bgr àH$ma 20 go 28 df© ‘| dU© H$m AnH$f© hmo gH$Vm h¡& ‘Zwñ‘¥{V ‘| ^r ¶h ~mV ñnï> én go {bIm J¶m h¡, {H$ ""~«m÷U Ûmam ewÐ Ho$ J^© go CËnÞ hmoZo dmbm ì¶{º$ ewÐ hmoVo hþE ^r CÎm‘ H$‘© Ûmam Cgr OÝ‘ ‘| 28 df© H$s AdñWm ‘| ~«m÷U hmo gH$Vm h¡& Cgr Vah j{̶ Ed§ d¡í¶ go CËnÞ nwéf ^r Cƒ dU© H$mo àmá H$a gH$Vm h¡& "gwÌZr[V Ed§ ^mJdV nwamU ‘| ^r H$‘© Ûmam Cƒ dU© H$mo nm gH$Vm h¡, Xem©¶m J¶m h¡ & ‘hm^maV g‘¶ ‘| ¶w{Y[ð>a amOm Zhþf go H$hVo h¡, {H$ ""{Og ì¶{³V ‘| g˶, X¶m, j‘mXmZ, erb M[aÌ hmo dh ~«m÷U h¡&'' {dídm{‘Ì OÝ‘ go j{̶ hmoVo hþE ^r AnZo H$‘© go ~«÷UËd H$mo àmá {H$¶m& AnZo H$‘© Ho$ H$maU hr amOm OZH$ H$mo ~«m÷U H$m gå‘mZ {‘bm& ‘h{f ì¶mg ewX« hmoVo hþE ^r AnZo H$‘© Ûmam ~«m÷U Ho$ nX àmá {H$E&
  • 18. <ISBN: 978-981-07-9348-7 > THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA TIJ Research Publications Pte. Ltd., Singapore Page | 18 S>m°. amYmH¥$îUZ Zo dU© ì¶dñWm H$mo H$‘© àYmZ ì¶dñWm ‘mZm h¡& BZ ‘V H$mo S>m°. Yw[a¶o, Ho$, E‘. ’${U¸$a. S>m°. {XZmZmW d‘m© Zo ^r dU© ì¶dñWm H$mo H$‘© àYmZ hr ‘mZm h¡& g‘Ýd¶dmXr Ñ{ï>H$moU JwU H$‘© VWm OÝ‘ ‘| go {H$gr ‘| EH$ H$mo dU© - ì¶dñWm H$m AmYma ‘mZZm Ad¡km{ZH$ àVrV hmoVm h¡& gå~dV: H$‘© VWm JwU XmoZmo hr dU© {ZYm©aU ‘| à¶má ahm h¡& bo{H$Z Eog ^r ‘mbw‘ Zhr nS>Vm h¡ {H$, OÝ‘ Cnojm H$s OmVr Wr& H$hZo H$m VmËn¶© h¡, {H$ OÝ‘ VWm H$‘© XmoZm| ì¶{º$ Ho$ dU© {ZYm©aU ‘| ‘hËdnyU© h¡, Omo Bg ~mV H$mo gm{~V H$aVr h¡, {H$ dU© ì¶dñWm EH$ A˶§V bMrbr ì¶dñWm Wr& OÝ‘ go ì¶{º$ Ho$ dU© H$m {ZYm©aU hmoVm Wm, bo{H$Z H$‘© Ûmam dU© ~Xb gH$Vm Wm& BZ g~ ‘Vm| Ho$ Aܶ¶Z H$aZo go nVm MbVm h¡, {H$ ~«m÷U Vmo OÝ‘ go ~«m÷U Wm, {H$ÝVw Aݶ dU© H$mo CËH$f© Ho$ {bE CÎm‘ H$‘© H$aZm nS>Vm Wm& ³¶m|{H$ Y‘© J«ÝW ‘| Eogm H$moB© ^r CXmhaU Zht {‘bm h¡, Omo {H$ OÝ‘ ~«m÷U Ho$ Ka {b¶m hmo Am¡a dh ewÐ ‘| n[ad©VrV hmo J¶m hmo& AV: ñnï> h¡ H$s AݶdU© H$mo ~«m÷U dU© ‘| àdoe Ho$ {bE CÎm‘ H$‘© H$aZo nS>Vo Wo& dU© ì¶dñWm H$m ‘hËd dU© ì¶dñWm Omo {H$ l‘ {d^mOZ Ho$ AmYma na {H$¶m J¶m hmo, ì¶{º$ H$mo Cƒ AWdm {ZåZ ñWmZ Zht {XbmVm& ~pëH$ CgHo$ ñd^md VWm JwUm| Ho$ ~b na ¶mJ¥{V Ho$ amñVo na MbZo Ho$ {bE ào[aV H$aVm h¡& g^r dUm} H$m ‘hËd CgHo$ gXñ¶m| Ûmam AnZo dUm} Ho$ H$V©ì¶m| Ho$ à{V {Zð>mdmZ ahZo ‘| h¡& dU© H$V©ì¶ gwMH$ h¡, Z {H$ A{YH$ma gwMH$ & H$‘© Ho$ AmYma na dUm©o H$mo Mma ^mJm| ‘o {d^m{OV {H$¶m J¶m Wm& 1) ~w{ÛOrdr 2) emgH$ 3) ì¶mnmar
  • 19. <ISBN: 978-981-07-9348-7 > THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA TIJ Research Publications Pte. Ltd., Singapore Page | 19 4) l‘Ordr & {H$gr EH$ dJ© {deof Ho$ hmW ‘| à^wgÎmm Ho$pÝXV Z hmo Bgr Ho$ {bE dU© {d^mOZ hþAm& Bgr {bE dU© ì¶dñWm kmZ, e{º$, AW© Ed§ l‘ Mmam| à‘wI e{º$¶m| H$s {dHo$pÝÐV H$aZo gå~pÝYV dJ© H$mo Cg e{º$ H$m à‘wI A{YH$mar ~Zm {X¶m OmVm h¡& O¡go ~«m÷U kmZ H$s e{º$, j{̶ ~b H$m, d¡í¶ YZ H$m VWm ewÐ l‘ H$s e{º$ H$m A{YH$mar hmoVm h¡& {OgHo$ n[aUm‘ ñdén ~«m÷U AmXa H$m, j{̶ emgZ H$m ,d¡í¶ YZ H$m VWm ewÐ AdH$me H$m nmÌ hmoVm h¡& {hÝXþ {dMmaH$m| H$m ‘V h¡, {H$ dU© ì¶dñWm {dYmZ Ûmam dU© g§Kf© gå^m~ZmAm| H$mo H$‘ {H$¶m h¡& dU© ì¶dñWm {hÝXþ g‘mO ‘| Eogr n[apñWVr H$m ‘mJ© àeñV H$aVr h¡, {Og‘| ‘Zwî¶ H$mo d¶ñH$ hmoZo na Or{dH$monmO©Z hoVy A{YH$ {MÝVm ¶m g§Kf© Zhr H$aZm nS>Vm & ^maV ‘| AZoH$ {eënH$mAm| Am¡a J¥h CÚmoJm| H$m àmaå^ VWm CZH$s àJ{V dU© ì¶dñWm Ho$ H$maU hr g§^d hmo gH$m AmO Ho$ AmYw{ZH$ ¶wJ ‘| {deofrH$aU H$m H$m’$s ‘hËd h¡& {hÝXþ OrdZ àUmbr ‘| {deof j‘Vm VWm d§e na§nam ì¶{º$ H$m {deof CÚmoJr VWm ì¶dgm¶ ‘| nma§JV H$aVr h¡& {deofrH$aU Ho$ H$maU N>moQ>o ‘m‘wbr ¶ÝÌm| go gwÝXa H$bmË‘H$ H¥${V¶m| H$m {Z‘m©U Ho$db Hw$N> {deof ì¶{º$ hr H$a nmVo h¡& dU© H$m OÝ‘ go {ZYm©aU H$aZm {H$ ~«m÷U H$s gÝVmZ ~«m÷U Ho$ ì¶{º$JV {dH$mg ‘| ~mYH$ hmoVm h¡& ¶h EH$ dU© ì¶dñWm H$s g~go ~S>r H$^r h¡& Xþgam Xþîn[aUm‘ {d^mOZ Ho$ H$maU CËnÞ hþAm& dU© {d^mOZ Ho$ n[aUm‘ñdén {hÝXþOm{V AZoH$ Om{V¶m| d CnOm{V¶m| ‘| {d^m{OV hmoH$a Xþ~©b hmo JB© h¡& BZ Xmo ‘w»¶ H${‘¶m| Ho$ ~mdOwX ^r dU© - ì¶dñWm H$m’$s Cn¶moJr g§J{R>V d ewÕ ì¶dñWm h¡, {Og‘| g‘mO ‘| g§ajU, g§MmbZ d {dH$mg H$m ‘mJ© gm’$ hmoVm h¡& dU© ì¶dñWm H$o ‘hËd H$mo h‘ H$B© V[aH$m| go ñnï> H$a gH$Vo h¡& 1) dU© ì¶dñWm ‘| l‘ {d^mOZ VWm {deofrH$aU H$s EH$ A{ÛVr¶ ì¶dñWm ahr h¡& dmë¶mH$mb go hr ì¶{º$ AnZo n[adm[aH$ n¶m©daU ‘| ì¶dgm{¶H$ à{ejU àmá H$a {deofrH¥$V kmZ H$m bm^ CR>m gHo$ h¡&{d{^Þ dUm} ‘| g^r àH$ma Ho$ H$m¶© ~m±Q>H$a g‘mO H$mo àJ{V H$s Am¡a ~T>m¶m Om gH$m&
  • 20. <ISBN: 978-981-07-9348-7 > THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA TIJ Research Publications Pte. Ltd., Singapore Page | 20 2) dU© ì¶dñWm Zo bmoJm| H$mo dU© - Y‘m©Zwgma AnZo AnZo H$V©ì¶ nmbZ H$aZo Ho$ {bE àoaUm Xr& CÝho AnZo CÎmaXm{¶Ëd Ho$ à{V OmJéH$ ~Zm¶m& BgHo$ AÝVJ©V {d{^Þ dUm} Ho$ AbJ - AJb H$m‘m} H$m {ZYm©aU H$a bmoJm| H$m EH$ Xþgao Ho$ joÌ ‘| g§Kfm} go ‘wº$ aIm& 3) dU© ì¶dñWm g‘Vm H$s ar[V na AmYm[aV ahr h¡& Bg ì¶dñWm Ho$ AÝV©JV g‘mO H$m Mma dUm} Ho$ én ‘| H$m¶m©Ë‘H$ {d^mOZ Amdñ¶ hþAm h¡& naÝVw à˶oH$ H$s godmAm| H$s gm‘m{OH$ Ñ{ï> go g‘mZ ‘hËd {X¶m J¶m h¡&{damQ> nwéf Ho$ eara Ho$ {d{^Þ A§Jmo go Mmamo dUm} H$m CËn{V ¶hr àJQ> H$aVr h¡ {H$ à˶oH$ A§J Ho$ n¥WH$ - n¥WH$ H$m¶© hmoVo hþE ^r H$m¶m©Ë‘H$ Ñ{ï> go g^r H$m g‘mZ ‘hËd h¡& 4) dU© ì¶dñWm EH$ Eogr gab ì¶dñWm ahr h¡, {H$ {OgHo$ A{YH$ à˶oH$ ì¶{º$ H$mo AnZo JwUm| VWm H$‘m} Ho$ AZwgma na AnZr gm‘m{OH$ ì¶dñWmHo$ {dH${gV H$aZo H$m CÎm‘ Adga àXmZ {H$¶m J¶m& Bg‘| ì¶{º$ H$mo AnZo JwU VWm H$‘© Ho$ AmYma na dU© n[adV©Z H$m Adga ^r àmá Wm& ¶h ì¶dñWm g‘mO H$mo CÞV H$aZo ‘| ‘hmZ ^y{‘H$m àXmZ {H$¶m& 5) dU©ì¶dñW {d{^Þ àOmVr¶ g‘yh aº$ H$s ewÕVm H$mo ~Zm¶o aI gHo$ & AbJ - AbJ dUm} Ho$ én ‘| g§J{R>>V hmoZo go {d{^Þ àOmVr¶ g‘yhm| H$mo EH$ Am¡a a³V H$s ewÜXVm ~Zm¶o aIZo H$m Adga àmá hþAm Am¡a Xþgar Am¡a AmgmZr go AnZr g§ñH¥$V H$mo nr{T>- Xa nrT>r ~T>mZo ‘| ghm¶Vm àXmZ {H$¶m& 6) dU© ì¶dñWm go hr g‘mO ‘| g§VwbZ ahm& BÝhr Ho$ dOh go {d{^ÝZ e{º$¶m| Hw$N> {deof ì¶{º$¶m| ‘| Ho$ÝÐtV Z hmo gH$m& BZ e{º$¶m| go ¶wº$ g‘yh ‘| AhH$ma Ed§ {Za§Hw$eVm ~T>oJr & Bg{bE Mmam| dUm} Ho$ AbJ aIm J¶m h¡& Om{V H$mo bm¡{Q>Z ^mfm ‘| H$mñQ> H$hVo h¡, {OgH$m AW© hmoVm h¡ "àOmVr¶ VËd, Zñb ¶m n¡V¥H$ JwUm| go gånÞ& Om{V eãX g§ñH¥$V ^mfm Ho$ OZ go ~Zm h¡& {OgH$m AW© CËnÞ H$aZm ¶m CËnÝZ hmoZm h¡&
  • 21. <ISBN: 978-981-07-9348-7 > THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA TIJ Research Publications Pte. Ltd., Singapore Page | 21 Bg àH$ma Om{V H$m AW© g‘mZ JwUm| go OÝ‘ boZm h¡& BgH$s n[a^mfm AZoH$ {dÛmZm| Zo AnZo AnZo Xoe go {XE h¡& ‘Ow‘Xma Ho$ AZwgma ""Om{V EH$ dÝX dJ© h¡&'' àmo. Hw$bo Ho$ AZwgma O~ H$moB© ^r dJ© nyU©V: d§emZwH«$‘U na AmYm[aV hmo OmVm h¡, Vmo dh Om{V H$hbmVr h¡& Ho$VH$a Ho$ eãXm| ‘| Om{V {Og én go AmO h¡, Cgo EH$ gm‘m{OH$ g‘wh Ho$ én ‘| g‘Pm Om gH$Vm h¡, Omo ‘w»¶V: Xmo {deofVmAm| go ~ZVm h¡& nhbm BgH$o gXñ¶ OÝ‘ go hr ~Z OmVo h¡, Xþgam g^r gXñ¶ A˶ÝV H$R>moa {Z¶‘m| Ûmam g‘yh go ~mha {ddmh H$aZo go amoH$ {X¶o OmVo h¡&'' Ama. E‘. ‘¡H$mBda Ho$ eãXm| ‘| ""O~ ì¶{º$ H$s pñW{V nyd© {ZpíMV hmoVr h¡, AWm©V ì¶{º$ O~ AnZr pñWVr ‘| {H$gr ^r Vah Ho$ n[adV©Z H$s Amem boH$a CËnÝZ hmoVm h¡, V~ dh ì¶{º$ g‘wh ¶m dJ© Om{V Ho$ én ‘| ñnï> hmoVm h¡&'' [aObo Ho$ AZwgma ""Om{V n[adma ¶m H$B© n[admam| H$m g§H$bZ h¡, {OgH$mo EH$ g‘mݶ Zm‘ {X¶m J¶m h¡, Omo {H$gr H$mën{ZH$ nwéf ¶m XodVm go AnZr CËn{V ‘mZVm h¡ VWm n¡V¥H$ ì¶dgm¶ H$mo ñdrH$ma H$aVm h¡, Am¡a Omo bmJo {dMma H$a gH$Vo h¡ CZ bmoJm| Ho$ {bE EH$ gOmVr¶ g‘wh Ho$ én ‘| ñnï> hmoVm h¡&''Om{V ì¶dñWm H$mo n[a^m{fV H$aZm A˶§V H${R>Z H$m¶© h¡, ³¶m|{H$ ¶h EH$ OQ>rb g‘ñ¶m Ho$ én ‘| ZOa AmVr h¡& àmo. Or. Eg. Ky[a¶o Zo {bIm h¡ {H$ ""‘wP>o Eogm bJVm h¡ {H$ {df¶ H$s O{Q>bVm Ho$ H$maU n[a^mfm XoZo H$m à˶oH$ à¶mg Ag’$b hmoZm {ZpíMV h¡& Xþgar Am¡a Bg {df¶ na ~hþV gm gm{h˶ Bg Om{V eãX H$s gw{ZpíMVVm Ho$ Am^md Ho$ H$maU jV {djV nS>m h¡& Om{V H$mo CËn{V H$hm± go hþB©& Om{V Ho$ CËn{V Ho$ {gÕmÝV : 1) naånamJV {gÛmÝV : {d{^Þ {dÛmZm| H$m ‘V h¡, {H$ Om{V àWm {H$ CËn{V {hÝXþ naånam Ho$ AZwgma hþB© h¡& {hÝXþAm| Ho$ AZoH$ dJ© J«ÝWmo ‘| BgHo$ à‘mU {‘bVo h¡& d¡{XH$ gm{h˶ ‘| g~go àmMrZ ì¶m»¶m F$½doX Ho$ nwéf gyº $‘| {‘bVr h¡& BgHo$ AZwgma ~«m÷Um| H$s CËn{V ~«÷m Ho$ ‘wI go
  • 22. <ISBN: 978-981-07-9348-7 > THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA TIJ Research Publications Pte. Ltd., Singapore Page | 22 j{̶m| H$s CËn{V ~mhþ go d¡í¶ H$s CËn{V O§ÚmAmo go VWm ewÕmo H$s CËn{V MaUm| go Y‘© emó ‘Zwñ‘¥{V ñ‘¥{V¶m| ‘| Eogo hr ì¶m»¶m {‘bVr h¡& JrVm ‘| H¥$îU H$hVo h¡ ""MmVwd©Ê¶î¶ ‘¶m g¥ï>§ JwUH$‘© {d^mJV: & AWm©V Mmam| dUm| H$m {Z‘m©U CZHo$ JwU VWm H$m¶m} Ho$ AmYma na ‘¢Zo ñd§¶ {H$¶m h¡& ‘Zw Ûmam BZHo$ H$m¶m©o H$m C„oI {H$¶m J¶m h¡& ~«m÷U H$m H$m¶© Aܶ¶Z - AܶmnZ H$aZm d¡í¶ H$m H¥${f, j{̶m| H$mo Aó - eó MbmZm VWm amÁ¶ H$s ajm H$aZm VWm eyÐm| H$m H$m¶© CƒOm{V Ho$ bmoJm| H$r godm H$aZm h¡& 2) ~«m÷Um| H$s MVwa ¶w{º$ H$m {gÕmÝV :- Hw$N> {dÛmZ Om{V ì¶dñWm H$mo ~«m÷Um| Ho$ MVwa ¶w{º$ Ho$ {gÕmÝV H$mo$ ‘mZVo h¡& ~«m÷Umo Zo gÎmm gdm}ƒ aIZo Ho$ {bE Y‘© H$m ghmam boVo hþE EH$ Eogr ¶moOZm H$m {Z‘m©U {H$¶m {Og‘| CÝhm|Zo AnZm ñWmZ g~go Cna aIm VWm Xþgao ñWmZ na j{̶m| H$mo aIm& {Oggo do ñd¶§ gwa{jV ah gHo$& àmMrZ H$mb ‘| Y‘© H$m g~go Á¶mXm ‘hËd hmoZo Ho$ H$maU ~«m÷Um| Zo Ym[‘©H$ H$m¶moo© H$mo AnZo A{YH$ma ‘| boH$a Om{V ì¶dñWm Ho$ én ‘| EH$ Eogr ¶moOZm ~ZmB©, {OgZo {hÝXþ g‘mO ‘| CZH$s gÎmm H$mo ñWm¶r gdm©oƒVm àXmZ H$a Xr& S>m°. Yy[a¶| Ho$ eãXmo ‘| Om{V àWm BÊS>mo Am¶©Z g§ñH¥${V Ho$ ~«m÷Um| H$s gÝVmZ h¡, Omo J§Jm - ¶‘wZm Ho$ ‘¡XmZ ‘| nbr Am¡a dhm± go Xoe Ho$ Xþgao ^mJm| ‘| bo OmB© JB©& 3) Ym{‘©H$ {gÕmÝV :- lr H$moH$mQ>© Ho$ eãXmo ‘| {hÝXþ g‘mO H$m Om{V àWm Ho$ én ‘| l‘ {d^mOZ Ym{‘©H$ AZwð>mZm| go hþAm& CZHo$ AZwgma Om{V {d^mOZ ‘yb én go Ym{‘©H$ H$m¶m} H$m {d^mOZ Wm& Ym{‘©H$ H$m¶m} ‘| newAm| H$s ~br H$aZo H$m H$m¶© {ZH¥$ð> hmoZo Ho$ H$maU Xmgmo H$mo {X¶m J¶m& Omo AmJo MbH$a ewÐ H$hbmZo bJo& Bgr àH$ma ‘§Ìmoƒma Am{X H$aZo dmbo ~«m÷U H$hbm¶o& Yrao - Yrao {^Þ - {^Þ H$m¶© H$aZo dmbo bmoJ {^Þ - {^Þ Om{V g‘yhm| ‘| ~Q> J¶o& Bg {gÕmÝV ‘| g§emoYZ H$aVo hþE goZmQ>© Zo H$hm h¡, {H$ Om{V H$mo CËn{V àmMrZ H$mb ‘| ^moOZ gå~ÝYr Ym{‘©H$ {ZfoYmo go hþB©& 4) ì¶mdgm{¶H$ {gÕmÝV :- lr Zog’$sëS> Ho$ ‘VmZwgma ì¶dgm¶ VWm Ho$db ì¶dgm¶ hr Om{V àWm H$s CËn{V Ho$ {b¶o CÎmaXm¶r h¡& lr Zog’$sëS> Om{V àWm H$s CËn{V ‘| Y‘© H$mo H$moB© ‘hËd Zhr
  • 23. <ISBN: 978-981-07-9348-7 > THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA TIJ Research Publications Pte. Ltd., Singapore Page | 23 {X¶m h¡& CZH$m H$WZ h¡, {H$ {d{^Þ ì¶dgm¶ H$aZo dmbo bmoJ ì¶dgm¶m| H$s CƒVm VWm {ZåZVm Ho$ AmYma na hr C±Mr VWm ZrMr Om{V¶m| ‘| {d^m{OV hmo J¶o& 5) àOmVr¶ {gÕmÝV :- h~©Q> [aObo, S>m°. Yy[aE VWm S>m°. ‘Ow‘Xma Am{X Bg {gÕmÝV Ho$ à‘wI g‘W©H$ h¡& [aObo Ho$ Am¶m} H$s ^maV Ho$ ‘yb {Zdm{g¶m| go {^ÞVm VWm AZwbmon {ddmh Ho$ àMbZ H$s Om{V àWm H$s CËn{V H$m ‘yb H$maU ~Vbm¶m h¡& BÝS>m| Am¶© àOm{V ^maV ‘| AmZo go nyd© Mma ^mJm| ‘| {d^m{OV Wr& ^maV ‘| AmZo na Am¶mo© Zo AnZo {d^mOZ Ho$ Bg {gÕmÝV H$mo ¶hm± na bmJw {H$¶m& BgHo$ A{V[aº$ Am¶m} ‘| bS>{H$¶m| H$s H$^r hmoZo Ho$ H$maU Am¶© nwéf ¶hm± bS>{H$¶m| go Vmo {ddmh H$a boVo Wo& bo{H$Z AnZr bS>{H$¶m| H$mo ¶hm± Ho$ bS>H$mo Ho$ gmW {ddmh Zht H$aVo Wo ""AZwbmon {ddmh Ho$ n[aUm‘ ñdén àOmVr¶ {‘lU go hr Om{V¶m| H$s CËnm{V hþB©& S>m°. Yy[aE VWm S>m°. ‘Ow‘Xma H$m ^r {dMma h¡, {H$ ^maV ‘| Om{V àWm Cggo gå~pÝYV d¡dm{hH$ ImZ - nmZ ì¶dgm{¶H$ Am{X {ZfoYm| H$s CËn{V Am¶m} Ûmam AnZo aº$ H$s ewÕVm VWm g§ñH¥${VH$ loï>Vm H$s ajm H$aZo hoVy {H$¶o J¶o à¶ËZm| Ho$ ’$bñdén hþB©&'' 6) ‘mZm ¶m Am{X‘ g§ñH¥${V H$m {gÕmÝV :- XþJ©‘ ñWmZm| ‘| ahZo dmbr AZoH$ OZ Om{V¶m± ñdV§Ì amOZ¡{VH$ VWm Am{W©H$ BH$mB¶m| Ho$ én ‘| ahVr Wr& à˶oH$ OZOm{V g‘yh EH$ hr ì¶dgm¶ H$aVm Wm, Omo Bg ~mV H$s Amoa g§Ho$V H$aVo h¡ {H$ Am¶m} Ho$ AmZo go nhbo ^r ^maV Ho$ ‘yb {Zdmgr ‘| ì¶dgm¶ VWm Aݶ ì¶dgm¶m| Ho$ AmYma na {d^mOZ ‘m¡OwX Wm& Am¶m} Zo Bg gm‘m{OH$ {d^mOZ H$mo Am¡a ^r A{YH$ ñnï> H$aVo hþE AnZr pñWVr H$mo gdm}ƒ aIm& ‘mZm dh Abmo¡{H$H$ VWm AÑí¶ e{º$ h¡, Omo à˶oH$ dñVw ‘| {dY‘mZ g‘Pr OmVr h¡& {dídmg {H$¶m OmVm h¡, {H$ ¶h e{º$ ñne© Ûmam ì¶{º$ ‘| ’¡$bVr h¡ Am¡a gwI XþI XmoZm| hr Xo gH$Vr h¡& Ho$db A{X‘ Om{V¶m| ‘| hr Zhr ~pëH$ AmYw{ZH$ g^r g‘mOm| ‘| ^r bmoJ {H$gr Z {H$gr én ‘| Bg e{º$ ‘| {dídmg H$aVo h¡& lr hÅ>Z Ho$ AZwgma Bg e{º$ ‘| {dídmg Zo hr Om{V àWm Ho$ d¡dm{hH$ ImZ - nmZ gå~ÝYr à{V~ÝYm| H$mo OÝ‘ {X¶m h¡&''
  • 24. <ISBN: 978-981-07-9348-7 > THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA TIJ Research Publications Pte. Ltd., Singapore Page | 24 Om{V ì¶dñWm H$m {dH$mg ^maV ‘| Om{V ì¶dñWm Ho$ {dH$mg Ho$ {nN>o AZoH$ H$maU h¡& 1) d¡dm{hH$ gå~ÝY :- g‘mO ‘| AZwbmon {ddmhm| Ho$ H$maU AZoH$ Om{V¶m± ~Zr& AZwbmon {ddmh ‘| CƒOm{V H$m dJ© {ZåZ Om{V Ho$ dJ© Ho$ gmW {ddmh H$aVm h¡& g‘mO Zo Eogo {ddmhmo§ H$mo ‘mݶVm àXmZ Zhr H$s Am¡a AZoH$ ZB© Om{V¶m| BZ Om{V ~{hîH¥$V bmoJm| Zo ~Zm {b¶m& CXmhaU Ho$ {b¶o j{̶ nwéf VWm d¡í¶ ór go ~Zr Om{V Aådï> H$hbm¶r& j{̶ nwéf Ed§ ewÐ ór go ~Zm Om{V CJ« H$hbm¶r& à{Vbmon {ddmhm| Ho$ H$maU ^r AZoH$ Om{V¶m± ~Zr ewÐ nwéf VWm ~«måhU ór go ~Zr Om{V Mm§S>mb H$hbmVr h¡& Bg àH$ma AZwbmon à{Vbmon {ddmhm| go AZoH$ Om{V¶m| H$m OÝ‘ hþAm& 2) ì¶dgm¶m| na AmYm[aV Om{V¶m°§ :- gä¶Vm Ho$ {dH$mg Ho$ gmW - gmW AZoH$ ZE CÚmoJmo YÝYm| VWm ì¶dgm¶m| H$mo H$aZo dmbo ì¶{º$ AnZo ì¶dgm¶ Ho$ AmYma na Om{V¶m| ‘| n[ad{V©V hmo JB©& CXmhaU Ho$ {bE ZmB©, Hw$åhma, gwZma, bmohma, ImVr, Zrbhma, Owbhm, Vobr B˶mXr& 3) amOH$m¶© ‘| ZdrZ Om{V¶m± :- amOm Ho$ ¶hm± {d{^Þ H$m¶m} H$mo H$maZo Ho$ {bE AbJ - AbJ bmoJ bJm¶o J¶o & ¶o ì¶{º$ AnZo-AnZo H$m¶© Ho$ AZwgma Om{V¶m| ‘| ~Xb J¶o & CXmhaUmW© amOm Ho$ ¶hm± Omo ì¶{º$ boIZ H$m¶© H$aVm Wm & do H$m¶ñW H$hbmZo bJo & 4) Om{V ~{hîH$ma :- AZoH$ H$maUmo go EH$ Om{V Zo AnZr hr Om{V Ho$ bmoJm| H$mo Om{V go ~{hîH¥$V H$a {X¶m Vmo Eogo bmoJm| Zo AbJ - AbJ Om{V H$m {Z‘m©U H$a {b¶m& 5) Ym{‘©H$ gåàXm¶ :- Ym{‘©H$ gåàXm¶ Ho$ AmYma na ^r AZoH$ ZdrZ Om{V¶m± ~Zr& CXmhaUmW© H$~ra n§Wr, ¶mXÿ n§Wr, {b§Jm¶V, gVZm‘r Am{X& 6) àXoe Ho$ AmYma na Om{V¶m± :- àXoe Ho$ AmYma na ^r AZoH$ ZdrZ Om{V¶m± ~Zr& CXmhaU Ho$ {bE ‘¡{Wb, Jm¡S>, gmañdV, Am{X˶, ga¶ynmUr, H$mݶHw$ãO Am{X& 7) {dXo{e¶m| Ho$ ^maV AmJ‘U Ho$ H$maU ^maV ‘| AZoH$mo {dXoer AmH${f©V hþE& CZ‘o ~hþV go ¶hm± Ho$ g‘mO Ho$ A§J hmo J¶o& eH$, ¶dZ, Hw$fmU, BZ Am{X ^maV ‘| Am¶o VWm ¶hr Ho$ g‘mO ‘| g‘m
  • 25. <ISBN: 978-981-07-9348-7 > THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA TIJ Research Publications Pte. Ltd., Singapore Page | 25 J¶o {Oggo AZoH$ Om{V¶m± ~Z JB©& Om{V ì¶dñWm go bm^ Om{V ì¶dñWm ^maV df© H$m Amaå^ go hr à‘wI A§J h¡& Om{V ì¶dñWm Zo hr ^maV df© ‘| Amngr g‘Ý~Y ñWm{nV {H$¶m, gm‘m{OH$ ì¶dñWm àXmZ H$s VWm ‘wpñb‘ Ho$ AmJ‘Z Ho$ nyd© g‘mO H$mo EH$ aIZo ‘| g’$b ahr Wr& g‘mO Ho$ à˶oH$ dJ© Ûmam Bgo ñdrH$ma ^r {H$¶m J¶m Wm& Ama. gr. XÎm Ho$ eãXmo ‘| Bg ar[V Ho$ ~wao ’$b ^maVdf© ‘| ‘wgb‘mZm| Zo H$o AmZo go nhbo {XImB© Zhr nS>o Wo& Bg Om{V àW‘ go g‘mO VWm amï´> Ho$ AZoH$ bm^ {‘bo& Om{V ì¶dñWm Ho$ JþU 1) g§J{R>V g‘mO H$m {Z‘m©U Om{V ì¶dñWm Ho$ AÝVJ©V g‘mO H$mo Om{V¶m| ‘| {d^m{OV H$a {X¶m Wm& BZHo$ n¥WH$ - n¥WH$ H$m¶© Wo& AV: CZ‘| ~oH$mar H$s g‘ñ¶m Zhr Wr& Bg{b¶o g§Kf© B©î¶m©, Ûof, K¥Um VWm ñnYm© Am{X Zhr Wr& n¥WH$-n¥WH$ Om{V¶m°§ hmoVo hþE ^r g‘m{dï> én ‘| g^r {hÝXþ g‘mO Ho$ A§J Wo& {hÝXþËd Ho$ H$maU CZ‘| EH$Ëd H$s à~b ^mdZm Wr& g^r Om{V¶m± nañna ào‘ H$s ^mdZm go gmW {Zdm©h H$aVo Wo& 2) aº$ H$s ewÕVm :-à˶oH$ Om{V Ho$ ImZ-nmZ VWm {ddmh gå~ÝYr AnZo {Z¶‘ Wo& BZ {Z¶‘m| Ho$ AZwgma AÝVOmVr¶ {ddmh d{O©V Wo& AnZr hr Om{V ‘| {ddmh H$aZm A{Zdm¶© Wm& n[aUm‘V: à˶oH$ Om{V ‘| AnZr Om{V H$m aº$ àdm{hV hmoVm ahm VWm Om{V¶ aº$ H$s ewÕVm ~Zr ahr& 3) ì¶dm{g¶H$ XjVm :-Om{V ì¶dñWm Ho$ AmYma na H$m¶© H$m {d^mOZ hmoZo go g^r H$m¶© d§emZwJV hmo J¶o& ~mbH$ àm¶: ~MnZ go hr AnZo ‘mVm {nVm Ho$ H$m¶m} ‘o hmW ~m±Q>Vm VWm ~S>m hmoZo na Yrao - Yrao dh AnZo {nVm H$m ñWmZ J«hU H$a boVm & n[aUm‘V: CZ {deof CÚmoJ YÝYo ‘o§ dh XjVm àmá H$a boVm Wm& 4) à{VÛpÝXVm H$m Am^md :- Om{V ì¶dñWm ‘| à˶oH$ H$m¶© H$m {d^mOZ H$a {X¶m J¶m Wm& à˶oH$ Om{V Ho$ AnZo ì¶dgm¶ Wo& H$moB© ^r ì¶{º$ AnZr Om{V Ho$ naånamJV H$m¶© H$mo N>moS>H$a
  • 26. <ISBN: 978-981-07-9348-7 > THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA TIJ Research Publications Pte. Ltd., Singapore Page | 26 Xþgao H$m¶© H$mo Zhr AnZm gH$Vm Wm& AV: g^r AnZo AnZo H$m¶© ‘| ì¶ñV ahVo Wo VWm à{VÛpÝXVm VWm à{VñnYm© H$s ^mdZm H$m nwam Am^md Wm& 5) {hÝXþ Y‘© H$mo gä¶Vm VWm àmMrZ g§ñH¥${V H$s ajm Om{V ì¶dñWm Zo {hÝXþ g§ñH¥${V H$s àmMrZ H$mb go hr ajm H$s& na OdZm|, ¶wZm{Z¶m|§, eH$mo, Hw$fmUm}, hþUmo {e{W¶Zmo Ed§ nhbdm| Am{X Om{V¶m| Zo àmMrZ H$mb ‘| AmH«$‘U {H$E naÝVw CZ g^r H$s Bg Om{V ì¶dñWm Zo ñWmZ XoH$a AnZo ‘| nMm {b¶m& ‘ܶ H$mb ‘| Bg Xoe na ‘wgb‘mZm| H$m AmH«$‘U hþAm& CÝhm|Zo Bg na emgZ {H$¶m, CÝhm|Zo nyU© à¶ËZ {H$¶m {H$ {hÝXþ Y‘© Ho$ ñWmZ na gånyU© ^maV ‘| B©ñbm‘ Y‘© hmo OmE& Om{V ì¶dñWm H$s Jhar nS> MwH$s OS> Ho$ H$maU hr CZHo$ ‘Zgw~o nwao Zhr hþE& Cg {dn{Îm H$mb ‘| Om{V - ì¶dñWm Zo hr {hÝXþ Y‘© H$s ajm H$s& 6) g‘mZVm H$s ^mdZm :- Om{V, ì¶dñWm ‘| EH$ hr Om{V ‘| C±M ZrM H$s ^mdZm Zhr hmoVr& EH$ Om{V Ho$ A‘ra - Jar~ g‘mZ hmoVo h¡& do g^r, EH$ hr Om{O‘ na ~¢R> gH$Vo h¡, VWm ñdV§ÌVmnyd©H$ AnZo {dMma 㶺$ H$aVo h¡& Bg àH$ma à˶oH$ Om{V ‘| bmoH$VÝÌrH$ ^mdZm {dY‘mZ h¡& Om{V Ho$ g‘ñV gXñ¶m| Ho$ ñdV§Ì {dMmam| H$m ñdmJV hmoVm h¡& Om{V Ho$ g^r gXñ¶ AnZo OmVr¶ ˶m¡hmam| CËgdm| ‘| gmW - gmW hr ^moOZ H$aVo h¡& 7) Om{VJV EH$Vm H$s ^mdZm :- EH$ Om{V Ho$ bmoJm| ‘| Amng ‘| ào‘ hmoVm h¡& CZ‘| EH$Vm VWm gh¶moJ H$s ^mdZm {dY‘mZ ahVr h¡& EH$ Xþgao Ho$ XþI - gwI ‘| gX¡d gmW XoVo h¡& OÝ‘, {ddmh, gm‘m{OH$ CËgd ˶m¡hma VWm gwI-XþI Am{X Ho$ g‘¶ ‘| Om{V Ho$ gXñ¶ EH$ Xþgao H$m gømoJ H$aVo h¡& AnZr Om{V Ho$ {b¶o n¥WH$ {M{H$Ëgmb¶, Y‘©embm¶|, dm~{S>¶m±, Hw$E±, {dYmb¶ VWm ‘hm{dÚmb¶ Am{X {Z{‘©V {H$¶o OmVo h¡& AnZr Om{V Ho$ Jar~ ~ƒm| H$mo N>mÌd¥Îmr¶m± àXmZ H$s OmVr h¡& AnZr Om{V H$s CÞVr Ho$ {b¶o ˶mJ H$aZo Ho$ {bE ^r gX¡d V¡¶ma ahVo h¡& 8) Om{V ‘| nañna ào‘ ^md :- Om{V ì¶dñWm ‘| AZoH$ Om{V¶m± hmoVr h¡, {OZHo$ ñd¶§ Ho$ OmVr¶ {Z¶‘ hmoVo h¡, naÝVw ¶o ñd¶§ H$s {hÝXþ g‘mO H$m hr A§J ‘mZVr h¡& à˶oH$ Om{V H$mo AnZr pñWVr
  • 27. <ISBN: 978-981-07-9348-7 > THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA TIJ Research Publications Pte. Ltd., Singapore Page | 27 VWm H$V©ì¶ H$m ~moY h¡, {Oggo gm‘m{OH$ ì¶dñWm {R>H$ T>§J go Mb ahr h¡& Om{V¶m± ‘| Amng ‘| ào‘ VWm gX²^md h¡& Bg Xoe ‘| A{YH$ma H$‘©dmX VWm nwZO©Ý‘ ‘o§ {dídmg H$aVo h¡ VWm {ZåZ Om{V¶m± ¶h {dídmg H$aVr h¡, {H$ gËH$‘© H$aZo go CZH$m Xþgam OÝ‘ Cƒ Om{V ‘| hmoJm& Bgr H$maU ¶hm± Om{V g§Kf© H$^r Zhr hþAm, ³¶m|{H$ g^r AnZr - AnZr pñWVr go gÝVwï> h¡&& 9) ~oamoOJmar H$s g‘ñ¶m H$m {ZamH$aU ^maVdf© ‘| AmYw{ZH$ ¶wJ ‘| g~go ~S>r g‘ñ¶m ~oamoOJmar H$s g‘ñ¶m h¡& AmO ¶wdH$mo ‘| AgÝVmof ì¶má h¡ VWm dV©‘mZ gm‘m{OH$ VWm amOZ¡{VH$ T>m±Mo Ho$ {déÕ {dÐmoh H$s ^mdZm¶| OmJ¥V hmo ahr h¡, {H$ÝVw àmMrZ H$mb ‘| ~oH$mar H$s H$moB© O{Q>b g‘ñ¶m Zht Wr& à˶oH$ Om{V Ho$ H$m¶© {ZpíMV Wo VWm à˶oH$ ¶wdH$ H$mo ‘mby‘ Wm, {H$ Cgo ³¶m H$aZm h¡& 10) Agm‘m{OH$ H$m¶m} na amoH$, Om{V ì¶dñWm ‘| à˶oH$ Om{V H$s AnZr AmMma g§{hV h¡& à˶oH$ gXñ¶ H$mo CZ {Z¶‘m| H$m nmbZ H$aZm nS>Vm h¡& Omo ì¶{º$ Om{V Ho$ {Z¶‘m| H$m Cb§KZ H$aVm h¡, Cgo Om{V Ûmam ~{hîH¥$V H$a {X¶m OmVm h¡& Bg{bE ì¶{º$ ‘Z‘mZo T>§J go H$m¶© Zhr H$a gH$Vo& ‘Zwî¶ Hw$H$‘m} go ~MVm h¡, nmn H$‘m} ¶m JbV H$m¶© H$aZo go S>aVm h¡& Cgo H$m¶© H$aVo g‘¶ ¶h ܶmZ ahVm h¡,{H$ dh Eogo H$moB© JbV H$m¶© Zht H$ao {Oggo CgHo$ OmVr¶ Jm¡ad H$mo {H$gr ^r àH$ma H$s R>og nhþ±Mo&Om{V ì¶dñWm Ho$ H$maU e{º$ H$m ^r {d^mOZ hmo J¶m& ~«m÷Um| Ho$ nmg Ym{‘©H$, e¡{jH$ VWm AܶmpË‘H$ e{º$ Vmo, j{̶m| H$o nmg emg{ZH$ VWm g¡{ZH$ e{º$, Vmo d¡í¶m| Ho$ nmg KZ e{º$ ^maV Ho$ ^yVnyd© amï´>n{V S>m°. amYmH¥$îUZ Zo {bIm h¡ {H$ ""Om{V ì¶dñWm Ho$ ahVo H$^r g¡{ZH$ VmZmemhr ñWm{nV Zhr hmo gH$Vr& ~«m÷Umo Zo {ZewëH$ {ejm H$m àMma {H$¶m, VWm amOnwÌm| Zo Xoe H$s ajm Ho$ {b¶o AmË‘~{bXmZ VWm d¡í¶m| Zo ì¶mnma, ì¶dgm¶ VWm H$bm Ho$ joÌ ‘| h‘oem amï´> Ho$ {bE V¡¶ma aho& Bgr H$maU Bg Xoe ‘| h‘oem dñVwH$bm, {MÌH$bm g§JrV H$bm, {eënH$bm, bKw Ed§ Hw$Q>ra CÚmoJ ‘| CÞVr {H$¶m& Bg Xoe ‘| gX¡d hr B§{O{ZAa ^dZ {Z‘m©VmAm|, ‘y{V©H$amo, {MÌH$mam| H$m ~hþVm¶V ahm& Om{V ì¶dñWm Ho$ Xmof
  • 28. <ISBN: 978-981-07-9348-7 > THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA TIJ Research Publications Pte. Ltd., Singapore Page | 28 ^maV df© H$m namYrZ hmo OmZm Om{V ì¶dñWm Ho$ H$maU hr ^maVdf© hOmamo dfm] VH$ nam{YZ ahm& BgH$m à‘wI H$maU ¶h Wm, {H$ Om{V ì¶dñWm Ho$ AmYma na emgZ H$aZo VWm Xoe H$s gwajm H$m H$m¶© Ho$db ‘mÌ j{̶mo§ H$mo gm¡§n {X¶m J¶m Wm& Xþgar Om{V¶m| Ho$ {b¶o goZm ‘| àdoe d{O©V Wm& j{̶m| Ho$ A{V[aº$ ~«m÷U d¡í¶ VWm {ZåZ Om{V¶m± ¶wÕ H$m¶m} ‘| CXmgrZ hmo J¶o CYa BZ amOnwVm| H$s Om{V¶m| H$s e{º$ H$m H«$‘e: hmg hmoZo bJm& O~ {dXo{e¶m| Zo CZ na AmH«$‘U {H$¶o V~ do ¶wÕ ‘| nam{OV hmo J¶o& Xþgar Om{V¶m| Zo CZH$s H$moB© ghm¶Vm Zhr H$r, Om{V ì¶dñWm Zo ¶hm± Ho$ bmoJm| H$o gmoMZo H$s e{º$ BVZr H$‘Omoa H$a {X¶m H$s Xoe H$s naVÝÌVm H$m à^md g^r na nS>oJm Z {H$ amOnwVm| na hr& n[aUm‘ñdén hOmamo§ dfm} VH$ Bg Xoe H$m emofU hmoVm ahm VWm Xoe H$m {dH$mg Mmam| Am¡a go éH$ J¶m& 2) g¡{ZH$ e{º$ H$m hmg :- Om{V ì¶dñWm Ho$ AÝVJ©V Ho$db j{̶ hr goZmAm| ‘| ^Vu hmo gH$Vo Wo& Aݶ Om{V¶m| Ho$ ì¶{º$ Mmho emararH$ Ñ{ï> go {H$VZo hr ñdmñW ³¶m| Z hmo do goZm ‘| àdoe Zhr bo gH$Vo Wo& AV: Aݶ Om{V¶m| Ho$ bmoJm| H$mo g¡{ZH$ à{ejU àmá H$aZo H$m H$moB© A{YH$ma Zhr Wm& j{̶m| Ho$ ñd¶§ ‘| ’y$Q> Wr do EH$ - Xþgao H$mo ZrMm {XImZo H$m {ZaÝVa à¶mg H$aVo ahVo Wo& ‘ܶH$mb ‘| Xoe H$m gå~ÝY Aݶ {díd go Nw>Q> J¶m& ^maV ‘| dhr naånamJV eóm| H$m àMbZ ahm O~{H$ {díd ‘| Aݶ Z¶o eóm| H$m A{dîH$ma hmo MwH$m Wm& n[aUm‘V: g¡{ZH$ e{º$ {ZaÝVa jrU hmoVr ahr& {dXo{e¶m| Zo ¶hm± H$s goZmAm| H$mo nam{OV H$a ¶hm± emgZ ñWm{nV H$a {b¶m Wm& ¶hr Om{V ì¶dñWm H$m gdm}n[a Xmof Wm&
  • 29. <ISBN: 978-981-07-9348-7 > THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA TIJ Research Publications Pte. Ltd., Singapore Page | 29 3 Aml‘ ì¶dñWm Aml‘ eãX ""l‘'' go ~Zm h¡& {OgH$m AW© h¡, EH$ Eogm OrdZ {Og‘| ì¶{º$ A˶m{YH$ l‘ H$aVm h¡& BgH$mo g§ñH¥$V ^mfm ‘| H$hm J¶m h¡, {H$ Amlm嶧pÝV Apñ‘Z B{V Aml‘:& {Og àH$ma g‘mO H$mo gwMmé g§J{R>V, {Z¶{‘V T>§J go MbmZo Ho$ {bE dU© ì¶dñWm H$m {Z‘m©U {H$¶m J¶m Wm& R>rH$ Cgr àH$ma EH$ ì¶{º$ Ho$ gånyU© OrdZ H$mo {Z¶{‘V VWm C{MV {Xem ‘| {dH$mg Ho$ {bE Aml‘ ì¶dñWm H$m {Z‘m©U {H$¶m J¶m Wm& Bgr ì¶dñWm go ‘Zwî¶ H$m gdm©{JH$ {dH$mg àmaå^ hmoVm h¡& S>m°. dr. E‘. qgh Zo {bIm h¡ {H$ ""Aml‘ H$m AW© OrdZ H$m dh {d^mJ h¡, {Og‘| ‘Zwî¶ à¶ËZ H$aVm h¡&'' à^w Ho$ eãXm| ‘| ""Aml‘m| H$mo OrdZ Ho$ ApÝV‘ bú¶ Ma‘ ‘w{º$ H$s {Xem ‘| ‘Zwî¶ H$s ¶mÌm ‘| AmZo dmbo {‘bZ ñWmZm| Ho$ én ‘| g‘PZm Mm{hE&'' Bg Vah ñnï> h¡ {H$ dh ñWmZ Ohm± {ZpíMV g‘¶ Ho$ {b¶o {ZpíMV ¶m {deof {ejm Ho$ kmZ Ho$ {b¶o gmYZ H$s OmVr h¡, Aml‘ H$hbmVm h¡& ‘Zwî¶ H$s ‘m¡{bH$ Amdí¶H$VmAm| H$s ny{V© Ho$ {b¶o g‘ñV {H«$¶mAm| H$s gwì¶dpñWV én go {ZX}{eV H$aZo H$s à{H«$¶m hr Aml‘ ì¶dñWm h¡& ‘Zwî¶ H$s ‘m¡{bH$ Amdí¶H$Vm¶o§ kmZ àmá H$aZm, ‘m¡{bH$ gwI H$m AmZÝX boZm VWm AÝV ‘| ‘moj àmá H$aZm hr h¡& AV: h‘ H$h gH$Vo h¡, {H$ ""Aml‘ ì¶dñWm dh à{H«$¶m h¡, {Og‘| ‘mZd kmZr go ^moJr ^moJr go {daº$, {daº$ go ¶moJr ~ZH$a ñd¶§ H$mo na‘mË‘m ‘| brZ H$a boVm h¡&'' Aml‘ ì¶dñWm H$m Y‘©emó ‘| Mma {d^mJm| ‘| C„oI àmá hmoVm h¡& {d{eï> Y‘© gwÌ Ho$ AZwgma ~«÷M¶©, J¥hñW, dmZàñW VWm gݶmgr& AmnñVå~ Y‘© gwÌ Ho$ AZwgma ""~«÷M¶©, J¥hñW, JwéXoh ^y{‘ én ‘| ahZm VWm dZ ‘| ahZm&'' Jm¡V‘ ‘wZr Zo ^r Mma Aml‘m| H$m C„oI {H$¶m h¡& ~«÷M¶© J¥hñW, {^jw VWm d¡ImZg&''‘Zw Zo ^r Mma Aml‘m| H$m C„oI {H$¶m h¡& CÝhmoZo {bIm h¡ {H$ ""eVmnwV} nwéf'' AWm©V nwéf H$m OrdZ 100 dfm] H$m hmoVm h¡& AV: BZ Mmam| H«$‘m| H$m H$mb 25 -25 dfm] hmo gH$Vm h¡& n«W‘ 25 df© ‘| ì¶{³V H$mo ~«÷Mmar OrdZ ì¶VrV H$aZm Mm{hE Am¡a Jwé Ho$ Ka na ahH$a {dÚm
  • 30. <ISBN: 978-981-07-9348-7 > THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA TIJ Research Publications Pte. Ltd., Singapore Page | 30 J«hU H$aZr Mm{hE& 25 go 50 df© H$s Ad{Y H$mo J¥hñW Ho$ én ‘| ì¶VrV H$aZm Mm{hE VWm Bgr H$mb ‘| gÝVmZmoËn{V Ûmam {nV¥F$U VWm ¶k H$aHo$ Xod F$U MwH$mZm Mm{hE &50 df© Ho$ ~mX ì¶{º$ H$s O§Jbmo ‘| OmH$a AamYZm H$aZr Mm{h¶o VWm 75 df© Ho$ ~mX EH$ gݶmgr Ho$ én ‘| OrdZ ì¶VrV H$aZm Mm{h¶o& Bg àH$ma Aml‘ ì¶dñWm Mma h¡& ~«÷M¶© Aml‘ EH$ ì¶{º$ Ho$ OrdZ ‘| gd©à‘wI Aml‘ ~«÷M¶© h¡& S>m°. nr. nr. H$mU} Zo {bIm h¡, {H$ ""~«÷Mm¶© ‘| ì¶{º$ H$mo AZwemgZ VWm g§H$ën Ho$ AZwgma ahZm nS>Vm Wm Cgo AVrV H$mb Ho$ gm{h˶rH$ ^ÊS>ma H$m kmZ àmá H$aZm nS>Vm Wm& Cgo AmkmH$arVm, AmXa gmXo OrdZ VWm Cƒ {dMma Ho$ gXJwU grIZo nS>Vo Wo& ~«÷Mm¶© Aml‘ dmñVd ‘| {dÚmWu OrdZ H$mb hmoVm Wm, {Og‘| ì¶{º$ AnZo Jwé Ho$ Ka OmH$a {ejm J«hU H$aVm Wm& ~«÷Mmar H$mo Jwé Ho$ Xmofm| H$mo Zhr XoIH$a Ho$db CgHo$ JwUm| H$mo J«hU H$aZm Mm{hE& O~ Jwé gmo Om¶ Vmo gmoZm Mm{hE Ed§ Od Jwé OJo Vmo Cggo nwd© hr OJZm Mm{hE, ~«÷Mmar H$mo O‘rZ na gmoZm Mm{hE& S>m°. H$nm{S>¶m Zo Bg g§~§Y ‘| {bIm h¡, {H$ Jwé Am¡a {eî¶ H$m g§~§Y AQy>Q> Wm& Jwé H$mo na‘mË‘m H$o g‘H$j ‘mZm OmVm Wm& Jwé Am¡a {eî¶ {‘bH$a EH$ Eogo g‘mO H$m {Z‘m©U H$aVo Wo& {Og‘| àmMrZ ^maV Ho$ g‘Ýd¶ Ho$ g^r VËd {dÚ‘mZ Wo& Aml‘ ì¶dñWm H$m dU©Z JrVm VWm ‘hm^maV ‘| ^r {H$¶m J¶m h¡& Aml‘ ì¶dñWm Ho$ ~mao ‘| ‘hm^maV ‘| {bIm J¶m h¡, {H$ ¶h Aml‘ ì¶dñWm énr Mma nXm| dmbr grT>r h¡, Omo ~«÷m H$s Amoa H«$‘e: bo OmVr h¡& Omo Bg grT>r na MT>Zo ‘o g‘W© hmoH$a MT> OmVm h¡, dh AÝV ‘| ~«åh bmoH$ ¶m ‘moj àmá H$a boVm h¡& Aml‘ ì¶dñWm H$s àW‘ grT>>r ~«÷Mm¶© h¡& Bg‘o ~mbH$ H$mo AnZm OrdZ dhm± ì¶VrV H$aZm hmoVm Wm, Ohm± Jwé Hw$bmo H$m n{dÌ dm¶w ‘ÊS>b {nV¥Vwë¶ drVamJ AmMm¶© ‘Zrfr Cnmܶm¶ dJ© go emar[aH$, ‘mZ{gH$ Am¡a AmpË‘H$ CÞ{V H$m gwAdga àmá hmoVm Wm& Bg H$mb ‘| {dÚm{W©¶mo H$mo doXm{X emóm| H$m Aܶ¶Z VWm kmZ {dkmZm| H$m CnmO©Z H$aZm hmoVm Wm& ~«÷M¶© eãX H$m AW© ñnï> H$aVo hþE& J«ÝWmo Zo {bIm J¶m h¡, {H$ ~«åh AWm©V B©ída H$s àm{á VWm doX Ho$ ¶WmW© kmZ gånmXZ Ho$ {bE {deof d«V H$m Zm‘ ~«åhM¶© aIm OmVm Wm& BZ H$mbm| Ho$ Zm‘ dgw éÐ
  • 31. <ISBN: 978-981-07-9348-7 > THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA TIJ Research Publications Pte. Ltd., Singapore Page | 31 VWm Am{X˶ Wo & Omo 춺$s H$‘ go H$‘ 24 df© VH$ ~«åhM¶© H$m nmbZ H$aVo Wo, do Am{X˶ ~«åhMmar H$hbmVo Wo& emar[aH$, dm{MH$, ‘mZ{gH$ n{dÌVm VWm nwU© g§¶‘ ~«åhM¶© d«V H$m ‘ybmYma Wm& ~«÷M¶© Ho$ Ûmam hr 춺$s H$m emar[aH$, ‘mZ{gH$ {dH$mg gå^d hmo gH$Vm Wm& {dÛmZm| Zo Bg H$mb H$mo Vnñ¶m H$m H$mb H$hm h¡ & Bg H$mb ‘| {dÚmWu¶m| H$mo ‘hmàH¥$Vr Ho$ gmW g‘Ýd¶ ñWm{nV H$aZo H$s {ejm H$s OmVr h¡ & ~«÷M¶© H$mb H$s à‘wI {deofVm ¶‘-{Z¶‘ H$m nmbZ H$aZm VWm àH¥$Vr ‘| {ZhrV g‘ñV eº$s go àUpÝdV hmoZm Wr& ~«÷M¶© Aml‘ ‘o ~«÷Mm[a¶m| H$mo ‘Zw Zo OwVm N>mVm Am{X YmaU H$aZm {ZfoY ~Vm¶m , ³¶mo§H$s Bg H$mb ‘| Cn{O©V e{º$, kmZ, g§¶‘, J¥hñWml‘ H$s Ym{‘©H$ àd¥{Îm, dmZàñW H$s Vnñ¶m Am¡a gݶm{g¶mo§H$m ~«÷kmZ g^r d«V, Vn, VWm, dr¶©, ajm na hr {Z^©a H$aVo h¡& Bg g§~§Y ‘o ‘Zw Zo H$hm Wm {H$ "~«÷Mmar H$mo Jwé Aml‘ ‘| ahVo hþE, BpÝж g§¶‘ H$aHo$ Vnmo~b ~T>mZo Ho$ {b¶o g‘w{MV {Z¶‘m| H$m nmbZ H$aZm Mm{h¶o& ~«åhMmar H$mo Vob ‘X©Z, Am§Imo ‘| A§O‘, nmXþH$m, N>Ì YmaU Zht H$aZm Mm{h¶o Am¡a Z hr H$m‘, H«$moY, bmo^, {‘϶m, ~MZ, {ó¶m| Ho$ à{V H$Q>mj ¶m AmqbJZ Am{X Zht H$aZm Mm{h¶o& BgHo$ A{V[aº$ ‘Zw Zo ~«÷Mmar H$o {b¶o Hw$N> Eogo {Z¶‘m| ~Vm¶o h¡& {OZHo$ nmbZ ‘| ~«÷Mmar H$r Vnñ¶m ‘| ì¶dYmZ CnpñWV Zht hmo gH$Vm& dh {ZÛ¡ÝX, em[a[aH$, ‘mZ{gH$, e{º$ g§M¶ H$aVm hþAm B©ída H$s àm{á H$aZo ‘| g‘W© hmo gH$Vm h¡& àm¶: g§gma ‘| ¶h XoIm OmVm h¡, {H$ EH$ dñVw AWdm H$m¶© go ‘Zwî¶ àYmZV:, Am{Y‘¡{VH$, Am{XX¡{dH$ ¶m AܶmpË‘H$ CÞVr H$a gH$Vm h¡& bo{H$Z ~«åhM¶© VrZm| e{º$¶m| H$mo g§{MV H$aZo H$m EH$‘mÌ AmYma h¡& Bg gådݶ ‘| ‘wÊS>H$mon{ZfX²> ‘| {bIm J¶m h¡, {H$ g˶ Vnñ¶m kmZ Am¡a ~«÷M¶© Ho$ Ûmam AmË‘m H$s CnbpãY hmoVr h¡& ~«÷M¶© kmZ ê$n àXrn Ho$ {b¶o V¡b ê$n h¡& Am¡a g§gma g‘wÐ ‘| nW^«ï àm{U¶m| Ho$ {bE AmH$meXrn Ho$ g‘mZ h¡& Bgr ~«åhM¶© Ho$ nmbZ go AmܶmpË‘H$ {~«{dK CÞ{V H$aVm hþAm& ‘mZd na‘mË‘m H$m gmjmËH$ma H$a boVm Wm&~«h‘M¶© H$mo OrdZ H$m ¶k Ed§ Bï> H¥$˶ dVm¶m h¡& Bg ~«÷M¶© Ho$ Ûmam hr ‘Zwî¶ AmË‘m H$mo àmá hr OmVm h¡& doXkmVm ‘Zrfr {OgH$mo na‘ nwéf H$hm OmVm h¡, dmgZm a{hV g{VJU na‘nX H$s BÀN>m ‘o gmYH$ hmoH$a ~«÷M¶© H$m nmbZ
  • 32. <ISBN: 978-981-07-9348-7 > THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA TIJ Research Publications Pte. Ltd., Singapore Page | 32 H$aVo h¡& ~«÷Mm¶© H$mo ñnï> H$aVo hþE JrVm ‘| {bIm J¶m h¡, {H$ ""{Og e{º$ Ho$ Ûmam ‘h{f©JU àmMrZ H$mb ‘| ~«÷kmZ H$mo àmá H$aHo$ {X½XJÝV ‘| CgH$s ÜdOm ’$hamVo Wo Am¡a {Og e{º$ Ho$ Ûmam CZHo$ g‘m{Y ewÐ A§V:H$aU ‘| doX H$s Á¶mo{V à{V’$b[V hþAm H$aVr Wr dh e{º$ ‘hm{f¶m| ‘| ~«÷ H$s hr e{º$ h¡& ~«÷ kmZ H$s àm{á ~«÷M¶© Ho$ Ûmam hr hmoVr h¡& ~«÷mOr Zo gd©àW‘ ~«÷kmZ àmá H$aZo Ho$ {b¶o Xod - XmZdm| H$mo ~Îmrg - ~Îmrg dfm} H$m g‘¶ {X¶m Wm, bo{H$Z BÝÐ hr ~«åh H$m kmZ àmá H$a gH$m& BgHo$ ~mX ^r dh AZoH$ dfm©o VH$ H$m¶© H$a gH$m& ‘Z, dm¶w, dr¶© VrZmo H$m nañna gå~ÝY h¡& {H$gr EH$ Ho$ ~er^wV hmo OmZo na ~m±H$s XmoZmo VËd ^r ~er^wV hmo OmVo h¡& ¶hr ~«÷M¶© H$m AmܶmpË‘H$ bm^ h¡& ~«÷M¶© H$m nmbZ H$aZo go Am{X X¡{dH$ CÞVr VWm na‘ e{º$ àmá hmo OmVr h¡& ~«÷M¶© H$m nmbZ H$aZo go ~«÷bmoH$ H$s àmár hmo OmVr h¡& ~«÷bmoH$ ‘| {gÕnwéf hr H$m‘Mmar hmoVr h¡& ¶h g~ ~«÷M¶© Ho$ Ûmam hr gå‘d h¡& X¡dr e{º$ àmá hmoZo na hr ^rî‘ {nVm‘h H$mo BÀN>m ‘¥Ë¶w àmá hþB© Wr Am¡a eae¡æ¶m na e¶Z H$aVo hþE ~«÷kmZ H$m CnXoe {X¶m Wm& ~«÷Mm¶© Ho$ gå~ÝY ‘| H$m{bXmg Zo {bIm h¡, {H$ ""dmñVd ‘| ñWwb eara - ajm Ho$ {~Zm ‘Zwî¶ gdm©JrU {dH$mg Zhr H$a gH$Vm& ‘Zwî¶ H$s emararH$ Ed§ ‘mZ{gH$ CÞ{V ñdñW eara na hr {Z^©a h¡& ñdmñW ~«÷M¶© na hr {Z^©a h¡& ~«÷M¶© H$m nmbZ H$aZo Ho$ gå~ÝY ‘| Xj g§{hVm ‘| {bIm h¡, {H$ ñ‘aU {H$V©Z Ho$ Xe©Z Jwá dmVm©bmn g§H$ën Moï>m Am¡a {H«$¶m g‘m{á ¶o hr ‘¡WwZ Ho$ AmR> A§J h¡& BgHo$ {dnarV ~«÷M¶© h¡ Omo gX¡d nmbZ ¶mo½¶ h¡& ~«÷M¶© H$m nmbZ H$aZo Ho$ {b¶o eara, ‘Z ~w{Õ VrZm| H$m hr g§¶V aIZm ~«÷Mmar H$m H$V©ì¶ h¡& ~«÷Mmar H$mo gmpËdH$ Amhma H$aZm Mm{hE& ~«÷M¶© Ho$ àH$ma :- J«ÝWm| ‘| ~«÷M¶© Xmo àH$ma H$m ~Vm¶m J¶m h¡& EH$ Z¡{ð>H$ Xþgam CnHw$f©U ~«åhM¶© & Omo ì¶{º$ Z¡{ð>H$ ~«÷Mmar hmoVo h¡, CZH$mo J¥hñWml‘ H$mo Amkm Zhr h¡& Bg‘| AmOÝ‘ ~«÷M¶© H$m nmbZ H$m {dYmZ h¡& ¶{X {eî¶ ‘| AmOÝ‘ nmbZ H$aZo H$s j‘Vm h¡, Vmo Jwé Cgo Z¡{ð>H$ ~«÷Mmar ~ZZo H$s Amkm XooVo Wo& Bg gå~ÝY ‘| Omdmb ‘w{Z H$m {dMma h¡, {H$ ""~«÷M¶© Aml‘ g‘má H$aHo$ J¥hñWr hmoZo& J¥hñWr Ho$ ~mX dmZàñWr ~Zo, dmZàñW Ho$ ~mX gݶmg J«hU H$a|& d¡am½¶
  • 33. <ISBN: 978-981-07-9348-7 > THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA TIJ Research Publications Pte. Ltd., Singapore Page | 33 H$m CX¶ hmoVo hr gݶmg bo& Bg àH$ma ^maVr¶ g‘mO ì¶dñWm ‘| ~«÷M¶© Aml‘ H$m gdm}n[a ‘hËd h¡& d¡{XH$ {dYmZ Ho$ AZwgma ^maVr¶ g‘mO ‘| Aml‘m| H$s ì¶dñWm gdm©{YH$ nwamZr h¡& Mmam| Aml‘m| ‘| J¥hñWml‘ H$m ‘mZd OrdZ ‘| ‘hËdnyU© ñWmZ h¡& d¡{XH$ {dMmaYmam Ho$ AZwgma J¥hñWml‘ ‘| àdoe H$aZo Ho$ {b¶o doXmo ‘o Am¶w 25 df© {ZYm©[aV h¡& d¡{XH$ {dMmaYmam Ho$ AZwgma ‘mZd OrdZ ‘| J¥hñWml‘ H$m Amaå^ {ddmh g§ñH$ma Ho$ gmW hmoVm h¡& {ddmh g§ñH$ma J¥hñWml‘ H$m g~go àYmZ g§ñH$ma h¡& doXm| ‘o {ddmh g§ñH$ma Ho$ {ZåZ CXoí¶m| H$mo {ZYm©[aV {H$¶m J¶m h¡& 1) B©ída H$s ^{º$ H$m Aä¶mg & 2) JbV àd¥{Îm H$m {damoY & 3) nwÌmoËnmXZ Ûmam d§e H$s ajm& {Zð>mdmZ ~«÷Mmar Ho$ {bE {dYmZ {ZYm©[aV {H$¶m J¶m h¡ {H$ CgHo$ g‘ñV F$U kmZmonmO©Z go CÌ¥U hmo OmVo h¡& ‘Zwî¶ H$mo ̶ F$Um| go ‘wº$ hmoZo H$s H$moB© Amem Zhr h¡& CgHo$ F$U kmZ ¶k ‘o§ hr b¶ hmo OmVo h¡& {H$ÝVw EH$ J¥hñWr H$mo {nV¥ F$Um{X go CÌ¥U hmoZo Ho$ {bE Cna {Z{Xï> AmMaU H$aZm Mm{hE& ‘mZd H$m ‘Z àm¶ : M§Mb hmoVm h¡& ‘Zwî¶ H$mo BpÝX¶m± M§Mb ‘Z H$m gmW XoVr h¡& Bg g§gma MH«$ ‘| Zmar Ed§ nwéf H$m {dYmZ h¡, {H$ ‘Zwî¶ H$m ‘Z ñdV§ÝÌ hmoZo H$o H$maU ^moJ {dbmg H$s Am¡a AJ«ga hmoVm h¡& à˶oH$ ‘mZd Ho$ ôX¶ ‘| Zmar Ho$ à{V Am¡a Zmar Ho$ ôX¶ ‘| ‘mZd Ho$ à{V a{V^md hmoVm h¡& ¶h a{V^md àH¥${V H$s hr XoZ h¡& ¶{X Bg a{V^md H$mo ‘w³V ^moJ H$s Am¡a AJ«ga H$a {X¶m OmE Vmo ‘mZd H$m {dZme Adí¶å‘mdr hmo OmEJm& ‘mZd Ûmam ñWm{nV g‘ñV ‘mݶVm¶o Am¡a ì¶dñWmAm| H$m g§MmbZ H$aZo Ho$ {bE EH$ nwéf Am¡a EH$ ór H$mo nañna Y‘© ^mdZm Ho$ gmW ~m±YH$a ^md ew[Õnwd©H$ {d{^Þ {Z¶‘m| ‘| AmdÛ H$a gm‘{OH$ ì¶dñWm Ho$ g§MmbZ Ho$ {b¶o J¥hñWml‘ ‘| {ddmh g§ñH$ma H$m {dYmZ {H$¶m J¶m h¡&
  • 34. <ISBN: 978-981-07-9348-7 > THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA TIJ Research Publications Pte. Ltd., Singapore Page | 34 {ddmh g§ñH$ma H$m CXoí¶ gÝVmZmoËn{V go d§e H$s ajm H$aZm Am¡a {nV¥F$j go CF$U hmoZm h¡& Bg gå~ÝY ‘| ‘Zw Zo {bIm h¡ {H$ ""F${fF$U XodF$U Am¡a {nV¥F¥$U VrZm| F$Um| go ‘wº$ hmoH$a ‘moj ‘| {MÎm H$mo bJmZm Mm{hE & Omo ì¶{º$ BZ VrZm| F$Um| go ‘wº$ hþE {~Zm Y‘© H$m nmbZ Ed§ Aml¶ boVm h¡, dh nVZ H$s Am¡a AJ«ga hmoVm h¡& F${f F$U go ‘wº$ hmoZo Ho$ {b¶o ñdmܶm¶, {nV¥F$U go nwÌmoËn{V VWm Xod F$U go ‘wº$ hmoZo Ho$ {b¶o ¶k H$s Amdí¶H$Vm hmoVr h¡& J¥hñW Aml‘ ~«÷M¶© Ho$ ~mX ì¶{º$ J¥hñW Aml‘ ‘| àdoe H$aVm Wm& Bg Aml‘ ‘| àdoe H$aZo Ho$ {b¶o ¶h Amdí¶H$ Wm, {H$ {d{Y {dYmZ Ho$ AZwgma ì¶{º$ EH$ H$ݶm go {ddmh gånÞ H$ao& Bg Aml‘ ‘| 춺$r OrdZ H$s g^r AmH$m§jmAm| H$mo nwVu H$aVm h¡ VWm EH$ Hw$eb ZmJ[aH$ eãXm| ‘| ~«÷M¶© Ho$ CnamÝV ì¶{º$ {ddmh H$aZm Wm, J¥hñWr hmoVm Wm, OrdZ H$m Cn¶moJ H$aVm Wm, gÝVmZmoËn{V H$aZm Wm, AnZr gÝVmZm|, {‘Ìm| gå~pÝY¶m| VWm nS>mo{g¶m| Ho$ à{V AnZo H$V©ì¶ H$m nmbZ H$aVm Wm& V~ dh Cn¶moJr n[al‘r VWm ¶mo½¶ ZmJ[aH$ hmoVm Wm, VWm EH$ Hw$b H$m g§ñWmnH$ hmoVm Wm& Bg Aml‘ ‘| ì¶{º$ AnZo OrdZ Ho$ 25 dfm©o H$mo ì¶VrV H$aVm Wm& ¶h Aml‘ g‘ñV Aml‘m| go loð> ~Vbm¶m J¶m h¡& ‘Zwñ‘¥{V H$m ‘V h¡, {H$ O¡go Ord dm¶w Ho$ ghmao OrVo h¡, R>rH$ Bgr àH$ma J¥hñW Ho$ ghmao g^r Aml‘ hmoVo h¡& Jm¡V‘ VWm ~moYm¶Z H$m ^r ‘V h¡, {H$ dmñVd ‘| Aml‘ Ho$db EH$ hr h¡ Am¡a dh h¡ J¥hñWml‘& ~«÷M¶© Aml‘ BgH$m EH$ àmapå^H$ MaU h¡, Omo BgH$s V¡¶mar Ho$ {b¶o ~Zm¶m J¶m h¡& dmZàñW VWm OrdZ ¶mnZ H$m {ZX}e H$aZo dmbo h¡& ì¶mg ñ‘¥{V ‘| {bIm h¡, {H$ Omo J¥hñWml‘ ‘| àdoe H$aZo H$o níMmV ^r {OVopÝж h¡, CÝho Ka ‘| hr g^r VrWm] Ho$ ’$b {‘bVo h¡ VWm nmnm| go ‘wº$ hmo OmVo h¡& {hÝXþ Xe©Z ‘| Mmam| Aml‘m| ‘| J¥hñWm l‘ H$mo gd©loð> ~Vm¶m J¶m h¡& ‘hm^maV ‘| J¥hñWml‘ H$m Jm¡ad JmZ Aݶ emóm| H$s Anojm A{YH$ {‘bVm h¡& empÝVnd© ‘| H$hm J¶m h¡, {H$ O¡go ‘mVm Ho$ AmYma na g~ àmUr OrVo h¡, d¡go hr Aݶ Aml‘m| H$s pñWVr J¥hñW Ho$ AmYma na h¡& J¥hñWml‘
  • 35. <ISBN: 978-981-07-9348-7 > THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA TIJ Research Publications Pte. Ltd., Singapore Page | 35 H$mo g~go CƒñWmZ H$s pñWVr J¥hñW Ho$ AmYma na h¡& ~¥hñWml‘ H$mo g~go Cƒ ñWmZ àXmZ {H$¶m J¶m h¡& EH$ ~ma ¶w{Õ{ð>a ~hþV emoH$mHw$b hmo J¶o Am¡a J¥hñWml‘ H$mo ˶mJ H$a dmZàñW Aml‘ ‘| àdoe H$aZo H$s gmoMZo bJo& V~ ã¶mg F${f Zo Hw$N> ~«m÷U ¶wdH$mo H$m Ñï>mÝV XoH$a CÝho Eogm H$aZo go amoH$m& CÝho g‘Pm¶m {H$ n{dÌVm àm{á H$m C{MV ‘mJ© J¥hñWml‘ Ho$ H$V©ì¶ C{MV én go nwao H$aZo ‘| hr h¡& ì¶mg F${f Ho$ AZwgma Cggo Cƒ Y‘© O¡gm H$s emómo Zo ñdrH$ma {H$¶m h¡& J¥hñdm‘r H$mo nwao g‘¶ VH$ J¥hñWml‘ Ho$ H$V©ì¶ H$m C{MV VarHo$ nmbZ H$aZo ‘| hr h¡& ‘Zwñ‘¥{V Ho$ AZwgma ""{Og àH$ma g^r OÝVw dm¶w Ho$ ghmao OrVo h¡, Cgr àH$ma g^r Aml‘ J¥hñW go hr OrVo h¡& g^r Aml‘m| Ho$ ì¶{º$ H$s ³¶m|{H$ J¥hñWml‘ go hr n{dÌ kmZ Ed§ ^moOZ àmá H$aZm hmoVm h¡& Bg{bE J¥hñWml‘ hr loï> Aml‘ h¡& {Og àH$ma g^r N>moQ>r Am¡a ~S>r Z{X¶m± A§V ‘| g‘wÐ ‘| g^m OmVr h¡& Cgr àH$ma g^r Aml‘ J¥hñW go hr gwajm ñWm{¶Ëd àmá H$aVo h¡& J¥h ñWml‘ H$mo {ZåZ{b{IV H$maUmo§ go gd©loð> H$hm J¶m h¡& 1) gd©gmYmaU H$m H$ë¶mU :- J¥hñWm Aml‘ Ho$ A{V[aº$ g^r Aml‘ ì¶{º$JV H$ë¶mU H$s Am¡a ܶmZ XoVo h¡& na gm‘w{hH$ Aml‘ H$mo Ho$db J¥hñWml‘ hr ‘hËd XoVo h¡& O¡go - ~«÷M¶© Aml‘ ì¶{º$JV én go Ho$db kmZ H$s àm{á Am¡a ì¶{º$JV JwUm| H$mo àmá H$aZo H$s Ñ{ï> go hr ‘hËdnyU© h¡, dmZàñV VWm g§Ý¶mg Aml‘ ‘| ^r ì¶{º$ AHo$bo hr ñd¶§ H$mo ‘moj àm{á Ho$ AZwHw$b ~ZmZo H$m à¶mg H$aVm h¡& Bg àH$ma VrZmo Aml‘ gm‘y{hH$ H$ë¶mU H$s Am¡a H$moB© Zhr XoVo h¡& J¥hñWml‘ gm‘m{OH$ ‘wë¶mo go ^r gå~mpÝYV h¡& EH$ J¥hñW VrZm| Aml‘m| ‘o§ ì¶{º$¶m| H$s à˶j én go ghm¶Vm H$aZm h¡, {OgHo$ {~Zm {H$gr ^r Aml‘ ‘| ì¶{º$ AnZo Y‘© H$m nmbZ Zhr H$a gH$Vo& Ho$. E‘. H$nm{S>¶m Ho$ AZwgma ""J¥hñV go ~«m÷U|§ H$mo ^oQ> {dÚm{W¶m| H$mo Aܶ¶Z ewëH$ XmoZm| H$s XmZ amo{J¶mo H$mo Am¡f{Y VWm Jar~mo H$mo {^jm XoZo H$mo Anojm H$s OmVr Wr& Cggo A{V{W, Zd{ddm{hV, ~mbé½U, ì¶{º$ VWm J^©dVr ñÌr H$mo ^moOZ XoZo H$s Amem H$s OmVr Wr& M°y§{H$ Aݶ VrZ Aml‘m| Ho$ ì¶{º$ J¥hñW Ûmam nwZrV kmZ Ed§ CÎm‘ ^moOZ àmá H$aVo Wo, AV: J¥hñWml‘ H$mo gdm}n[a Aml‘ ‘mZm OmVm Wm& J¥hñW H$m H$V©ì¶ Ho$db n{j¶m| newAm| Am¡a H$sQ> nV§Jmo H$mo hr gÝVwï> H$aZm Zhr
  • 36. <ISBN: 978-981-07-9348-7 > THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA TIJ Research Publications Pte. Ltd., Singapore Page | 36 Wm, A{nVw CZ ‘Zwî¶m| H$s ^r Omo {H$ gm‘m{OH$ AWdm Z¡{VH$ ñVa ‘| {ZåZVa Wo, ¶m A¶mo½¶ Wo ,¶m Or{dH$mnmO©Z Ho$ Cn¶wº$ Zhr Wo& AñVw J¥hñW Ho$ H$m¶© CZH$s n[admarH$ n[agr‘m ‘| hr Zhr ahVo A{nVw ì¶{º$¶m| Am¡a Ordmo§ Ho$ {dñV¥V g‘yh H$m ^r AmqbJZ H$aVo Wo& 2) nwéfmWm} H$s ny{V© :- J¥hñWml‘ ‘| Mmaoo nwéfmWm} Y‘©, AW©, H$m‘ Ed§ ‘moj H$s nw{V© H$s Om gH$Vr h¡& J¥hñWml‘ g^r nwéfmWm] H$m g‘Ýd¶ Ho$ÝÐ h¡& Bg‘| J¥hñW Y‘©, AW© Am¡a H$m‘ VrZ nwéfmWm} H$aVo hþE ‘moj H$m ‘mJ© àeñV H$aZo H$m à¶mg H$aVm h¡& 3){d{^Þ ¶km| Ho$ g§nmXZ hoVw Cn¶wº$ {hÝXþ OrdZ ‘| F$U go CF$U hmoZo Ho$ {bE ¶km| H$m H$aZm Amdí¶H$ h¡& J¥hñWml‘ ‘| ahH$a hr ‘Zwî¶ nm±M ‘hm¶km| H$s ny{V© H$a gH$Vm h¡& ¶o nm±M ¶k h¡ ~«÷¶k, {nV¥¶k Xod ¶k, ^yV¶k VWm Z¥O¶& ‘Zwñ‘¥{V Ho$ AZwgma BZ ¶km| ‘| ~«÷ H$mo doX ‘ÝÌmoƒmaU go {nVam| H$mo VnU ¶m lmÜX Ûmam, XodVmAm| H$mo A{¾ Amhþ{V Ûmam ^yVm| H$mo ~{b Ûmam ‘Zwî¶>m| H$mo A{V϶ gËH$ma Ûmam àgÞ {H$¶m OmVm Wm& BZ g~ ¶km| H$mo J¥hñWml‘ ‘| hr nËZr, nwÌ Am{X H$s ghm¶Vm go gånÞ {H$¶m Om gH$Vm h¡& {hÝXþ emóH$mam| Zo BZ nm±M ‘hm¶km| H$mo ~hþV A{YH$ ‘hËd {X¶m h¡ VWm ñnîQ> én go 춺$ {H$¶m h¡, {H$ nm±M ‘hm¶km| go ‘mZd eara ñdmW© Am{X ‘{bZVmAm| go ‘wº$ hmoH$a ~«÷ H$m¶m} Ho$ {bE Cn¶wº$ hmo OmVm h¡& Omo ì¶{³V BZ nm±M ‘hm¶km| Ho$ à{V gånmXZ ‘| Ag’$b hmoVm Wm dh Or{dV hmoVo hþE ^r ‘am hþAm ‘mZm OmVm h¡& dmZàñW Aml‘ Bg g‘¶ ‘| ì¶{º$ 50 df© H$mo AdñWm go 75 df© H$mo AdñWm VH$ ahVm h¡& S>m°. H$U} Ho$ eãXm| ‘| 50 df© Ho$ bJ^J AdñWm hmo OmZo na ì¶{º$ g§gma Ho$ gwI VWm dmgZmAm| H$s ^wI ‘| C~ OmVm Wm, VWm ~Z H$s amh boVm Wm, Ohm± dh AmË‘m {ZJ«hr Vnñdr VWm {ZanamY OrdZ ì¶VrV H$aVm Wm& ~mZàñW Ho$ {bE ""d¡ImZg'' eãX H$m à¶mo¶ {H$¶m J¶m h¡ H$m{bXmg Zo AnZr ‘hmZ aMZm eHw$ÝVbm ‘| H$Êd F${f H$s nU©Hw$Q>r ‘| ahVr Wr& eHw$ÝVbm Ho$ OrdZ H$mo d¡ImZg d¥V H$hm h¡& dmZàñW Aml‘ ‘| ì¶{³V H$~ àdoe H$ao BgHo$ ~mao ‘| Xmo ‘V àM{bV h¡& Odmbmof {ZfX Ho$
  • 37. <ISBN: 978-981-07-9348-7 > THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA TIJ Research Publications Pte. Ltd., Singapore Page | 37 ‘V O~ EH$ ì¶{º$ N>mÌ OrdZ Ho$ ~mX Hw$N> df© J¥hñW Ho$ én ‘| ì¶VrV H$a boZm h¡, Vmo Cgo ~mZàñW ‘| àdoe H$aZm Mm{hE& ‘Zw H$m {dMma h¡, {H$ O~ J¥hñWr AnZo eara na Pw[a¶m XoIo CgHo$ ~mb nH$ Om¶o Am¡a O~ CgHo$ nwÌmo Ho$ nwÌ hmo Om¶o Vmo dZ H$s amh boZr Mm{hE& Hw$N> {dMmaH$m| H$m ‘V h¡, {H$ 55 df© H$s AdñWm dmZàñW Ho$ {b¶o C{MV h¡& à‘wI emók ‘Zr{f¶m| Zo J¥hñWml‘ H$s Ad{Y H$m dU©U H$aVo hþE {bIm h¡ {H$ ""OrdZ Ho$ bJ^J 25 df© J¥hñWml‘ ‘| ahH$a g‘mO H$m {hV H$aZo Ho$ CnamÝV ewÕ, ào‘, X¶m, ghmZw^y{V, H$éUm, Ed§ ñdmW© ˶mJm{X JwUm| go ¶wº$ hmo dmZàñW Aml‘ ‘| ‘Zwî¶ H$mo à{dï> hmoZm Mm{hE& {díd à{gÕ ‘Zrfr ‘Zw Zo dmZàñWml‘ Ho$ g‘¶ Ed§ {d{eîQ> n[apñW{V¶m| Ho$ gå~ÝY ‘| {ZX}{eV H$aVo hþE {bIm h¡, {H$ ñZmVH$ {ÛO J¥hñWml‘ Y‘© H$m nmbZ H$aHo$ ¶Wm{d{Y {OVopÝж ahVm hþAm dmZàñWml‘ ‘| à{dîQ> hmo& J¥hñW O~ XoIo {H$ d¥ÕmdñWm Ho$ bjU {XImB© nS>Zo bJo h¡, Am¡a nwÌ H$m nwÌ hmo J¶m h¡& Cg g‘¶ Cgo dmZàñW H$s Xrjm hmo J¶m h¡& Cg g‘¶ Cgo dmZàñW H$s Xrjm bo boZr Mm{h¶o& J«m‘ Ho$ Amhma - {dhma Ed§ n[apÀN>m{X H$m n[a˶mJ H$a ór H$mo nwÌ Ho$ nmg ahH$a AWdm ór Ho$ gmW hmo ~Z ‘| Mbm OmE &dmZàñWml‘ ‘| ahH$a J¥hñWr {ZñdmW©^md go {d{^Þ emóm| H$m ñdmܶm¶ H$aVm hþAm& {eî¶m| H$mo {dÚmXmZ H$aVm Wm& ‘Zwî¶ Ûmam {ZñdmW© ^md go {H$¶m J¶m& ¶h H$m¶© g‘m{OH$ Aä¶wX¶ H$m H$maU ~ZVm Wm& ‘Zwî¶ Ûmam {H$¶m J¶m H$m¶© Am{W©H$ g‘ñ¶m H$m gm‘mYmZ H$aVm Wm& ¶h H$m¶© AmZo dmbr nr{T>¶m§ Ho$ {bE g‘mO ‘| ñWmZ [aº$ H$aVm Wm& Bg àH$ma Ho$ VËdXeu dmZàpñW¶m| Zo Cn{ZfX VWm Xe©Z O¡go kmZ H$m A{d^m©d {H$¶m& O~ VH$ ^maVr¶ g‘mO ‘| Bg àH$ma Ho$ ˶mJr ‘Zrfr Xho V~ VH$ ^maVr¶ gm‘m{OH$ ì¶dñWm g§Vw{bV ahr& dmZ àñWml‘ VWm ‘wî¶ H$s OrdZM¶m© {Zd¥Îmr ‘mJ© H$m Ûma h¡& dmZàñWmnZ ‘| g§¶‘ OrdZ ì¶VrV H$aHo$ ‘Zwî¶ nwʶ nmn go ‘wº$ hmoH$a CÎmam¶a nW go A‘¥V A춺$ nwê$f Ho$ bmoH$ ‘| OmVo Wo& gݶmg Aml‘
  • 38. <ISBN: 978-981-07-9348-7 > THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA TIJ Research Publications Pte. Ltd., Singapore Page | 38 ì¶{º$ H$mo ApÝV‘ g‘¶ ‘| ì¶VrV H$aZm Mm{h¶o& gmYmaU 75 df© VH$ 100 df©o H$s AdYr (25 df©o) Bg Aml¶ Ho$ {bE {ZYm©[aV H$s OmVr h¡& gݶmgr H$mo g§nwU© g§gma Ho$ H$ë¶mU Ho$ {bE H$m¶© H$aZm Mm[hE& ¶hr H$maU h¡ {H$ Cgo EH$ ñWmZ na ahZo Ho$ {b¶o Zht H$hm J¶m h¡& EH$ gݶmgr H$s {ZåZ{bIrV {Z¶‘m| H$a nmbZ H$aZm A{Zdm¶© h¡& 1) ì¶{º$ H$mo AnZr gmar g§nÎmr nwamo{hVm| X[aÐm| VWm Aghm¶m| ‘| ~mQ> XoZr Mm{hE& 2) Cgo AnZo Ka H$m ˶mJ H$a XoZm Mm{hE& Ka nËZr, nwÌmo, VWm YZ H$m ˶mJ H$a XoZm Mm{hE& Ka nËZr, nwÌm| VWm YZ H$m ˶mJ H$aHo$ gݶmgr H$mo Jm±d Ho$ ~mha ahZm Mm{hE& 3) dmñVm{dH$ gݶmgr H$mo AHo$bm ahZm Mm{hE& VWm CÝho Mma àH$ma Ho$ H$m‘ H$aZo Mm{hE& A) ܶmZ ~) em¡M H$) {^jm S) EH$mÝVerbVm& 4) gݶmgr H$mo h‘oem AmZÝX dñVw go Xÿa ahZm Mm{hE& 4) gݶmgr H$mo ~«÷Mmar OrdZ ì¶VrV H$aZm Mm{hE& 5) gݶmgr H$mo {^jm ‘m±J H$a ^moOZ H$aZm Mm{hE& dh ^r ^a noQ> Zht& 6) gݶmgr H$mo Hw$N> ^r AnZo nmg Zhr aIZm Mm{hE& 7) dó CVZm hr YmaU H$aZm Mm{hE {Oggo CZHo$ Jwám§J T>Ho$ aho& 8) g§Ý¶mgr H$mo g‘ñV dU© Y‘© O¡go g˶Vm, Aàd§MZm, H«$moYhrZVm, {dZrVm, n{dÌVm, ^bo- ~wao H$m ^oX, ‘Z {Z‘§ÌU, BpÝж {ZJ«h VWm AmË‘ kmZ àmá H$aZm Mm{hE& g§Ý¶mg Y‘© ‘| àdoe H$aZo H$m A{YH$ma Ho$db ~«m÷U H$mo hr Wm& Bg Aml‘ ‘| àdoe H$aVo hþE à˶oH$ ~«m÷U H$mo ¶h à{Vkm boZr nS>Vr Wr, {H$ ""AmO ‘¢Zo nwÌ {df¶H$ YZ Am¡a ¶e {df¶H$ H$m‘ZmAm| H$m gd©Wm n[a˶mJ H$a {X¶m h¡, VWm ‘oao go à˶oH$ ì¶{º$ H$mo A^¶ àmá h¡&''gݶmgr bmoJ Bg àH$ma H$m gd©OZ {hVm¶ d«V YmaU H$aHo$ {díd Ho$ H$ë¶mU hoVw Xoe - dm{g¶m| Ho$ ~rM
  • 39. <ISBN: 978-981-07-9348-7 > THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA TIJ Research Publications Pte. Ltd., Singapore Page | 39 ^«‘U H$aVo Wo Am¡a bmoJm| H$mo CnXoe XoVo Wo& ¶o bmoJ ^maVr¶ kmZ H$m XmZ {H$¶m H$aVo Wo& empÝV H$m àMma {H$¶m H$aVo Wo& ^maV ‘| Bg àH$ma Ho$ gݶm{g¶m| H$mo hr AJ«OÝ‘m H$hm OmVm Wm& gݶm{g¶m| Ho$ gå~ÝY ‘| ‘Zw Zo {bIm h¡, {H$ ¶hr ~«÷kmZr, em§V, XmÝV OrdZ Ho$ AZw^dm| Ho$ AkmZmÝYH$ma ‘| {Z‘¾ ì¶{º$¶m| H$mo XmZ Xr{á go Ambmo{H$V {H$¶m H$aVo Wo& Bgr àH$ma Ho$ ì¶{º$¶m| H$mo {OÝhm|Zo AnZo dmZ àñWr OrdZ ‘| gÝVwbZ àmá {H$¶m h¡, gd©ñd ˶mJH$a gݶmgml‘ ‘| àdoe H$aZm Mm{hE& ‘Zw Zo gݶmgl‘ ‘| àdme Ho$ {dYmZ H$m dU©Z H$aVo hþE {bIm h¡, {H$ ""Am¶w H$m V¥{V¶ ^mJ ¶Wm e{º$ dmZàñWml‘ ‘| ì¶VrV H$aHo$ Am¶w Ho$ MVwW© ^mJ ‘| {Z:g§J hmoH$a gݶmg J«hZ H$a|& EH$ Aml‘ go Xþgao Aml‘ H$mo J«hU H$aVm hþAm A{YZ ÐmoÌm{X hmo‘ g‘má H$aHo$ {OVopÝжVm Ho$ gmW O~ {^jm, ~{b Am{X H$‘m} go lmÝV hmo O~ gݶmg J«hU H$aZo go nabmoH$ ‘| CÞ{V hmoVr h¡& '' ‘mZd OrdZ Ho$ g‘J« {d{Y {dYmZm| H$mo nyU© H$aZo H$m ¶h H«$‘mZwgma {dYmZ h¡& ‘mZd OrdZ H$m EH$ Xþgam én ^r h¡& O~ ~«÷M¶© Aml‘ go ^r AnZo gm‘϶© Ho$ AZwén g§Ý¶mgml‘ J«hU hmoVm h¡& {dÛmZm| Zo g§Ý¶mgl‘ H$mo {Zd¥{V H$s nyU© M[aVmW©Vm ‘mZm h¡& ‘mZd {Og d«V H$m nmbZ ~«÷M¶© Aml‘ ‘o§ H$aVm h¡, CgH$r nyU©Vm MVwW© Aml‘ ‘| hmoVr h¡& g§Ý¶mgl‘ nyU© {ZîH$m‘r ì¶{º$ Ho$ {bE ‘mZm J¶m h¡& ^JdmZ H¥$îU Zo JrVm ‘| H$hm {H$ ""gݶmgr Cgr H$mo H$hm OmVm h¡, Omo H$‘© ’$b H$s BÀN>m Z H$aHo$ H$V©ì¶ H$‘© ahVm h¡, dhr gݶmgr AWdm ¶moJr h¡, {Zam{¾ H$m A{H«$¶ hmoZo go hr H$moB© ì¶{º$ g§Ý¶mgr Zhr hmoVm h¡& H$å¶ H$‘m} H$m ˶mJ Zhr H$hbmVm& gݶmgr H$m na‘ H$V©ì¶ {ZîH$m‘ OZ H$ë¶mUH$a H$m¶© h¡& gݶmgr {ZîH$m‘ H$‘© Ûmam AnZr gÎmm H$mo {damQ> gÎmm go {‘bmH$a g{ƒXmZÝX ñdén H$mo hr àmá H$aVm h¡&''AÝV ‘| ¶h H$hm Om gH$Vm h¡, {H$ ""^maVr¶ g§ñH¥${V H$mo gX¡d ^maVr¶ àmMrZ Aml‘ ì¶dñWm Zo hr à^m{dV {H$¶m h¡ Ohm± H$s ^mdZmAm| VWm ahZ ghZ H$mo ^r à^m{dV {H$¶m& BZ Aml‘ ì¶dñWm| g‘mO ‘| ì¶mnH$ ñVa na gÝVwbZ ñWm{nV {H$¶m&
  • 40. <ISBN: 978-981-07-9348-7 > THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA TIJ Research Publications Pte. Ltd., Singapore Page | 40 4. g§ñH$ma Ed§ {ddmh g§ñH$ma g§ñH$ma eãX H$m {díbofU {d{^Þ AWm] ‘| {H$¶m J¶m h¡& A§J«Or ‘| g§ñH$ma eãX "{gamo‘Zr amB©Q>' ¶m ñH«$s‘oÝQ> Am{X eãXmo H$m à¶moJ {H$¶m J¶m h¡& {H$ÝVw {gamo‘Zr amBQ> eãX à¶wá CMrV Zhr bJVm & ñH«$s‘oÝQ> eãX Bggo H$hr A{YH$ C{MV VWm Cn¶wº$ àVrV hmoVm h¡& BgH$m AW© h¡, {H$ ""Ym{‘©H$ {d{Y - {dYmZ ¶m dh H¥$˶w Omo AmÝV[aH$ VWm AmܶmpË‘H$ gm¡ÝX¶© H$m ~«÷Ñí¶ àVrV ‘mZm OmVm h¡& g§ñH¥$V gm{h˶ ‘| g§ñH$ma eãX H$m à¶moJ {ejm, g§ñH¥${V, à{ejU, gm¡Oݶ nyU©Vm, ì¶mH$aU, gå~ÝYr ew{Õ g§ñH$maU, n[aîH$aU emo^m, Am^wfU, à^md ñdén, ñd^md {H«$¶m, N>mn, ñ‘aU e{º$ na ~S>Zo dmbo à^md, ewpÕ {H«$¶m, Ym{‘©H$ {d{Y - {dYmZ, A{^foH$ {dMma, ^mdZm, YmaUm, H$m¶© H$m n[aUm‘ {H«$¶m H$s {deofVm Am{X AWm} ‘| hþAm h¡& O¡{‘Zr gyÌmo§ ‘| "g§ñH$ma' eãX H$m à¶moJ Cg {H«$¶m Ho$ {b¶o {H$¶m OmVm h¡, {OgHo$ H$aZo go H$moB© nXmW© Cn¶mo{JVmnyU© ~Z OmVm h¡& ñda Ho$ AZwgma ""g§ñH$ma dh h¡, {OgHo$ gånmXZ ‘| H$moB© nXmW© ¶m ì¶{º$ {H$gr H$m¶© Ho$ ¶mo½¶ hmo OmVm h¡&'' VÝ‘d{V©H$ Zo {bIm h¡, {H$ g§gma {H«$¶m¶o VWm [a{V¶m± h¡, Omo ¶mo½¶Vm àXmZ H$aVr h¡& Bg ¶mo½¶Vm Ho$ Xmo àH$ma ~Vm¶| J¶o h¡, àW‘ nmnnyU© {H«$¶mAm| H$mo Zï> H$aZo H$s ¶mo½¶Vm, {ÛVr¶, ZdrZ JwUm| go CËnÞ ¶mo½¶Vm ‘| d¥pÕ H$aZm& amOdbr nmÊS>o Ho$ AZwgma ""{hÝXþ g§ñH$mam| ‘| AZoH$ Ym{‘©H$ {d{Y - {dYmZ, Amapå^H$ {dMma, CZHo$ g‘dVu {Z¶‘ VWm AZwð>mZ ^r gpå‘{bV h¡, {OZH$m CXoí¶ Ho$db, Am¡nMm[aH$ X¡{hH$ g§ñH$ma hr Zhr H$a ì¶{º$ Ho$ gånyU© ì¶{º$Ëd H$m n[aîH$ma, ew{Õ VWm nyU©Vm ^r h¡&'' a{dÝÐZmW ‘wH$Ou Ho$ AZwgma ""g§ñH$ma H$m AW©, CZ n{dÌ AZwð>mZm| go h¡, Omo emararH$
  • 41. <ISBN: 978-981-07-9348-7 > THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA TIJ Research Publications Pte. Ltd., Singapore Page | 41 ~m¡{ÛH$, gm‘m{OH$, VWm AmܶmpË‘H$ n[aîH$ma Ho$ {b¶o {H$¶o OmVo h¡&{ZîH©$fV: H$hm Om gH$Vm h¡, {H$ g§ñH$ma H$m A{^àm¶ H$m ew{Õ H$s Ym{‘©H$ {H«$¶mAm| VWm ì¶{º$ Ho$ ‘mZ{gH$, emararH$ Am¡a ~m¡pÕH$$n[aîH$ma Ho$ {b¶o {H$¶o OmZo dmbo AZwð>mZm| go h¡, {Oggo dh g‘mO H$m nyU© {dH${gV gXñ¶ hmo gHo$& g§ñH$ma OÝ‘ go boH$a ‘¥Ë¶ww VH$ gånÞ {H$¶o OmVo h¡& g§ñH$ma gmobh àH$ma Ho$ hmoVo h¡& 1) J^©YmZ g§ñH$ma EH$ ‘hËdnyU© g§ñH$ma h¡, VWm à˶oH$ ‘mVm - {nVm H$s ¶hr AmH$m§jm ahVr h¡, {H$ CZHo$ n[adma ‘| gw¶mo½¶, gwnmÌ gÝVmZ CËnÞ hmo& BgHo$ {bE O~ nwéf H$s Am¶w nƒrg df© VWm ór H$r Am¶w H$‘ go H$‘ gmobh df© hmoZr Mm{h¶o& AÀN>m ‘whÿV© {ZH$mbH$a {XZ ‘| ¶k H$aHo$ am{Ì ‘| J^m©YmZ H$m àYmZ aIm J¶m& n{V nËZr H$m ¶h gå~ÝY ñWm{nV {H$¶m OmVm h¡, {Oggo {H$ J^© ‘| AmZo dmbm Z¶m àmUr gw¶mo½¶ hmo& ¶h ‘Zwî¶ Ho$ OrdZ H$m àW‘ g§ñH$ma h¡& Ohm± go g¥{ï> H$m CX¶ Amaå^ hmo OmVm h¡& Bgo g§ñH$ma H$r àW‘ H$S>r H$hVo h¡& 2) nwgdZ g§ñH$ma :- ‘mVm Ûmam J^© YmaU H$aZo Ho$ Xmo ¶m VrZ ‘mh níMmV ¶h g§ñH$ma {H$¶m OmVm h¡¡& gwÝXa, ñdmñW, gw¶mo½¶, nwÌàmár Ho$ {b¶o XodVmAm| go àmW©Zm H$s OmVr h¡ VWm J^© H$mo ‘O~wV H$aZo Ho$ {bE {d{eï> àH$ma Ho$ nm¡{ï>H$ ^moOZ Ed§ Am¡f{Y¶m| H$m à¶moJ H$adm¶m OmZm gwé {H$¶m OmVm h¡& 3) gr‘mÝVmo¶Z g§ñH$ma :- ¶h g§ñH$ma Vrgao ¶m Mm¡Wo ‘mh ‘| {H$¶m OmVm h¡& Bg g§ñH$ma ‘| n{V AnZo n{ËZ Ho$ Ho$gm| H$mo gOmH$a Cg‘| ‘m±J H$mQ>Vm h¡& Bg CËgd na gm‘y{hH$ ^moO {H$¶m OmVm h¡& AV: Bg àH$ma {eew H$m gr‘mÝVmo¶Z g§ñH$ma hmoVm h¡& 4) OmVH$‘© g§ñH$ma :- ~mbH$ Ho$ OÝ‘ Ho$ níMmV ¶h g§ñH$ma hmoVm h¡& d¡{XH$ ¶wJ ‘| amoQ>r nH$mH$a A{¾ ‘| S>mbr OmVr Wr& ~mbH$ H$mo JmoX ‘| boH$a XþY, Kr Am{X go hdZ {H$¶m OmVm Wm& Xhr, ehX, VWm Kr H$mo {‘{lV H$a ñdU© H$s ebmH$m go {eew H$mo MQ>m¶m OmVm Wm, VWm CgHo$ {XK© OrdZ Ho$ {bE àmW©Zm {H$¶m OmVm h¡& {nVm ~mbH$ Ho$ H$mZ ‘| CgHo$ XrKm©¶w, ~w{Õ‘mZ hmoZo Ho$ {bE
  • 42. <ISBN: 978-981-07-9348-7 > THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA TIJ Research Publications Pte. Ltd., Singapore Page | 42 Hw$N> ‘ÝÌ ~mobVm Wm& CgHo$ ~mX ‘mVm Cgo XþY {nbmVr Wr& bmoJ Ka na CnpñWV hmoVo VWm {eew H$mo Am{e©dmX XoVo Wo ¶h g§ñH$ma AmO ^r {hÝXþ g‘mO ‘| CnpñWV h¡& 5) Zm‘m§H$Z g§ñH$ma :- OÝ‘ H$o Xgd|, ½¶mahd| ¶m ~mahd| {XZ Omo ^r ew^ KS>r ‘| hmo ¶h g§ñH$ma ‘Zm¶m OmVm h¡& {nVm {dÛmZ AmMm¶© Ho$ nam‘e© go Xmo Mma eãXm| H$m gwÝXa Zm‘ {eew Ho$ {b¶o aIVm h¡& Bg Adga na ¶k, hdZ Am{X go J¥h ew{Û H$s OmVr Wr VWm ^moO H$m Am¶moOZ ^r {H$¶m OmVm Wm ¶h àWm AmO ^r Cgr én ‘| àMm{bV h¡& 6) {ZîH«$‘U g§ñH$ma :- {eew O~ Mma ‘mg H$m hmoVm h¡, V~ {H$gr ew^ {XZ go ew^ KS>r na Cgo nhbr ~ma gy¶©Xod H$m Xe©Z Ed§ am{Ì ‘| MÝX‘m Ho$ Xe©Z H$am¶o OmVo h¡& Eogm ‘mZm OmVm h¡, {H$ [eew Ho$ emararH$ VWm ‘mZ{gH$ {dH$mg ‘| BgH$m ~hþV AÀN>m à^md nS>Vm h¡& 7) AÞàmíZ g§ñH$ma :- O~ {eew N>h ‘mg H$m hmo OmVm h¡, Vmo Cgo nhbr~ma Amhma {X¶m OmVm h¡& ewé ‘| Mmdb ,‘Yw, Xhr VWm K¥V {‘{lV ^moOZ XoVo h¡, ~mX ‘| Vab ^moOZ d T>mog ^moOZ XoZm àmaå^ H$a {X¶m OmVm h¡& AmO H$b ^r S>m³Q>am| Ûmam Cgr AZwgma N>h ‘mh dmX ^moOZ àmaä^ H$admZo H$m nam‘©e XoVm h¡& 8) MwS>m H$‘© g§ñH$ma :- ~mbH$ O~ VrZ df© H$m hmo OmVm h¡, V~ {eew Ho$ OÝ‘ Ho$ ~mbm| H$mo H$Q>dm {X¶m OmVm h¡, VWm Ho$db MwS>m ñdmo{V N>moS> Xr OmVr h¡& Hw$b H$s naånam Ho$ AZwgma EH$ VrZ ¶m nm±M H$m {dYmZ h¡& Ho$e H$Q>mZo ¶m MmoQ>r aIZo H$m ^r ñdmñW na AÀN>m à^md nS>Vm h¡& 9) H$U© ^oX g§ñH$ma :- ~mbH$ Ho$ OÝ‘ Ho$ Vrgao ¶m nm±Mdo df© ‘| ¶h g§ñH$ma ‘Zm¶m OmVm h¡& eara H$mo ñZmZm{X go ñdÀN> ~ZmH$a gwÝXa dó YmaU H$amH$a AÀN>o d¡Y Ho$ Ûmam ewé ‘| X{hZm H$mZ VWm ~mX ‘| ~m¶o H$mZ ~oYm OmVm h¡& Bggo Am±V H$m ~T>Zm éH$ OmVm h¡& eara H$mo Am^yfU H$s ñV¥{V go gmW Jwé Ho$ nmg Aja kmZ Amaä^ H$adm¶m OmVm h¡& Bg àH$ma {dYmkmZ H$m Amaä^ hmo OmVm h¡& 11) CnZ¶Z g§ñH$ma : Bgo ¶kmondrV g§ñH$ma ^r H$hVo h¡& ~«m÷U Ho$ ~mbH$ H$m nm±Mdo df© ‘| , j{̶ Ho$ N>T>o df© ‘| VWm d¡í¶ Ho$ ~mbH$ H$m AmR>d| df© ‘| ¶kmondrV YmaU H$aZo H$m {ZX}e Y‘©
  • 43. <ISBN: 978-981-07-9348-7 > THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA TIJ Research Publications Pte. Ltd., Singapore Page | 43 J«ÝW XoVo h¡& {dÚmWu ñZmZm{X H$aHo$ ‘wÊS>Z H$admH$a, CÎmar¶ dó ‘oIbm VWm XÊS> YmaU H$aVm h¡& dh CnZ¶Z g§ñH$ma H$o {b¶o AmMm¶© Ho$ gm‘Zo ~¡R>Vm h¡, VWm AmMm¶© ¶k hmo‘ H$admVm h¡& dh {dÚmWu Ho$ H$mZ ‘| Jm¶Ìr ‘§Ì H$m CƒmaU H$aVm h¡& dh Cgo ~«÷Mmar OrdZ ì¶VrV H$aZo H$m CnXoe XoVm h¡ VWm {ZX}e XoVm h¡, {H$ Vw‘ ~«÷Mmar hmo, Ob nrAm| H$m‘ H$amoo, {XZ ‘| ‘V gmoAmo, AmMm¶© Ho$ AmYrZ hmoH$a doX H$m Aܶ¶Z H$amo& nhbo H$ݶmAm| H$m ^r CnZ¶Z g§ñH$ma hmoVm Wm, naÝVw ~mX ‘| CZH$m CnZ¶Z g§ñH$ma ~§X hmo J¶m & 12) doXmaä^ g§ñH$ma :- Bg CnZ¶Z g§ñH$ma Ho$ níMmV {ejm OJV Ho$ Ûma {dÚmWu Ho$ {b¶o Iwb OmVo Wo& dh doXm| Cn{ZfXm| H$m Aܶ¶Z àmaå^ H$a XoVm Wm, VWm AnZm dm¡{XH$ {dH$mg H$aZm àmaä^ H$a XoVm Wm& dh Z¶o OrdZ ‘| àdoe H$aVm VWm AnZr AmܶmpË‘H$ àJ{V Ho$ nW na AJ«ga hmo OmVm Wm& AmO ^r Cƒ {ejm ‘o doXm| Ho$ kmZ H$s Vah kmZ H$m EH$ én h¡& 13) Ho$gmÝV ¶m JmoXmZ g§ñH$ma :- ¶~ ~mbH$ {H$emoamdñWm H$mo nma H$aVm h¡, V~ XmT>r, ‘y±N>, ga Ho$ ~mb Am{X H$mo H$Q>dm¶m OmVm h¡ , VWm ~«÷Mmar Ho$ n[adma dmbm| H$s Am¡a go Cg g‘¶ Jwé H$mo XmZ H$s OmVr Wr& Bg{b¶o Bg g§ñH$ma H$mo JmoXmZ g§ñH$ma ^r H$hVo h¡& 14) g‘mdV©Z g§ñH$ma :- Bgo XrjmÝV g§ñH$ma ^r H$hVo h¡& doXm| H$m Aܶ¶Z nyU© hmoZo Ho$ ~mX Cgo nwZ: J¥hñW OrdZ ‘| àdoe H$aZo H$s Jwé Amkm XoVm VWm Amerdm©X àXmZ H$aVm Wm& {eî¶ ^r Jwé H$mo ¶Wmo{MV X{jUm XoH$a Jwé H$m Amerdm©X àmá H$a J¥hñW OrdZ ‘| àdoe H$aVm Wm& Bg g§ñH$ma Ho$ níMmV dh ~«÷M¶© Aml‘ H$mo ˶mJ H$a J¥hñW Aml‘ ‘| àdoe H$aVm Wm& 15) {ddmh g§ñH$ma :Am¶m} Ho$ OrdZ ‘| Bg g§ñH$ma H$m ~hþV ‘hËd ahm h¡& Bg g§ñH$ma Ho$ gmW ¶wdH$ J¥hñW OrdZ ‘| àdoe H$aVm h¡, VWm dYw EH$ Xþgao Ho$ ~mao ‘| nyU© OmZH$mar H$a {ddmh gyÌ ‘| ~ÝY OmVo h¡& do XmoZm| AmOrdZ EH$- Xþgao Ho$ gmW ahZo H$s à{Vkm H$aVo h¡& 16) AÝ˶o{ï> g§ñH$ma :- dh g§ñH$ma ì¶{º$ Ho$ ‘a OmZo Ho$ ~mX gånÞ hmoVm h¡& Cg g‘¶ AZoH$ Ym{‘©H$ {dYmZm| Ho$ gmW Xmh {H«$¶m H$r OmVr h¡&
  • 44. <ISBN: 978-981-07-9348-7 > THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA TIJ Research Publications Pte. Ltd., Singapore Page | 44 {ddmh g§ñH¥$V gm{h˶ ‘| {ddmh Ho$ {bE H$moB© eãX H$m à¶moJ {H$¶o JE h¡, O¡go CXdmh ,n[aU¶ Cn¶‘, nm{UJ«hU Am{X & "{ddmh' H$m empãXH$ AW© ã¶w{Vn{V H$r Ñ{ï> go bo OmZm hmoVm h¡& Bg àH$ma {ddmh H$m AW© dYw H$mo CgHo$ Ka go {deof én go bo OmZm ¶m nËZr ~ZmZo Ho$ {b¶o bo OmZm h¡& Bg AW© H$s nw{ï> hoVw g§ñH¥$V gm{h˶ ‘| C{„{IV eãXm| Ho$ AWm} H$mo àñVwV {H$¶m Om gH$Vm h¡& CXdmh H$m AW© h¡, dYw H$mo CgHo$ {nVm Ho$ Ka go bo OmZm& "Cn¶‘' H$m AW© h¡, {H$gr H$mo {ZH$Q> bmH$a AnZmZm& n[aU¶ H$m AW© h¡, Mmam| Am¡a Kw‘mH$a ¶m A{¾ H$s n[aH«$‘m H$aZm&' {dÛmZm| Zo {ddmh H$mo H$B© àH$ma go n[a^m{fV {H$¶m h¡& H$B© {dÛmZm| Zo Bgo ñWm¶r ¶m¡Z gå~ÝY H$s g§km Xr h¡& O~{H$ AZoH$ {dÛmZm| H$m ‘V h¡, {H$ {hÝXþ {ddmh EH$ Ym{‘©H$ g§ñH$ma h¡& Hw$N> {dÛmZ ‘mZVo h¡, {H$ ¶h EH$ gm‘m{OH$ g‘Pm¡Vm ‘mÌ h¡& bo{H$Z Hw$N> {dÛmZ H$hVo h¡, {H$ {hÝXþ {ddmh ‘o Y‘©, àOmoËn{V VWm am{V Am{X Ho$ ^m¡{VH$, gm‘m{OH$ d AܶmpË‘H$ à¶moOZm| go EH$ ór nwéf nañna ñWm¶r gå~ÝY ‘| ~§Y OmVo h¡& ¶h gm‘m{OH$ g‘Pm¡Vm ‘mÌ Zht hmo gH$Vm ¶h nyU©V: Ym{‘©H$ g§ñH$ma h¡& à^w Ho$ eãXm| ‘| ""{h§ÝXþ {ddmh dmñVd ‘| EH$ Eogm Am¡nMm[aH$ Ym{‘©H$ H¥$˶ h¡, {OgHo$ Ûmam EH$ ì¶{º$ AnZm J¥hñW OrdZ àmaå^ H$a nmVm h¡& {ddmh H$m Ame¶ Cg CËgd go h¡, {OgH$o Ûmam nËZr H$m OrdZ àmaå^ H$a nmVm h¡& {ddmh H$m Ame¶ Cg CËgd go h¡, {OgHo$ Ûmam nËZr H$m n{V Ho$ Ka go bo AmZm h¡& naÝVw {ddmh H$s nwar añ‘ H$mo hr BgH$m Zm‘ {X¶m OmZo bJm& ñnï> h¡, {H$ {hÝXþ {ddmh EH$ gm‘m{OH$ g‘Pm¡Vm ¶m emararH$ gå~ÝY H$s Amkm ‘mÌ Z hmoH$a EH$ ñWm¶r gå~ÝY h¡& BgH$m CXoí¶ emararH$ ‘mÌ Z hmoH$a AmܶmpË‘H$ h¡& F$½doX ‘| {ddmh H$m CXoí¶ J¥hñW OrdZ ‘| àdoe H$aHo$ XodVmAm| H$mo àgÞ H$aZo Ho$ {bE ¶k H$aZm d gÝVmZmoËn{V H$aZm h¡& H$‘© {‘‘m§gm ‘o§ ^r {ddmh Ho$ CXoí¶ àñVwV {H$¶m J¶o h¡, {H$ {ddmh Ho$ Ûmam ór Ymam nwéf Ymam‘¶r hmoH$a H¡$dë¶ H$s A{YH$marUr ~ZVr h¡& {ddmh Ûmam hr ór-nwéf H$s
  • 45. <ISBN: 978-981-07-9348-7 > THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA TIJ Research Publications Pte. Ltd., Singapore Page | 45 A{Z¶pÝÌV H$m‘d¥Îmr {Z¶pÝÌV hmoH$a XmoZm| H$mo emararH$, ‘mZ[gH$, ~m¡{ÕH$, nabm¡{H$H$, Bhbm¡{H$H$ VWm AmܶmpË‘H$ àJ{V àXmZ H$aVr h¡& {dÛmZm| Zo {ddmh Ho$ à‘wI CXoí¶m| H$mo Mma ^mJm| ‘| {d^º$ {H$¶m h¡& 1. Ym{‘©H$ CXoí¶ :- {dÛmZm| Ûmam {ddmh Ho$ à‘wI Ym{‘©H$ CXoí¶ {ZåZ{b{IV ~Vm¶o J¶o h¡& 1) ¶mkdëd¶ ñ‘¥{V ‘| n{V Ho$ Ym{‘©H$ H$‘m} ‘| npËZ H$s A{Zdm¶©Vm {ZYm©[aV H$s JB© h¡& CgH$s ‘¥Ë¶w Ho$ níMmV Ym{‘©H$ H¥$˶m| Ho$ {b¶o nwZ:{ddmh H$s Amkm Xr JB© h¡& 2) eVnW ~«m÷U Zo nËZr - n{V Ho$ AmYo ^mJ H$s nwaH$ ‘mZr OmVr h¡&AWm©V nËZr Ûmam hr n{V nyU© hmoVo h¡& 3) F$½doX Ho$ AZwgma XodVmAm| Ho$ nwOZ ‘| n{V nËZr EH$ - Xþgao Ho$ ghm¶H$ h¡& 4) V¡Var¶ ~«m÷U Ho$ AZwgma ""nËZrhrZ ì¶{º$ ¶k gånÞ H$aZo H$m A{YH$mar Zhr h¡& 5) O¡{‘Zr Ho$ eãXm| ‘| g‘ñV ¶m{kH$ H$m¶m} ‘| n{V - nËZr H$mo EH$ Xþgao H$m gømoJr hmoZm Mm{hE& 6) nwamUm| ‘| Y‘© ,AW©, H$m‘ VWm nwÌ H$s àmár hoVy nËZr H$mo Amdí¶H$ ‘mZm J¶m h¡& nËZr H$mo ˶mJ H$a {H$¶m OmZo dmbo Ym{‘©H$ H¥$˶m| H$m H$moB© bm^ Zhr {‘bVm& ñnï> h¡, {H$ {hÝXþ emóm| Zo ór H$mo g‘ñV Y‘© gå~ÝYr {H«$¶mAmo Ho$ {b¶o Amdí¶H$ ‘mZm h¡& AnZo H$WZ H$s nw{ï> hoVy do am‘MÝÐOr H$m CXmhaU àñVwV H$aZo h¡& grVm H$s AZwnpñW{V ‘| am‘MÝÐ Or Zo ¶k ‘o§ grVm H$s gmoZo H$s à{Vkm aIr Wr& Bg àH$ma {ddmh H$m CXoí¶ Ym{‘©H$ ‘mZm J¶m& a{V gwI àmMrZ H$mb go hr {ddmh, a{V gwI àmá H$aZo H$m gwgå^ VWm Amdí¶H$ gmYZ ‘mZm OmVm h¡& ¶Û{n {ddmh Ho$ CXoí¶m| ‘| Bgo Jm¡U ñWmZ àmá h¡, naÝVw {’$a ^r ¶h EH$ Amdí¶H$ CXoí¶ ‘mZm OmVm ahm h¡& d¡{XH$ ¶wJ ‘| gå^moJ H$mo emoH$ H$m AÝV H$aZo dmbm VWm AmZÝX H$m Ma‘ gwI ‘mZm
  • 46. <ISBN: 978-981-07-9348-7 > THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA TIJ Research Publications Pte. Ltd., Singapore Page | 46 OmVm Wm& H$m¡{Q>ë¶ Ho$ AZwgma ""Y‘© Am¡a AW© go {damoY Z aIZo dmbo H$m‘ H$m godZ H$aZm C{MV h¡& ‘Zw Ho$ eãXm| ‘| a{V {ddmh H$m àYmZ CXoí¶ h¡& gÝVmZmoËn{V ‘Zw Ho$ eãXm| ‘| {ó¶m| H$mo ‘mVm VWm nwéf H$mo {nVm ~ZZo Ho$ {bE hr ^JdmZ Zo n¡Xm {H$¶m h¡& Bg{bE Y‘© H$m AmMaU ór d nwéf XmoZm| H$mo {‘bH$a hr H$aZm Mm{hE& ^maVr¶ Y‘© emóm| ‘| nwÌmoËn{V H$mo ‘moj H$m gmYZ ‘mZm h¡& BgHo$ AZwgma "nwéf Ho$ Cna VrZ àH$ma Ho$ F$U hmoVo h¡, {OÝh| CgH$mo AnZo OrdZ H$mb ‘| hr MwH$mZm nS>Vm h¡& ‘Zw Zo BZ F$Um| H$mo MwH$mZo Ho$ gmYZ H$m Adga ~Vm¶o h¡& àW‘ F${f F$U, H$mo doX ,doXm§J> Ho$ ñdmܶm¶ Ûmam& {ÛVr¶ Xod F$U H$mo ¶km| Ho$ gånmXZ H$aZo Ho$ Ûmam ,V¥Vr¶ {nV¥ F$U H$mo nwÌ CËnZ H$aZo Ho$ Ûmam& ‘hm^maV ‘| (12/9/90) VWm F$½doX (10/85/36) ‘| ^r {ddmh H$m CXoí¶ gÝVmZmoËn{V hr ‘mZm h¡& F$½doX Ho$ AZwgma {ddmh H$a CXoí¶ CÎm‘ VWm Ym{‘©H$ gÝVmZ CËnÞ H$aZm h¡& g‘mOrH$aU àmMrZ H$mb go hr {ddmhrV hmoZm gå‘mZ VWm AmXa H$m gyMH$ Ed§ M[aÌ H$m à‘mU ‘mZm OmVm h¡& hf©M[aÌ ‘| C„oI h¡, {H$ "O~ hf© Ûmam ~mU na XþíM[aÌ hmoZo H$m Amamon bJm¶m J¶m Vmo CgZo AnZo M[aÌdmZ hmoZo Ho$ à‘mUñdén ñd§¶ H$mo {ddmhrV ~Vm¶m Wm& Bg àH$ma ñnï> h¡ {H$ {ddmhrV hmoZm g‘mO ‘o AmXaZr¶ ‘mZm OmVm h¡& {ddmh g^r OJh Zhr {H$¶o Om gH$Vo h¡& {ddmh Ho$ ^m±Vr hr ~{h{ddmh àM{bV h¡ & BgHo$ AZoH$ én h¡& JmoÌ ~{h{ddmh JmoÌ ~{h{ddmh Ho$ gå~ÝY ‘| {dÛmZm| Zo {d{^Þ ‘V àñVwV {H$E h¡& à^w Ho$ eãXm| ‘| "~{h{ddmh Ho$ {Z¶‘m| Ho$ gå~ÝY ‘| à¶wº$ VrZ eãX JmoÌ, àda Am¡a {nÊS> AnZo àmaå^ go boH$a AZoH$ ¶wJmo ‘| AnZo AW© Am¡a A{^àm¶ Ho$ gå~ÝY ‘| BVZo A{YH$ n[adV©Zm| Am¡a g§emoYZmo go JwOao h¡, {H$ CZHo$
  • 47. <ISBN: 978-981-07-9348-7 > THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA TIJ Research Publications Pte. Ltd., Singapore Page | 47 ‘yb A{^àm¶ H$mo nm boZm bJ^J Agå^d gm hmo OmVm h¡& {^Vmjam ݶm¶ H$o AZwgma JmoÌ H$m AW© aº$ H$s {ZH$Q>Vm h¡& g˶mfmT>, {haʶ§H$erómoVgyÌ Ho$ AZwgma JmoÌ AmR> F${f¶m| H$s gÝVmZ Ho$ {b¶o H$hVo h¡& ¶o AmR> F${f h¡ {dídm{‘Ì, ^maÛmO, Jm¡V‘, {d{eï>, A{¾, AJñ˶, O‘Xm{¾ VWm H$í¶n & ‘oKm{VWr Ho$ eãXm| ‘o§ JmoÌ H$m AW© ¶h Zhr h¡ {H$ do {H$gr {deof g‘¶ ‘| CËnÞ hþE F${f {H$ gÝVmZ h¡& BgHo$ {dnarV {Og àH$ma naånam Ho$ AZwgma Hw$N> H$mo ~«m÷U ‘mZm OmVm h¡& Cgr àH$ma JmoÌ ^r naånamJV d§e H$m Zm‘ h¡& ~m¡Ym¶Z Zo JmoÌm| H$s g§»¶m H$amoS>mo VH$ ~VmB© h¡& O~{H$ nm{U{Z Ho$ AZwgma ""nm¡Vo EH$ H$s gÝVmZ EH$ JmoÌ H$s hmoVr h¡& '' nV§Obr Ho$ eãXmo§ ‘| AmR> F${f¶m| H$s gÝVmZ EH$ JmoÌ H$s hmoVr h¡& ‘¡³g‘yba Ho$ eãXmo§ ‘| ""EH$ ñWmZ na Jm¶ ~m±YZo dmbo bmoJ Eogo ñWmZ na ahZo dmbo nyd© F${f H$s gÝVmZ ‘mZo OmVo Wo VWm do g‘mZ JmoÌ Ho$ H$hbmVo Wo& ‘Zw ñ‘¥{V ‘| ^r g§JmoÌ go {ddmh H$aZm {ZfoY {H$¶m h¡& Ag{nÊS>m M¶m ‘mVwagJmoÌm M ¶m {nVw:& gm àeñVm {N>OmVrZm§Xma H$‘©{U ‘¡WwZo&& ~moYm¶Z Zo ^r g§JmoÌ H$ݶm go {ddmh H$aZo na "MÝÐm¶U' Zm‘H$ àm¶píMV H$m àdYmZ ~Vm¶m h¡& AnamH$ Ho$ AZwgma OmZ ~wPH$a g§JmoÌ go {ddmh hmoZo go CËnÞ hmoZo dmbr gÝVmZ "MmÊS>mb' H$hbmVr h¡, VWm Eogo {ddmh H$aZo dmbo H$mo Om{V go ~mha H$a {X¶m OmVm h¡& JmoÌ H$m {ZYm©aU {^Þ {^Þ Om{V Ho$ h¡& amOnyVm| ‘o AZoH$ {dOoVmAm| VWm d§e Ho$ A{X nwéf Ho$ Zm‘ na amOnyVm| Ho$ JmoÌ h¡& j{̶m| ~ d¡í¶m| ‘| CZHo$ nwamo{hVm| Ho$ JmoÌ ‘mZo OmVo h¡& Bg‘| d§e naånam F${f¶m| go Z hmoH$a CZHo$ {H$gr {eî¶Ûmam MbVr h¡& {nÊS> ~{h{ddmh
  • 48. <ISBN: 978-981-07-9348-7 > THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA TIJ Research Publications Pte. Ltd., Singapore Page | 48 [hÝXþ g‘mO ‘| g{nÊS>{ddmh {ZfoY h¡& ~¥hñn{V Zo ‘mVm Ho$ nm±M VWm {nVm Ho$ gmV nrT>r VH$ gå~pÝYV gÝVmZ g{nÊS> ‘mZo OmVo h¡& Bg‘| {ddmh {ZfoY h¡& {‘Vmjam gåàXm¶ go g{nÊS> CÝho ‘mZm OmVm h¡, {OZ‘| EH$ hr {nÊS> go Ad¶n hmo AWm©V ‘m±, ~mn, XmXm, XmXr VWm ZmZm - ZmZr, ~wAm ‘m‘m Am{X go gå~pÝYV g{nÊS> ‘mZo OmVo h¡&^maV H$o Hw$N> ñWmZ na ‘m± H$s nr{T>¶m| H$mo g{nÊS> Zhr ‘mZm OmVm& {‘{Wbm ‘| nm±M Ho$ nm±M nrT>r VH$ H$mo g{nÊS> ‘mZo OmVo h¡& {Og‘| MmMm Ho$ AWm©V {nVm Ho$ ~S>o ^mB© AWdm N>moQ>o ^mB© Ho$ nwÌ ¶m nwÌr,Xþgam {nVm Ho$ ~hZ Ho$ nwÌ AWdm nwÌr, Vrgam ‘mVm Ho$ ^mB© Ho$ nwÌ ¶m nwÌr, Mm¡Wm ‘mVm Ho$ ~hZ Ho$ nwÌ AWdm nwÌr, nm±Mdm {nVm Ho$ ‘m‘m H$o nwÌ ¶m nwÌr Ho$ gmW {ddmh d{O©V h¡& ³¶m|{H$ ¶h g{nÊS> ‘mZo OmVo h¡& ~m¡Ym¶Z Y‘© gwÌ Ho$ AZwgma ‘m‘m d ~wAm H$s gÝVmZm| ‘| {ddmhm| H$m {ZfoY h¡& VobJy V{‘b {Obm| ‘| ewÐm| d ~«m÷Um| ‘| gmbr H$s bS>H$s go {ddmh hmoVm h¡& O~{H$ ‘Ðmg ‘| ‘¢Zo XoIm H$s Zob‘ Om{V ‘| ^mZOr go {ddmh hmoVm h¡& X{jUr ^maV ‘| Zå~yXar ~«m÷Um| H$mo N>moS>H$a Aݶ ~«m÷Um| ‘o§ ‘m‘m H$s bS>H$s go {ddmh H$aZm Cn¶wº$ g‘Pm J¶m h¡& 3. n«da d{h{ddmh :- à~a ^r àmMrZ F${n¶m| Ho$ Zm‘ AmYm[aV h¡& n«Mma d{h{ddmh Ho$ gå~ÝY ‘| {d{^Þ {dÛmZm| Zo {^Þ - {^Þ ‘V àñVwV {H$¶o h¡& nmÊSw>aJ dm‘Z H$mUo Ho$ eãXm| ‘| àda eãX d¥ YmVw go ~Zm h¡, {OgH$m AW© MwZZm hmoVm h¡& Bg{b¶o nmÊSw>a§J H$m ‘V h¡, {H$ ""àda CZ MwZo hþE F${f¶m| Ho$ Zm‘ h¡, Omo A˶§V ¶eñdr Wo VWm JmoÌ MbmZo dmbo F${f¶m| Ho$ nyd©O Wo& BZ F${f¶mo§ H$mo àmMrZ H$mb ‘| ¶k H$aVo g‘¶ ¶O‘mZ ñdoÀN>m go AmhyVr Ho$ g‘¶ ~mobVm Wm& ''H$bm§Va ‘| àdamo Ho$ F${f¶m| H$s g§»¶m 49 ‘mZr OmVr h¡& {dkmZoída Ho$ ‘VmZwgma "" Ho$db ~«måhUm| Ho$ hr dmñV{dH$ JmoÌ àda hmoVo h¡& eyÐm| H$m H$moB© àda Zhr hmoVm ,O~{H$ j{̶m| VWm d¡í¶m| Ho$ JmoÌ H$m àda CZHo$ nwamo{hVm| na Aml¥V hmoVo h¡& '' Hw$N>
  • 49. <ISBN: 978-981-07-9348-7 > THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA TIJ Research Publications Pte. Ltd., Singapore Page | 49 {dÛmZm| H$m ‘V h¡, {H$ d¡{XH$ gm{h˶ ‘| JmoÌ eãX H$m à¶moJ Bg AW© ‘| H$^r Zhr hþAm VWm g§JmoÌ VWm gàda {ddmh gå~ÝYr {ZfoY 600 B©. ny. go nhbo àmá Zhr {‘bVo Wo& 4. Q>moQ>‘ d{h{ddmh :- Q>moQ>‘ eãX H$m AW© Cg Ord ¶m dZñn{V go h¡, {Oggo H$moB© OZOm{V AnZm {deof gå~ÝY ‘mZVr h¡& ^maV H$s àm¶: g‘ñV Om{V¶m| ‘| Q>moQ>‘ go ~mha {ddmh H$aZo H$s àWm h¡& Q>moQ>‘ ‘| {ddmh H$aZm {ZfoY ‘mZm OmVm h¡& Jm|S>mo ‘| d{h{ddmh dJ© d§e H$ho OmVo h¡& BZ d§emo H$mo nyOo OmZo dmbo XodVmAm| H$s g§»¶m± Ho$ AmYma na dJuH¥$V {H$¶m OmVm h¡& gmV XodVmAm| nwOZo dmbo dJ© VrZ, Mma ¶m nm±M XodVm nwOZo dmbo dJ© ‘| {ddmh H$a gH$Vm h¡& H$‘ XodVm nyOZo dmbo dJ© H$mo A{YH$ XodVm nwOZo dmbo dJ© AnZo Q>moQ>‘ ‘| Zhr ‘mZVm& 5. Jm±d d{h{ddmh ^maV ‘| AZoH$ àXoe ‘| Jm±d go ~mha {ddmh H$aZo H$s àWm AmO ^r àM{bV h¡& dS>m¡Xm Ho$ amOnwVmo§ VWm bodm H$Zmo{d¶m| ‘| Jm±d Ho$ bmoJm| H$mo AnZm gå~ÝYr ‘mZZo Ho$ H$maU CZHo$ ‘ܶ {ddmh gå~ÝY ñWm{nV Zht {H$¶o OmVo &{‘{Wbm ‘| N>moQ>o - N>moQ>o Jm±d ‘| Jm±d {ddmh {Zf©Y h¡& {ddmh {H$VZo àH$ma Ho$ hmoVo h¡& ^maVr¶ Y‘© emó Zo {ddmh H$mo AmR> àH$ma H$m ~Vbm¶m h¡& ‘Zw Zo ^r Eogm hr {bIm h¡& S>m±. H$nm{S>¶m Zo {bIm h¡, {H$ nËZr H$mo AmR> àH$ma go nm¶m Om gH$Vm h¡& h‘mao ݶm¶ emó Zo ^r AmR> àH$ma Ho$ {ddmh H$m Zm‘ {b¶m h¡& ¶o {ddmh {ZåZ{b{IV h¡& ~«÷ {ddmh ‘Zw, ñ‘¥{V, d{eï> ñ‘¥{V, ¶mkdë¶H$ ñ‘¥{V, Amídbm¶Z ‘| ~«÷ {ddmh H$mo gd©loð> {ddmh g§ñH$ma ‘mZm h¡&~«÷ {ddmh ~«m÷U ¶mo½¶ hmoVm h¡& Bg {ddmh ‘o {nVm gd©JwU gånÞ da H$mo ñd¶§ Am‘pÝÌV H$a CgH$m {d{YdV gËH$ma H$a X{jUm Ho$ gmW ¶Wme{º$ dóm^wfUm|go Ab§H¥$V H$ݶm H$m XmZ H$aVm h¡& Bg{bE Bgo ~«÷ {ddmh ^r H$hVo h¡& ‘Zwñ‘¥V Ho$ AZwgma , ""AmÀN>mܶ Mm¶©{¶Ëdm M l¥{VerbdVo ñd¶§^y& Amhÿ¶ XmZ§ H$ݶm¶m ~«m÷Umo Y‘©: àH$s{V©V&''