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Renewable Energy and
Presenter: Damion Lawrence, M.Sc., B.Ed.
What is renewable energy?
• Renewable energy is an energy source which can
be replenished naturally and indefinitely and thus
is not going to run out.
Forms of renewable energy
1. Solar Energy
2. Wind Energy
3. Geothermal Energy
6. Ocean Energy
7. Hydrogen & Fuel Cells
• Most renewable energy comes either directly or indirectly
from the sun. Sunlight, or solar energy, can be used directly
for heating and lighting homes and other buildings, for
generating electricity, and for hot water heating, solar cooling,
and a variety of commercial and industrial uses.
• Problem: Variable amounts of sunshine.
• The wind is use as the prime mover that turns the wind
turbines (wind mill) that is connected to the shaft of the
generator producing the mechanical energy that is later
converted to electrical energy.
• Problems: large, remote, windy sites are needed. Winds are
• This employs the use of a generator that uses falling water as
the prime mover to turn the generator shaft that provides the
mechanical energy which is later converted to electrical
• Problems: Expensive to build. Few areas of the world are
• This form of energy uses the steam from underground springs
or steams that are produced from water that is pumped down
to hot rocks deep underground as a prime mover that turns a
steam turbine connected to the shaft of a Generator.
• Problems: drilling is expensive and difficult.
• Bioenergy is the energy from organic matter. . Bioenergy is
energy derived from the conversion of biomass where
biomass may be used directly as fuel, or processed into liquids
Hydrogen & Fuel Cells
• They convert hydrogen, or hydrogen-containing fuels, directly
into electrical energy plus heat through the electrochemical
reaction of hydrogen and oxygen into water.
The Advantages of Renewable
• i. It is sustainable and so will never run out.
• ii. Renewable energy facilities generally require
less maintenance than traditional generators.
• iii. Renewable energy technologies are clean
sources of energy that have a much lower
environmental impact than conventional energy
The Advantages of Renewable
• iv. Produces little or no waste products such as
carbon dioxide or other chemical pollutants.
• v. Cost effective.
The Disadvantages of Renewable
I. Difficult to generate the quantities of
electricity that are as large as those produced
by traditional fossil fuel generators.
II. Renewable energy often relies on the weather
for its source of power.
• Photovoltaic is a
• Silicon is a
material known as
as it conducts
electricity and it is
the main material
• Impurities such as
boron or phosphorus
are added to this base
impurities create the
electrons to be freed
when sunlight hits the
The freeing of
electrons leads to the
TYPES OF PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM
III. Flat-Plate System.
V. Fixed-Tilt System.
VI. Tracking System.
VII. Hybrid System.
• A PV system that is not connected to the utility grid.
• A PV system tied to the electric utility’s power distribution
• A PV system comprised of modules that are flat in geometry
and use natural (unconcentrated) solar irradiance.
• A PV system comprised of modules that have concentrating
optics as part of their structure.
• Any PV array with modules at a fixed tilt angle and orientation.
• A PV system with modules mounted on a tracking unit that
follows the sun
• Any system with more than one power source.
Typical Components of PV
A PV system comprise of :
1. Photovoltaic Array
2. PV Array Disconnect
3. Charge Controller
4. Battery Bank
5. System Meter
6. Main CD Disconnect
8. AC Panel and Disconnect
• The system begins
with the photovoltaic
array that turns the
sun's energy into
PV Array Disconnect
• This allows the array
to be disconnected
from the rest of the
maintenance. The PV
main breaker would
trip, protecting the
• The primary job of this
component is to
protect the battery
bank from being
overcharged. It does so
by monitoring the
charge levels of the
batteries cutting of the
current from the PV
Array when the
batteries are fully
• This is the bank of
batteries used to
store the current
generated by the
solar panel until
needed by devices
using the power.
• Larger systems often
have system meters
that monitor things
like the state of the
battery charge, and
current utilization by
Main CD Disconnect
• This component does much the same thing as the AC panel
found on your home. There is a main breaker that protects the
electrical lines going to the devices and the battery bank from
current loads in circuits that are abnormal (short) or beyond
the capacity of the wiring.
• An inverter is a
device that converts
DC power from the
battery bank to AC
power for various
AC Panel and Disconnect
• the main breaker will allow the AC lines to be disconnected
from the inverter and trip when the AC load exceeds the
capacity of the inverter and DC system components.
According to the Pacific Power Association (2012 ), the Four
major factors that should be considered when designing a PV
1. The type of loads that will be used on the system
2. Charge Controller and Solar Cell’s IV Characteristics
4. Cost .
1. Water pumps.
2. Street lights
3. Toys, watches,
4. Emergency power
5. Portable power
• Daystar, Inc. (n.d). Working Safely with Photovoltaic Systems.
• Lewis, A., S. Estefen, J. Huckerby, W. Musial, T. Pontes, J.
Torres-Martinez, 2011. Ocean Energy. In IPCC Special
Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate
Change Mitigation. Retrieved from: srren.ipcc-
• Pacific Power Association Off Grid Pv Power Systems System Design
Guidelines. Retrieved from:
ideo on Renewable Energy Retrieved from:
Video on How a PV system works. Retrieved from: