2. Elements of LTE Network Systems
UE (user equipment): Equivalent to CPE or Client unit.
eNodeB: equivalent to base station, contains radio head and baseband processor.
Ethernet interfaces. Functionally equivalent to BBU + RRH
BBU (baseband unit): baseband processing and related functions. Located at central
sites. Connected to RRH located at local towers.
RRH (remote radio head): Radio functions without baseband modem. Smaller
footprint on tower, connects to BBU via CPRI interface.
RAN (radio access network): terms used for the radio network before EPC (UE +
eNodeB or BBU/RRH)
EPC (evolved packet core): act as a liaison between the LTE and outside networks.
Major elements are PDN gateway, Serving gatewy, MME (mobile management entity),
HSS (home subscriber server), and PCEF (policy control enforcement function).
3. Product Groups
There are four product groups:
eNodeB (eNB) – base station
UE – different versions, indoor and outdoor
EPC – evolved packet core, function may be provided by third-party
equipment (customer may already have implementation)
BBU + RRH – an alternative to eNodeB. The functions of an eNodeB is
split into two separate pieces so BBU can be placed at central sites.
5. SkyWay-LTE eNodeB Base Station
basic entry level Multi sector operation in an all-
outdoor compact form factor
Multi-band operation: 700MHz to 3.8GHz
Remote electrical tilt
1Gbe POE interface, 802.3at standard
High performance SU-MIMO or MU-MIMO
2x2: DL @150Mbps, UL @75Mbps
4x4: DL @300Mbps, UL @150Mbps
Integrated Metro Ethernet switch
TDD or FDD support
BW: 5, 10, 15, 20 MHz
Two models: 10W (2x5W), 20W (4x5W)
250 active UE per 2x2 MIMO sector
self organizing network per 3GPP Release 9 standard
Integrated GPS, IEEE1588/Sync E, or external 1pps.
Can support other remote radio heads (CPRI ports)
physical – 32 x 52 x 24 cm, 20kg
6. SkyWay-LTE Outdoor UE
data rate support – 100Mbps DL, 50Mbps UL
Integrated VoIP and router
3GPP release 8/9, Category 4
Channels: 38, 40, 41, 42, 43 (TDD), 3, 7, 20 (FDD)
Tx power: 27dBm (TDD), 23dBm (FDD)
14dBi antenna, dual polarization
physical - 20 x 20 x 8 cm, 3kg, IP67 enclosure
interface – 1 x Gbe, 1 x POTS
External LEDS for antenna alignment
Optional 11n wifi module, integratable inside
2x2 MIMO support
Latency: 5ms maximum
7. SkyWay-LTE UE Options
Outdoor HE Outdoor LE Indoor
Category 4 4 4
LTE Modem Sequans Sequans Sequans
Network Ports 1 4 2
VoIP Ports 2 0 2
Wi-Fi 11b/g/n 11b/g/n 11b/g/n
Antenna Gain 15dBi 11dBi 5dBi
Transmit Power 25dBm 25dBm 23dBm
Enclosure Rating IP66 IP55 n/a
8. SkyWay-LTE EPC
EPC is essential as a gateway to external networks
Part of the LTE design as a standard element
Most EPC designs are for large carriers with huge
subscriber base – huge upfront cost for LTE
Solectek EPC – small form factor low cost unit for
easy market entry; all functions (MME, server GW,
PDN GW, HSS in a single platform
Support LTE RAN per 3GPP release 9 standard
Entry level platform
for small LTE deployment or private networks.
Server based platform
for larger deployments up to 50 eNodeB units.
Optimized for fixed or nomadic LTE applications.
Managed via SNMP V2c or V3.
10K+ UE with 10Gbe interface
Quad-core Xeon, up to 1066MHz
Up to 768GB RAM, 9.6TB HD
Multi Gbe, 10Gbe interface
Quad-core Intel Atom,
8GB RAM, 128GB SSD,
9. SkyWay-LTE Management Server
Map Browser *
geographic view of
Link Status *
Aggregates wireless link statistics of
the eNodeB and UEs into a single view
network / device
A centralized server framework for
managing network devices
A flexible, intuitive, and extensible
Eclipse-based GUI platform
Application ConsoleMap Browser
* Future developments (2016)
10. Compliance with Customer Requirements
RAN network compliance with 3GPP Release 10
Solectek SkyWay-LTE complies with Release 9 and upgradable to Release 10 via software
UE devices compliance with Category 4
This is a fairly easy requirement. All UE being offered are at least Cat. 4.
Frequency channels TDD channel B42, FDD channel B22
The TDD part is no issue.
The FDD part is more difficult because FDD and B22 are no longer popular
No UE equipment vendor produces FDD B22 equipment today.
Most new deployments are TDD. If FDD is required, we can search for options.
100 concurrent user sessions
The product can support up to 250 active UEs.
support USIM/ISIM 3GPP secure interface standards
NO issues with this. Part of the standard
Compliance with customer assigned channel blocks
Sub –block 1 3470-3476 UL / 3570-3576 DL
Sub-block 2 3476-3482 UL / 3576-3582 DL
Sub-block 3 3482-3488 UL / 3582 –3588 DL
Sub –block 4 3488- 3494 UL / 3588-3594 DL
Solectek SkyWay-LTE’s frequency band is TDD B42, which is 3.4 to 3.6 GHz.
11. SkyWay-LTE Coverage Model
Channel model Max LoS cell size [m] Max NLoS cell size [m]
Urban-outdoor UE 6200 1400
Suburban-outdoor UE 8600 2000
Rural-outdoor UE 13300 2400
Urban-indoor UE 2100 250
Suburban-indoor UE 1600 300
Rural-indoor UE 2100 400
Assumptions – 10MHz channel configured for TDD mode 1 and providing 99%
coverage reliability with a downlink capacity of 15Mbps and uplink capacity of 5Mbps.
Indoor loss – a 20dB of RF loss for indoor penetration is assumed.
12. ICIC Advantage
Inter-cell Interference Coordination (ICIC)
System classifies UEs in two categories:
CC UE – Cell Center UE, under influence of a single eNodeB , high SINR
CE UE – Cell Edge UE, at edges of overlapping cells, low SINR
To minimize interference, CE UEs of one sector use some fraction of
available channel. CE UEs of adjacent sector use the other fraction of the
By this method, frequency reuse of a SINGLE channel among multiple
sectors is possible, increasing the spectral efficiency greatly.
Theoretical maximum limit
If all UEs are classified as CC UEs :
total base site capacity = number of sectors x capacity of a single sector.
Some fraction of UEs are CE UEs:
total base site capacity < number of sectors x capacity of a single sector.
Antennas with sharp-edge patterns – increase % of CC UEs.
13. Base Station Capacity with ICIC
2-sector base station
Theoretical Max: 2 x 100Mbps = 200Mbps @ 20MHz
Front-to-back ratios are usually excellent in antennas
Realistic: results close to maximum is possible.
Factors: UE locations, antenna patterns (F/B ratio)
3-sector base station
Theoretical Max: 3 x 100Mbps = 300Mbps @ 20MHz
Factors: UE locations, antenna patterns (azimuth pattern roll-off)
4-sector base station
Theoretical Max: 4 x 100Mbps = 400Mbps @ 20MHz
Factors: UE locations, antenna patterns (azimuth pattern roll-off)
14. LTE Technology Advantages
LTE scales very well with user density – latency and cell capacity remain
relatively constant as the number of users increase. QoS performance remains
relatively constant as well.
LTE base stations have high power, particularly in licensed bands - better
coverage area and base station capacity, especially for downlink heavy carrier
LTE has better coverage and higher spectral density at the cell edge –
scheduling mechanism allows soft frequency reuse via ICIC while supporting a
frequency reuse factor of 1.
LTE ecosystem is very well developed – UE technologies are well developed
for outdoor and indoor versions. Designed as a true WAN standard unlike other
technologies. Well supported by carriers and will be supported for long term
with feature improvements.
15. SkyWay-LTE Advantages over others
Full Layer 2 operation – drop-in replacement for existing WiMAX layer 2
networks. Others have layer 2 support by configuring the UE in “bridge” mode,
but this does not satisfy the requirements of a full access network.
Nimble EPC – EPC can be situated in the core, edge or access network and
this allows operators to use their new or existing layer 2 aggregation networks.
A single box solution at one of the lowest costs in the LTE market.
Compact eNodeB – high power Tx (5W per antenna) for wide coverage area,
combined with support for two 2x2 MIMO sectors for extra data capacity.
Support for additional radio heads as well as host of other features such as GPS
synch and RET.
Ideal for fixed LTE networks – equally adaptable for macro and micro cell
deployments by using a combination of outdoor and indoor UE devices.