Ce diaporama a bien été signalé.
Nous utilisons votre profil LinkedIn et vos données d’activité pour vous proposer des publicités personnalisées et pertinentes. Vous pouvez changer vos préférences de publicités à tout moment.
Population and social aggregation in the Neolithic Chulmun villages
of Korea
Minkoo Kim a,⇑
, Heung-Nam Shin b
, Shinhye K...
crews from the National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage
(2013, 2014) discovered a tract of Chulmun-period dry field...
‘‘-dong” imply an urban district, and those with ‘‘-ri” a rural village
(cf. Amsa-dong and Munam-ri). Usually, only one si...
3.3. Phase 3 (4000–3000 BC)
The characteristic feature of this phase is the use of comb-
patterned pottery, which bears ge...
Table 1
Radiocarbon dates from the Chulmun pit houses.
No. Site Provenience Material Uncalibrated BP Calibrated BC
(1 sigm...
Table 1 (continued)
No. Site Provenience Material Uncalibrated BP Calibrated BC
(1 sigma)
Lab number Phase
House 23-12 Cha...
Table 1 (continued)
No. Site Provenience Material Uncalibrated BP Calibrated BC
(1 sigma)
Lab number Phase
House 23 Charco...
Table 1 (continued)
No. Site Provenience Material Uncalibrated BP Calibrated BC
(1 sigma)
Lab number Phase
(Hannam Univers...
southern regions, and are most densely distributed in the central-
western region (Fig. 2).
Most sites consist of 1–5 pit ...
some contemporaneity of the occupation (Fig. 4). The sites of
Seoggyo-ri, Neunggok-dong and Singil-dong can be divided int...
that were occupied with some temporal difference and that the
difference is also reflected in the radiocarbon dates. Althou...
community in Phase 4 (Figs. 9 and 10). The details of the Sangchon-
ri site are unfortunately not well known because the s...
3.5. Phase 5 (2000–1500 BC)
Finally, only five settlements (Unseo-dong, Unbuk-dong,
Dangdong-ri, Yanggwi-ri, and Ojin-ri) a...
The paucity and imprecision of radiocarbon dates cause another
problem. There has been a tendency among Korean archaeologi...
Table 3
Radiocarbon dates from the Chulmun shell middens.
No. Site Provenience Material Uncalibrated BP Calibrated BC Lab ...
Table 3 (continued)
No. Site Provenience Material Uncalibrated BP Calibrated BC Lab number Phase
Midden 1 Charcoal 4240 ± ...
Table 3 (continued)
No. Site Provenience Material Uncalibrated BP Calibrated BC Lab number Phase
Layer 5 Charcoal 6550 ± 5...
radiocarbon dates and could have been occupied in Phase 4. Yet
this does not alter the general pattern of decreasing settl...
the overall settlement number decreased in Phase 4 of the Chul-
mun period, the patterns are rather regionalized and the u...
environmental, demographic, and social factors that suppress the
growth of authoritative leadership and ensure egalitarian...
before 4000 BC was largely unpopulated and the degree of social
and environmental circumscription that would have discoura...
1 s2.0-s027841651500080 x-main  http://www.cheapassignmenthelp.com/
1 s2.0-s027841651500080 x-main  http://www.cheapassignmenthelp.com/
Prochain SlideShare
Chargement dans…5
×

1 s2.0-s027841651500080 x-main http://www.cheapassignmenthelp.com/

809 vues

Publié le

Dear student, Cheap Assignment Help, an online tutoring company, provides students with a wide range of online assignment help services for students studying in classes K-12, and College or university. The Expert team of professional online assignment help tutors at Cheap Assignment Help .COM provides a wide range of help with assignments through services such as college assignment help, university assignment help, homework assignment help, email assignment help and online assignment help. Our expert team consists of passionate and professional assignment help tutors, having masters and PhD degrees from the best universities of the world, from different countries like Australia, United Kingdom, United States, Canada, UAE and many more who give the best quality and plagiarism free answers of the assignment help questions submitted by students, on sharp deadline. Cheap Assignment Help .COM tutors are available 24x7 to provide assignment help in diverse fields - Math, Chemistry, Physics, Writing, Thesis, Essay, Accounting, Finance, Data Analysis, Case Studies, Term Papers, and Projects etc. We also provide assistance to the problems in programming languages such as C/C++, Java, Python, Matlab, .Net, Engineering assignment help and Finance assignment help. The expert team of certified online tutors in diverse fields at Cheap Assignment Help .COM available around the clock (24x7) to provide live help to students with their assignment and questions. We have also excelled in providing E-education with latest web technology. The Students can communicate with our online assignment tutors using voice, video and an interactive white board. We help students in solving their problems, assignments, tests and in study plans. You will feel like you are learning from a highly skilled online tutor in person just like in classroom teaching. You can see what the tutor is writing, and at the same time you can ask the questions which arise in your mind. You only need a PC with Internet connection or a Laptop with Wi-Fi Internet access. We provide live online tutoring which can be accessed at anytime and anywhere according to student’s convenience. We have tutors in every subject such as Math, Chemistry, Biology, Physics and English whatever be the school level. Our college and university level tutors provide engineering online tutoring in areas such as Computer Science, Electrical and Electronics engineering, Mechanical engineering and Chemical engineering. Regards http://www.cheapassignmenthelp.com/ http://www.cheapassignmenthelp.co.uk/

Publié dans : Formation
  • Soyez le premier à commenter

  • Soyez le premier à aimer ceci

1 s2.0-s027841651500080 x-main http://www.cheapassignmenthelp.com/

  1. 1. Population and social aggregation in the Neolithic Chulmun villages of Korea Minkoo Kim a,⇑ , Heung-Nam Shin b , Shinhye Kim b , Dong-jung Lim c , Kyuhee Jo d , Ara Ryu d , Haesun Won d , Semi Oh a , Hyengsin Noh e a Department of Anthropology, Chonnam National University, Republic of Korea b Honam Cultural Property Research Center, Republic of Korea c Jeollanam-do Culture & Arts Foundation, Republic of Korea d Naju National Museum, Republic of Korea e Naju National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage, Republic of Korea a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 18 March 2015 Revision received 30 July 2015 Keywords: Chulmun Neolithic Hunter–gatherer Fission Aggregation Egalitarianism a b s t r a c t This article reviews published excavation reports of the Chulmun settlements in South Korea and explores the changes in demographic structure over the period of ca. 8000–1500 BC. The Chulmun people were sedentary hunter–gatherer–fishers with an intensified use of marine resources, food storage, and a low level of plant cultivation. Archaeological evidence for social differentiation is very scarce in this per- iod and social relationships are assumed to have been egalitarian. In an attempt to explain the lack of articulated social differentiation, this study examines settlement patterns to reveal considerable tempo- ral variation. The number of settlements increased dramatically in 4000–3000 BC, presumably under the influence of plant cultivation and/or an intensified use of wild resources, but then decreased in 3000–1500 BC. Even at the zenith of the hypothetical population growth, most settlements were small scale with only a few pit houses and archaeological evidence for large population aggregation, which would have promoted interpersonal interactions, is rare. The uninterrupted presence of shell middens shows that coastal resources continued to be exploited until the end of the Chulmun period, while some sites were newly established in small remote islands. The current investigation suggests that although population growth occurred at one point, a number of interrelated factors, including a low level of aggre- gation and the subsequent population decrease and/or relocation, acted against the institutionalization of social inequality in the Chulmun period. Ó 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction This article reviews the published excavation reports for the Chulmun sites in South Korea and examines the temporal change in villages over the period of ca. 8000–1500 BC. The Chulmun cul- ture is a post-glacial prehistoric culture characterized by pottery of geometric designs, shell middens, and villages composed of multi- ple houses, hearths and storage pits. The name of this culture orig- inated from the term ‘‘chulmun,” which designates the comb- patterned linear decoration on clay vessels. The presence of this culture was first noted by Torii Ryuzo in 1916 through the discov- ery of incised potsherds in Yongban-ri, Monggeumpo, and Si-do (Ahn, 1988). The excavation of Jitap-ri in 1957 revealed that this culture predated the Mumun-pottery culture, which is now known to have started in the southern part of the Korean peninsula around 1500 BC. Due to the presence of pottery and ground stone tools as well as the presumed sedentary lifeways, the Chulmun cul- ture has been regarded as the ‘‘Korean Neolithic period” since the 1960s. The Chulmun people are commonly presented to have been sedentary hunter–gatherer–fishers with an intensified use of mar- ine resources, food storage, and a low level of plant cultivation (Korean Archaeological Society, 2012). Archaeobotanical research in many sites, including Neunggok-dong, Tongsam-dong, Sangchon-ri, and Pyeonggeo-dong, has revealed the cultivation of foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauvois) and broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) during the Chulmun period (Ahn, 2013; Crawford and Lee, 2003; Lee, 2011). Munam-ri, where excavation http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaa.2015.08.002 0278-4165/Ó 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. ⇑ Corresponding author. Fax: +82 62 530 2699. E-mail address: minkoo@jnu.ac.kr (M. Kim). Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 40 (2015) 160–182 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Journal of Anthropological Archaeology journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/jaa
  2. 2. crews from the National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage (2013, 2014) discovered a tract of Chulmun-period dry field and carbonized crop grains, also indicates the presence of plant cultivation. Although the evidence for plant cultivation is accumu- lating, it is widely assumed among researchers that the contribu- tion of cultigens in the overall Chulmun subsistence would not have been significant (Bae et al., 2013). The large number of shell middens and the preserved organic remains show that activities of hunting, gathering, and fishing were important throughout the Chulmun period. Yet the storage practice and the presumed seden- tary lifestyles suggest that the Chulmun culture was different from the ethnographically documented egalitarian hunter–gatherers, which are characterized by the lack of food storage, high residen- tial mobility, fluid social organization, and an equal access to resources (Lee and DeVore, 1968). Rather, the Chulmun culture is comparable with the so-called ‘‘complex hunter–gatherers,” who were sedentary, had storage systems, and intensified the uses of wild resources, as well as had high population density, occupa- tional specialty, and a marked social inequality (Ames, 1994; Ames and Maschner, 1999; Price and Brown, 1985). Archaeological evidence for sociopolitical complexity during the Chulmun period is extremely meager. The prevalent view on the sociopolitical developments in prehistoric Korea is that rice-based agriculture intensified during the Bronze Age (1500–300 BC) and that this new form of agrarian economy stimu- lated the development of hierarchical social organizations and the formation of chiefdoms (Nelson, 1993; Rhee and Choi, 1992). The general treatment of the Chulmun culture, on the other hand, was to present it as ‘‘egalitarian” social units that generally con- form to ‘‘tribe” in evolutionary stages (Nelson, 1993). Efforts have been made to find material evidence for social inequality, and dif- ferences in site and house sizes, burial goods, and toolkits were interpreted to reflect some level of social differentiation during the Chulmun period (Im, 2003; Lee, 2000; Shin et al., 2012). Yet the little evidence that might be interpreted along this line remains mostly circumstantial. Furthermore, archaeological remains indicative of vertical social differentiation are barely present, although a certain level of horizontal social differentiation might be acknowledged. As an exploratory effort to explain this lack of articulated social differentiation during the Chulmun period, the current study investigates the temporal changes in settlements and addresses a few interrelated questions. First, the validity of the evidence for population increase during the Chulmun period is assessed using the number, size and geographical locations of settlements as proxy data. Next, the settlement patterns evidenced by the archae- ological data are examined by focusing on the level of population aggregation. It is hypothesized that the pressure of an increasing population among the Chulmun people may have induced one of two possible settlement patterns: aggregation into large groups to form a few large villages or, alternatively, organization into numerous and minimal social units creating many small sites. These two contrasting patterns can be differentiated based on site location, the number of pit houses per site, and the size of houses. People may have seasonally or periodically aggregated into large groups in the latter cases of the dispersed settlement systems, which would also leave vestiges of large villages in the form of multiple dwelling structures. The aggregation into large villages, whether it was temporary or permanent, is of particular impor- tance as it would have intensified interpersonal interactions and created a new social milieu for ritual, feast, and competition. In what follows, the temporal changes in the Chulmun settlements over the period 8000–1500 BC are presented for the southern part of the Korean peninsula in order to examine and answer these questions. 2. The Chulmun culture and the current approach The currently known Chulmun sites in the entire Korean penin- sula number 871, which includes both the excavated sites (n = 222) and the unexcavated sites where the presence of Chulmun remains has been suggested only though surface survey (n = 649) (Ku and Bae, 2009). Among the 871 sites, 148 are located in North Korea (120,540 km2 ) and 723 in South Korea (100,210 km2 ). The differ- ence in site density between North and South almost certainly reflects the different research extent in each country. Naturally, more Chulmun sites continue to be found. Only 400 Chulmun sites were known across the entire Korean peninsula until the mid- 1990s, with the number having more than doubled over the last two decades (Han, 1995). An important progress in the recent Chulmun research is the excavation of settlements consisting of multiple pit houses. Nelson (1993) characterized the Chulmun per- iod as the ‘‘Early Villages” stage, although only a handful of sites, such as Osan-ri (or Osanni), Amsa-dong, and Jitap-ri (Chitamni), were known to have multiple houses at the time of her writing. In their comprehensive overview of the Chulmun period, Choe and Bale (2002) cited 40 sites, only half of which were settlements with pit houses. The number of excavated Chulmun villages has increased drastically recently and a recent compilation counted 97 excavated Chulmun village sites in the entire Korean peninsula (Ku and Bae, 2009). The 222 excavated Chulmun sites mostly fall into the following three categories: shell middens, aggregations of hearths, stone piles and/or pits, and settlements with pit houses. Other miscella- neous site types include rock shelters, caves, kilns, and burials. Shell middens are commonly found, but their function in the set- tlement systems is not always clearly understood. Some shell mid- dens are considered to have been the residential bases occupied either seasonally or continually, although only a few of them are associated with pit houses (Im, 1998; Lee, 2002; Shin, 1994). Many shell middens are believed to have been used only logistically for resource extraction, possibly by different social groups (Kim and Yang, 2001). The sites represented only by hearths, stone piles or pits are presumably not residential bases but the locations logisti- cally used by a fraction of a social unit (sensu Binford, 1980). The current study primarily focuses on the settlements with pit houses as a means to assess population level and the degree of social aggregation. In what follows, the Chulmun period is arbitrarily divided into five phases: Phase 1 (8000–5000 BC), Phase 2 (5000–4000 BC), Phase 3 (4000–3000 BC), Phase 4 (3000–2000 BC), and Phase 5 (2000–1500 BC). A persistent tendency in the Chulmun research is an attempt to build a regional chronology based on pottery dec- oration and styles with a focus on the sites of long-term spans, pri- marily shell middens. The studies in South Korea have centered on a few distinct regions, e.g., central-western, central-eastern and southeastern coasts, and the different regional pottery traditions have been highlighted rather than synthesized. As a result, many regional chronological frameworks, some mutually incompatible, have been proposed. For instance, the term ‘‘Middle Chulmun Per- iod” may imply different time spans, such as 4500–3500 BC, 4000– 3000 BC, or 3500–3000 BC, depending on the researchers and regions (Ahn, 2011). In contrast with the traditional approaches, the current study primarily uses radiocarbon dates to assign the settlements to different phases and facilitate comparison across the regions. Most sites could be assigned to only one phase, while radiocarbon dates from a few sites showed a wide temporal range, suggesting a long occupational span overlapping two or more phases. Korean archaeological sites are traditionally named after the administrative division of the site location. The site names with M. Kim et al. / Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 40 (2015) 160–182 161
  3. 3. ‘‘-dong” imply an urban district, and those with ‘‘-ri” a rural village (cf. Amsa-dong and Munam-ri). Usually, only one site has been found in one administrative division, but in a few exceptional cases, multiple sites were located widely separated from each other. In the latter cases, the sites were considered as separate set- tlements and differentiated with ancillary names (cf. Jungsan-dong Hangang and Jungsan-dong Jungang). The sites reported from small islands (<50 km2 ) were considered as one site, regardless of different excavation localities, whereas sites on large islands (>50 km2 ) were considered as different entities depending on dis- tance. The sites on small islands are indicated by ‘‘-do” in the site names. Unfortunately, not all radiocarbon dates were necessarily accu- rate and reliable. The dates measured before the 1990s were often unreliable and associated with wide error ranges of more than 100 years, rendering the dates less precise. Although the dates of the excavated sites were determined primarily based on radiocar- bon dates, the correspondence of the dates with pottery chronology and stratigraphy, as well as the presence of other time-sensitive artifacts or features within the sites, was critically assessed in order to eliminate unreliable dates. For example, it is widely accepted among Korean researchers that pottery of comb-patterned decora- tion (Chulmun) became prevalent after 3500 BC and was preceded by a few other pottery types, such as archaic undecorated (Mumun- yang) pottery, raised-design (Yunggimun) pottery, and pressed- and pierced-design (Apinmun and Jadolmun) pottery, roughly in this temporal order since the beginning of the Holocene (Ahn, 2011). The observation of pottery styles can therefore provide extensive clues to the antiquity of the sites and a means to evaluate the reli- ability of radiocarbon dates. 3. Temporal changes in settlements 3.1. Phase 1 (8000–5000 BC) Although sites of ca. 8000–5000 BC have been reported from several locations, settlements with pit houses are scant and only four sites may possibly belong to this phase: Kosan-ri, Osan-ri, Munam-ri, and Ojin-ri (Fig. 1). These sites contain Chulmun pot- sherds of archaic styles (Mumunyang and Yunggimun) generally agreed to be older than 5000 BC. However, the absolute dates have not yet been fully resolved for these sites and scholarly debate con- tinues (Ko and Hong, 2007; Park, 2012). Kosan-ri is widely believed to be the earliest Chulmun site (Korean Archaeological Society, 2012). The earliest pottery from this site is characterized by undecorated flat-bottomed bowls made of sandy clay and plant-based tempers (Kang, 2011). The antiquity of this site was initially suggested during the excavation in 1994, as the potsherds were discovered beneath the Kikai- Akahoya ash layer dated to around 5300–4300 BC (Im, 1995). The potsherds were found in association with microblades and microb- lade cores, which were representative artifacts of the Late Pale- olithic period. No radiocarbon dates were available for the site until 2000 due to the lack of charcoal, and four radiocarbon dates obtained directly from potsherds after 2000 showed widely sepa- rated dates (10,180 ± 65 BP [AA-38105], 6910 ± 60 BP [SNU02- 584], 6230 ± 320 BP [SNU02-096], and 4480 ± 45 BP [AA-38106]; uncalibrated dates) (Kuzmin, 2006). The excavation in 2012 dis- covered 10 pit houses and the 16 newly obtained radiocarbon dates centered around ca. 8000 BC and 4000 BC (Jeju Cultural Heritage Institute, 2014). It appears that Kosan-ri was occupied at different phases, the first of which is dated to almost 10,000 years ago (Table 1). Osan-ri consists of 17 houses and has a relatively long occupa- tional span. The site was first excavated in 1981–1987 (Localities A and B) and later in 2006 (Locality C). Judging from the stratigraphic relationship, Osan-ri went through three cultural stages, which are also differentiated by representative pottery styles: the first stage of archaic undecorated and raised-design pottery, the second stage of pressed- and pierced-design pottery, and the third stage of comb-patterned pottery (Ko and Hong, 2007). Most Osan-ri houses belong to Phases 2 and 3 (5000–3000 BC) while House #5 in the bottom layer of Locality C possibly belongs to Phase 1 with a radio- carbon date of 6599 ± 26 BP [lab # unknown] (Ko, 2012). Although no artifacts were found inside House #5, the remains of archaic undecorated pottery, microblades and microblade cores were found in the layer contemporaneous to the house (Ko and Hong, 2007). Munam-ri is located 30 km north of Osan-ri and was excavated three times in 1998–1999, 2002, and 2010–2012 (National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage, 2013, 2014). The excava- tions revealed that Munam-ri had gone through the same pottery stages as Osan-ri. In total, 12 Chulmun-period houses were found and one (#02-7), which contained the remains of undecorated bowls, belongs to Phase 1 with radiocarbon dates of 6595 ± 40 uncal. BP [TKa-13909] and 6030 ± 120 uncal. BP [SNU12-R195] (Kunikida and Yoshida, 2007; National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage, 2014). Finally, Ojin-ri is another site that possibly belongs to Phase 1 (Fig. 1). This is a rock shelter site containing a pit house of a later phase and is composed of four layers of approximately 2.5 m depth. Layer III, the second layer from the bottom, contains Chul- mun potsherds of diverse styles while Layer IV, the bottom layer, is dominated by the remains of archaic undecorated pottery (Pusan National University Museum, 1994). Many researchers acknowledge the antiquity of the site, although the discovered pot- sherds are highly fragmentary and no absolute date is currently available for the bottom layer (Im, 1995). 3.2. Phase 2 (5000–4000 BC) Houses of Phase 2 are reported from Osan-ri, Munam-ri, Song- do, and Tongsam-dong (Fig. 1). Among the 17 houses in Osan-ri, 13 possibly belong to Phase 2. Houses of this phase contain raised-design pottery and the so-called Osan-ri style pottery, which refers to the flat-bottomed bowls with pressed designs pop- ular along the eastern coast of the Korean peninsula. Radiocarbon dates for these houses were obtained during the 1980s and 2000s. Dates measured in the 1980s range between ca. 6000 and 4400 BC but are mostly associated with large error ranges of a few hundred years, and the charcoal samples were collected not from the houses but from the layers (Nelson, 1993). The radiocar- bon dates measured in the 2000s are, on the other hand, associated with smaller error ranges of 20–30 years and range between ca. 4800 and 4500 BC (Table 1). The 13 houses are considered to be Phase 2 based on the radiocarbon dates of the 2000s, but this does not mean that the houses were simultaneously occupied, as shown by their superimposed relationship (Ko, 2012). Four Munam-ri houses excavated in 1998–1999 and 2002 are dated to Phase 2. These houses have the remains of Osan-ri style pottery, and potsherds with comb-patterned decoration are com- pletely absent. Not all houses have been radiocarbon dated but their contemporaneity can be assessed from the stylistic similarity of pottery. In addition, pit houses discovered in Song-do and Tongsam-dong are also dated to Phase 2. These houses contained the remains of raised-design pottery with radiocarbon dates rang- ing between ca. 4400 and 4200 BC (Table 1). 162 M. Kim et al. / Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 40 (2015) 160–182
  4. 4. 3.3. Phase 3 (4000–3000 BC) The characteristic feature of this phase is the use of comb- patterned pottery, which bears geometric patterns incised on the outer surface of the vessels. The comb-patterned pottery is called chulmun togi, jeulmun togi (in new Romanization system of Korean) or bitsalmuni togi in Korean and is often considered the defining artifact of the Chulmun period, even though the period actually witnessed the rise and fall of a diversity of pottery styles. It is gen- erally believed that the comb-patterned pottery first emerged in the central-western part of the peninsula around 4000 BC and sub- sequently spread to the eastern and southern regions (Im, 2008). The clay vessels of this phase are V-shaped and three different design motifs were applied to three parts (upper, middle, and lower) of the vessels. The early types had an incised decoration on the entire outer surface of the vessels while decoration on the middle and lower parts gradually disappeared over time (Im, 2008). Archaeobotanical research suggests the presence of plant culti- vation in this phase. Lee (2011) reports the carbonized remains of foxtail and broomcorn millets from Neunggok-dong, which are dated to 4740 ± 26 uncal. BP [Beta-252973]. Crop remains of Phase 3, mostly of foxtail and broomcorn millets, were reported from Tongsam-dong, Munam-ri, Jangjae-ri and Seoggyo-ri (Table 2). Examination of pottery impressions of Osan-ri, Munam-ri, and Songgeon-ri also indicated the presence of millets in this phase (Jo et al., 2014). The remains of rice, barley, and wheat were reported from Daecheon-ri and Munam-ri, but the authenticity of the dates is contested (Ahn, 2008; Lee, 2014). Another important finding is a tract of dry field (ca. 400 m2 ) discovered in Munam- ri, which is dated to ca. 3000 BC (National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage, 2013, 2014). The number of sites with pit houses increased drastically during this phase to 58 (Fig. 2). Three Osan-ri houses with potsherds of comb-patterned decoration are assigned to this phase although only one of the houses has been radiocarbon dated (Table 1). Seven Munam-ri houses excavated in 2010–2012 have been radiocarbon dated, six of which are dated to this phase with radiocarbon dates ranging from ca. 3500 BC to 3100 BC (Table 1). As mentioned ear- lier, Osan-ri and Munam-ri were occupied intermittently over a long period and have houses of multiple phases. However, most other settlements of Phase 3 were newly occupied in this phase and appear to have been used only during this phase. The settle- ments are found across the central-western, central-eastern and Fig. 1. Settlements of Phases 1 and 2 (ca. 8000–4000 BC). ⁄ For Figs. 1, 2 and 8, the number for each site corresponds to the site number in Tables 1 and 2. M. Kim et al. / Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 40 (2015) 160–182 163
  5. 5. Table 1 Radiocarbon dates from the Chulmun pit houses. No. Site Provenience Material Uncalibrated BP Calibrated BC (1 sigma) Lab number Phase 1 Kosan-ri (n = 10) (Jeju Cultural Heritage Institute, 2014) House 1 (Grid N2W1) Charcoal 8570 ± 50 7594 ± 29 KGM-OWd-130233 1 Hearth 1 (Grid N2W1) Charcoal 8610 ± 50 7642 ± 47 KGM-OWd-130235 Hearth 1 (Grid N2W1) Charcoal 8700 ± 40 7699 ± 60 Beta-349640 Pit 4 (Grid S1W1) Charcoal 8650 ± 50 7668 ± 54 KGM-OWd-130236 Hearth 3, 4 (Grid S1W1) Charcoal 8660 ± 50 7674 ± 56 KGM-OWd-130237 Hearth 5 (Grid S1W1) Charcoal 8540 ± 50 7571 ± 22 KGM-OWd-130238 Hearth 5 (Grid S1W1) Charcoal 8480 ± 40 7551 ± 22 Beta-349641 Hearth 1 (Grid S2W1) Charcoal 8600 ± 50 7633 ± 43 KGM-OWd-130241 Hearth 1 (Grid S2W1) Charcoal 8650 ± 40 7660 ± 47 Beta-349642 Pit 3 (Grid S3W1) Charcoal 8630 ± 50 7656 ± 51 KGM-OWd-130242 Pit 14 (Grid S3W1) Charcoal 8560 ± 50 7582 ± 23 KGM-OWd-130243 Pit 2 (Grid S2E1) Charcoal 8690 ± 50 7704 ± 71 KGM-OWd-130246 Pit 11 (Grid S2E1) Charcoal 8660 ± 50 7674 ± 56 KGM-OWd-130247 Pit 18 (Grid N2W1) Pottery 8310 ± 50 7380 ± 76 KGM-OPy-140001 Ditch 1 (Grid N1E1) Charcoal 5610 ± 40 4435 ± 48 KGM-OWd-130245 2 House 1 (Grid S4E2) Charcoal 5440 ± 40 4301 ± 34 KGM-OWd-130248 Pit 18 (Grid N2W1) Pottery 5760 ± 40 4618 ± 56 KGM-OPy-140004 Pit 4 (Grid S2W1) Pottery 5680 ± 40 4520 ± 43 KGM-OPy-140003 Pit 14 (Grid N2W1) Charcoal 5040 ± 40 3856 ± 67 KGM-OWd-130234 3 Pit 3 (Grid S2W1) Charcoal 4560 ± 40 3254 ± 105 KGM-OWd-130239 Pit 5 (Grid S2W1) Charcoal 5070 ± 40 3875 ± 59 KGM-OWd-130240 Pit 1 (Grid S4W1) Charcoal 5070 ± 40 3875 ± 59 KGM-OWd-130244 Pit 1 (Grid S4W1) Charcoal 4930 ± 40 3715 ± 43 Beta-349643 Pit 18 (Grid N2W1) Pottery 4710 ± 30 3504 ± 101 Beta-379044 2 Ggachisan (n = 1) Not available 3 3 Sammok-do III (n = 8) (Seoul National University Museum, 2007) House 1 Charcoal 4700 ± 40 3499 ± 97 Unknown 3 Charcoal 4780 ± 40 3579 ± 46 Unknown House 2 Charcoal 4800 ± 80 3551 ± 102 Unknown Charcoal 4670 ± 80 3478 ± 103 Unknown House 3 Charcoal 4610 ± 40 3424 ± 64 Unknown House 4 Charcoal 4340 ± 50 2978 ± 58 Unknown Charcoal 4310 ± 80 2967 ± 104 Unknown House 5 Charcoal 4540 ± 50 3242 ± 101 Unknown Charcoal 4510 ± 50 3222 ± 97 Unknown House 8 Charcoal 4480 ± 60 3183 ± 121 Unknown House 9 Charcoal 4480 ± 50 3196 ± 108 SNU05-200 Charcoal 4460 ± 40 3176 ± 119 SNU05-202 Charcoal 4620 ± 40 3430 ± 61 SNU05-201 Charcoal 4740 ± 60 3513 ± 98 SNU05-203 House 11 Charcoal 4770 ± 60 3527 ± 96 SNU05-204 Charcoal 4530 ± 50 3235 ± 99 SNU05-741 4 Neundeul (n = 1) (Seoul National University Museum, 2001) House 1 Charcoal 4270 ± 60 2869 ± 98 SNU00-137 3 Charcoal 4790 ± 80 3540 ± 103 SNU00-138 Charcoal 4480 ± 30 3212 ± 93 SNU00-139 5 Unseo-dong (n = 66) (Jungang Institute of Cultural Heritage, 2010) House 1-3 Charcoal 5040 ± 50 3849 ± 74 SNU09-R209 3 House 2-14 Charcoal 4560 ± 50 3256 ± 107 OSa090036 House 2-14 Charcoal 4930 ± 50 3721 ± 49 OSa090037 House 2-16 Charcoal 4550 ± 80 3253 ± 129 SNU09-R210 House 2-18 Charcoal 4390 ± 70 3097 ± 146 OWd090008 House 2-21 Charcoal 4920 ± 80 3739 ± 84 SNU09-R211 House 2-25 Charcoal 4870 ± 50 3663 ± 41 OWd090009 House 2-26 Charcoal 4910 ± 50 3708 ± 46 OWd090010 House 2-30 Charcoal 4990 ± 60 3808 ± 92 SNU09-R212 House 2-40 Charcoal 4680 ± 50 3485 ± 85 OWd090011 House 2-42 Charcoal 4750 ± 70 3517 ± 99 OWd090012 House 2-45 Charcoal 4680 ± 50 3485 ± 85 OWd090013 House 2-48 Charcoal 4780 ± 50 3570 ± 56 OWd090014 House 2-56 Charcoal 4630 ± 50 3433 ± 64 OWd090015 House 2-57 Charcoal 3360 ± 60 1648 ± 80 SNU09-R213 5 6 Unseo-dong Jeotgae (n = 3) Not available 3 7 Ulwang-dong (n = 11) (Jungang Institute of Cultural Heritage, 2006) House III-1 Charcoal 4510 ± 90 3200 ± 140 SNU04-789 3 House III-3 Charcoal 4220 ± 70 2789 ± 100 SNU04-790 4 8 Unbuk-dong (n = 18) (Hangang Institute of Cultural Heritage, 2012b) House 1-1 Charcoal 4500 ± 60 3208 ± 107 SNU10-708 3 House 6-10 Charcoal 4430 ± 60 3130 ± 144 SNU10-722 House 2-3 Charcoal 4240 ± 50 2816 ± 82 SNU10-709 4 House 6-3 Charcoal 4380 ± 50 3015 ± 73 SNU10-720 House 6-7 Charcoal 3480 ± 50 1812 ± 63 SNU10-721 5 9 Jungsan-dong Hangang (n = 31) (Hangang Institute of Cultural Heritage, 2012a) House 23-1 Charcoal 4160 ± 25 2772 ± 75 PLD-11555 4 House 23-4 Charcoal 3990 ± 50 2520 ± 51 SNU10-822 House 23-5 Charcoal 4180 ± 50 2770 ± 88 SNU10-823 House 23-6 Charcoal 4410 ± 50 3103 ± 139 SNU10-824 House 23-10 Charcoal 4083 ± 23 2706 ± 115 PLD-11556 164 M. Kim et al. / Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 40 (2015) 160–182
  6. 6. Table 1 (continued) No. Site Provenience Material Uncalibrated BP Calibrated BC (1 sigma) Lab number Phase House 23-12 Charcoal 4190 ± 50 2778 ± 87 SNU10-825 House 23-22 Charcoal 3740 ± 50 2148 ± 81 SNU10-834 House 21-24 Charcoal 4030 ± 50 2575 ± 72 SNU10-835 House 21-25 Charcoal 4260 ± 50 2844 ± 71 SNU10-836 House 21-27 Charcoal 3690 ± 50 2082 ± 72 SNU10-838 House 21-27 Charcoal 4140 ± 50 2740 ± 97 SNU10-837 House 21-29 Charcoal 4240 ± 50 2816 ± 82 SNU10-840 House 21-30 Charcoal 4330 ± 50 2968 ± 54 SNU10-841 House 21-31 Charcoal 4460 ± 50 3170 ± 124 SNU10-842 Jungsan-dong Jungang (n = 4) (Jungang Institute of Cultural heritage, 2011) House 2-1 Charcoal 3730 ± 80 2151 ± 118 SNU08-774 House 2-2 Charcoal 3650 ± 60 2037 ± 84 SNU08-R014 House 2-2 Charcoal 3670 ± 50 2057 ± 72 SNU08-R015 House 2-3 Charcoal 4260 ± 60 2843 ± 91 SNU08-R016 House 7-1 Charcoal 3690 ± 50 2082 ± 72 OWd090964 House 7-1 Charcoal 3710 ± 50 2112 ± 72 OWd091140 Jungsan-dong (n = 3) (Korea Institute of Heritage, 2009b) House 2-1 Charcoal 4250 ± 60 2821 ± 92 SNU08-191 House 2-1 Charcoal 4220 ± 50 2799 ± 86 SNU08-192 House 7-1 Charcoal 4140 ± 50 2740 ± 97 SNU08-197 10 Samgeo-ri Ganghwa (n = 6) Not available 3 11 Gurae-ri (n = 6) (Korea Institute of Heritage, 2013) House 2-1-9 Charcoal 4020 ± 50 2558 ± 63 SNU10-550 4 House 2-1-4 Charcoal 4530 ± 50 3235 ± 99 SNU11-196 3 House 2-1-5 Charcoal 4550 ± 50 3248 ± 104 SNU11-197 12 Samgeo-ri Yeoncheon (n = 1) Not available 3 13 Dangdong-ri (n = 4) (Gyeonggi institute of Cultural Property, 2009) House 1 Charcoal 3390 ± 100 1704 ± 133 SNU07-525 5 14 Deoksong-ri (n = 3) (Hanbaek Research Institute of Cultural Heritage, 2012) House 1-1 Charcoal 4040 ± 50 2592 ± 84 OWd110109 4 House 1-2 Charcoal 4000 ± 50 2531 ± 51 OWd110110 House 2 Charcoal 3940 ± 50 2439 ± 84 OWd110002 House 2 Charcoal 3640 ± 40 2029 ± 70 OWd110111 House 3 Charcoal 4080 ± 50 2692 ± 126 OWd110112 15 Hwajeop-ri (n = 1) (Hanbaek Research Institute of Cultural Heritage, 2012) House 1 Charcoal 4030 ± 50 2575 ± 72 OWd110102 4 16 Hopyeong-dong (n = 3) (Gijeon Cultural Property Research Center, 2007) House 1 Charcoal 3930 ± 60 2419 ± 89 SUN06-173 4 House 2 Charcoal 3860 ± 50 2339 ± 89 SUN06-176 House 3 Charcoal 4040 ± 60 2619 ± 113 SUN06-177 House 3 Charcoal 4050 ± 60 2634 ± 119 SNU06-178 House 3 Charcoal 3990 ± 60 2511 ± 79 SNU06-179 17 Misa-ri (n = 1) Not available 3 18 Amsa-dong (n = 30) (National Museum of Korea, 1994, 1999, 2006, 2007) House 74-5 Charcoal 4610 ± 200 3317 ± 260 Unknown 3 House 75-1 Charcoal 4660 ± 70 3469 ± 92 KCP-135 House 75-2 Charcoal 5000 ± 70 3814 ± 94 KAERI-189 House 75-4 Charcoal 4730 ± 200 3442 ± 259 Unknown House 75-10 Charcoal 5510 ± 100 4356 ± 98 KAERI-188 19 Neunggok-dong (n = 24) (Gyeonggi Institute of Cultural Property, 2010) House 2 Charcoal 4598 ± 31 3421 ± 64 PLD-10630 3 House 2 Charcoal 4730 ± 50 3511 ± 98 SNU08-238 House 4 Charcoal 4659 ± 30 3447 ± 52 PLD-10631 House 4 Charcoal 4690 ± 70 3495 ± 98 SNU08-239 House 5 Charcoal 4638 ± 30 3437 ± 56 PLD-10632 House 6 Charcoal 4870 ± 50 3663 ± 41 SNU08-240 House 7 Charcoal 4650 ± 32 3443 ± 54 PLD-10633 House 7 Charcoal 4830 ± 50 3606 ± 58 SNU08-241 House 9 Charcoal 4667 ± 31 3450 ± 53 PLD-10634 House 9 Charcoal 4580 ± 60 3312 ± 154 SNU08-242 House 10 Charcoal 4583 ± 24 3411 ± 63 PLD-10635 House 11 Charcoal 4671 ± 23 3450 ± 51 PLD-10636 House 11 Charcoal 4750 ± 60 3517 ± 97 SNU08-243 House 12 Charcoal 4730 ± 23 3514 ± 102 PLD-10637 House 12 Charcoal 4520 ± 80 3217 ± 124 SNU08-244 House 13 Charcoal 4970 ± 50 3786 ± 85 SNU08-245 House 15 Charcoal 4666 ± 24 3449 ± 51 PLD-10639 House 16 Charcoal 4740 ± 25 3522 ± 95 PLD-10640 House 16 Charcoal 4900 ± 50 3702 ± 44 SNU08-247 House 18 Charcoal 4636 ± 24 3436 ± 56 PLD-10641 House 18 Charcoal 4840 ± 50 3616 ± 63 SNU08-248 House 18 Charcoal 4780 ± 50 3570 ± 56 SNU08-249 House 19 Charcoal 4606 ± 24 3426 ± 60 PLD-10642 House 19 Charcoal 4860 ± 50 3633 ± 64 SNU08-250 House 20 Charcoal 4629 ± 23 3433 ± 57 PLD-10643 House 20 Charcoal 4800 ± 50 3586 ± 52 SNU08-251 House 21 Charcoal 4544 ± 24 3249 ± 101 PLD-10644 House 23 Charcoal 4815 ± 26 3596 ± 47 PLD-10645 (continued on next page) M. Kim et al. / Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 40 (2015) 160–182 165
  7. 7. Table 1 (continued) No. Site Provenience Material Uncalibrated BP Calibrated BC (1 sigma) Lab number Phase House 23 Charcoal 4620 ± 70 3358 ± 142 SNU08-253 20 Singil-dong (n = 24) (Korea Institute of Heritage, 2009c) House 1 Charcoal 4720 ± 50 3508 ± 98 SNU07-107 3 House 2 Charcoal 4700 ± 50 3501 ± 96 SNU07-108 House 4 Charcoal 4710 ± 50 3504 ± 98 SNU07-109 House 5 Charcoal 4760 ± 50 3523 ± 94 SNU07-110 House 6 Charcoal 4620 ± 50 3425 ± 68 SNU07-111 House 7 Charcoal 4600 ± 50 3344 ± 140 SNU07-112 House 10 Charcoal 4710 ± 50 3504 ± 98 SNU07-113 House 11 Charcoal 4530 ± 50 3235 ± 99 SNU07-114 House 21 Charcoal 4610 ± 50 3385 ± 103 SNU07-115 House 22 Charcoal 4650 ± 50 3447 ± 62 SNU07-116 21 Oi-do (n = 4) Not available 4 22 Sasong-dong (n = 1) (Korea Institute of Heritage, 2009a) House 10 Charcoal 4140 ± 50 2740 ± 97 SUN08-363 4 23 Pangyo-dong (n = 1) Not available 4 24 Nongseo-ri (n = 8) (Giho Institute of Cultural Heritage, 2009) House 1 Charcoal 4670 ± 50 3463 ± 66 SNU-07-466 3 House 2 Charcoal 4360 ± 50 3000 ± 69 SNU-07-463 House 2 Charcoal 4340 ± 50 2978 ± 58 SNU-07-462 House 2 Charcoal 4190 ± 60 2770 ± 94 SNU-07-464 House 2 Charcoal 4270 ± 60 2869 ± 98 SNU-07-465 House 3 Charcoal 4830 ± 50 3606 ± 58 SNU-07-467 House 5 Charcoal 4390 ± 60 3083 ± 132 SNU-07-461 House 5 Charcoal 4530 ± 60 3233 ± 105 SNU-07-468 House 5 Charcoal 4480 ± 60 3183 ± 121 SNU-07-469 House 5 Charcoal 4370 ± 50 3008 ± 70 SNU-07-470 House 8 Charcoal 4400 ± 60 3100 ± 142 SNU-07-475 House 8 Charcoal 4370 ± 50 3008 ± 70 SNU-07-474 House 8 Charcoal 4590 ± 60 3325 ± 152 SNU-07-471 House 8 Charcoal 4350 ± 50 2992 ± 66 SNU-07-473 House 8 Charcoal 4360 ± 50 3000 ± 69 SNU-07-472 25 Gajae-ri (n = 1) Not available 4 26 Sindae-ri (n = 1) Not available 4 27 Yanggwi-ri (n = 1) (Jungbu Institute for Archaeology, 2012) House Charcoal 3580 ± 50 1933 ± 73 OWd110198 5 28 Bangok-dong (n = 3) (Hangang Institute of Cultural Heritage, 2013) House 1-1 Charcoal 4240 ± 50 2816 ± 82 OWd090639 4 House 1-1 Charcoal 3690 ± 50 2082 ± 72 OWd090640 House 1-1 Charcoal 2910 ± 50 1117 ± 81 OWd090641 House 1-1 Charcoal 4540 ± 50 3242 ± 101 OWd090642 House 2-1 Charcoal 3540 ± 60 1875 ± 83 SNU10-060 House 2-1 Charcoal 3790 ± 21 2225 ± 48 PLD-16110 29 Udu-ri (n = 2) Not available 3 30 Gojaemigol (n = 1) Not available 3 31 Giji-ri (n = 4) Not available 3 32 Songwol-ri (n = 1) (Chungcheong Institute of Cultural Heritage, 2007) House 1 Charcoal 4360 ± 40 2985 ± 53 KR06-008 3 House 1 Charcoal 4580 ± 50 3315 ± 152 KR06-007 33 Sangjeong-ri (n = 1) (Chungcheong Institute of Cultural Heritage, 2005) House 1 Charcoal 4490 ± 110 3183 ± 157 CCPRI-94 3 House 1 Charcoal 4260 ± 40 2852 ± 56 CCPRI-95 House 1 Charcoal 4390 ± 40 3014 ± 66 CCPRI-97 34 Gwanchang-ri (n = 4) (Ku, 2011) House 2 Charcoal 4690 ± 90 3487 ± 108 Unknown 3 House 2 Charcoal 4450 ± 70 3151 ± 139 Unknown House 2 Charcoal 4420 ± 70 3122 ± 148 Unknown House 2 Charcoal 4360 ± 50 3000 ± 69 Unknown House 47 Charcoal 4620 ± 90 3349 ± 162 Unknown House 47 Charcoal 4140 ± 110 2712 ± 139 Unknown 35 Jangam (n = 2) (Chungnam National University Museum, 2008) House 1 Charcoal 5000 ± 60 3814 ± 91 Beta-85257 3 House 2 Charcoal 4810 ± 80 3567 ± 99 Beta-85258 36 Seoku-ri (n = 1) Not available 3 37 Seongnae-ri (n = 4) (Chungnam Institute of History and Culture, 2007) House 2 Charcoal 4640 ± 60 3439 ± 71 SNU06-1133 3 House 4 Charcoal 4660 ± 50 3454 ± 62 SNU06-1135 38 Punggi-dong (n = 2) Not available 4 39 Geumseok-ri (n = 1) (Jungwon Cultural Property Research Center, 2008) House Charcoal 4510 ± 50 3222 ± 97 SNU06-623 3 House Charcoal 4300 ± 60 2949 ± 61 SNU06-624 40 Ssangcheong-ri (n = 1) Not available 3 41 Hakam-ri (n = 1) (Gongju National University Museum, 2002) House 1 Charcoal 4415 ± 54 3111 ± 143 AA1970 3 House 1 Charcoal 4409 ± 47 3096 ± 133 AA1972 42 Singwan-dong (n = 1) Not available 3 43 Gwanpyeong-dong (n = 1) Not available 3 44 Daecheon-ri (n = 1) House 1 Charcoal 4400 ± 60 3100 ± 142 Unknown 3 166 M. Kim et al. / Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 40 (2015) 160–182
  8. 8. Table 1 (continued) No. Site Provenience Material Uncalibrated BP Calibrated BC (1 sigma) Lab number Phase (Hannam University Museum, 2003) House 1 Charcoal 4240 ± 110 2831 ± 162 Unknown House 1 Charcoal 4590 ± 70 3320 ± 157 Unknown House 1 Charcoal 4490 ± 40 3213 ± 95 Unknown 45 Ga-do (n = 4) Not available 3 46 Noraeseom (n = 1) Not available 4 47 Hyoja-dong (n = 1) Not available 3 48 Ungpo-ri (n = 1) Not available 3 49 Jingeuneul (n = 3) (Chosun University Museum, 2005) House Charcoal 4500 ± 120 3194 ± 167 SNU01-183 3 50 Galmeori (n = 3) (Honam Cultural Property Research Center, 2003) House 1 Charcoal 4510 ± 40 3226 ± 91 SNU01-132 3 House 1 Charcoal 4560 ± 40 3254 ± 105 SNU01-133 House 2 Charcoal 4540 ± 80 3239 ± 124 SNU01-141 House 2 Acorn 4700 ± 80 3497 ± 102 SNU01-138 51 Song-do (Gwangju National Museum, 1989) Layer III-C Charcoal 5440 ± 170 4263 ± 185 NUTA-1334 2 Layer IV Charcoal 5430 ± 170 4255 ± 184 NUTA-1335 52 Jijwa-ri (n = 9) (Daedong Cultural Property Research Center, 2012; Samgang Institute of Cultural Property, 2012) House 4 Charcoal 4220 ± 50 2799 ± 86 SNU10-763 4 53 Songjuk-ri (n = 10) (Keimyung University Museum, 2006) House 3 Charcoal 4380 ± 60 3053 ± 109 Beta-70663 3 House 6 Sediment 3990 ± 70 2512 ± 105 Beta-70664 4 54 Imbul-ri (n = 4) Not available 4 55 Bonggye-ri (n = 11) (Kang et al., 1993) House 9 Walnut 4060 ± 150 2608 ± 214 NUTA-1034 4 56 Sonam-ri (n = 2) Not available 4 57 Sangchon-ri A (n = 4) (Dong-Eui University Museum, 2002) House 5 Charcoal 4290 ± 30 2907 ± 11 SNU00-048 4 Sangchon-ri B (n = 23) (Ahn, 2008) House 22 Charcoal 4030 ± 40 2558 ± 55 Unknown 58 Pyeonggeo-dong (n = 10) (Gyeongnam Development Institute, 2011, 2012) House 5 Charcoal 4450 ± 50 3160 ± 128 SNU12-R022 4 House 2 Charcoal 3620 ± 60 2005 ± 88 SNU09-R130 59 Mok-do (n = 2) Not available 3 60 Yucheon-dong (n = 2) Not available 3 61 Seobyeon-dong (n = 1) Not available 4 62 Daebong-dong (n = 2) Not available 4 63 Daecheong-dong (n = 1) Not available 4 64 Ojin-ri (n = 1) (Im, 1995) House Charcoal 3480 ± 100 1809 ± 124 Beta-65988 5 House Charcoal 2970 ± 60 1199 ± 96 Beta-65989 Not available 1 65 Bonggil-ri (n = 3) Not available 3 66 Geumcheon-ri (n = 2) Not available 4 67 Bibong-ri (n = 2) Not available 3 68 Tongsam-dong Jeonghwa (n = 3) (Busan Museum, 2007) House 1 Charcoal 4360 ± 60 3010 ± 77 SNU 01-144 3 House 1 Bone 4680 ± 60 3490 ± 93 SNU 01-145-1 House 1 Foxtail millet 4590 ± 100 3314 ± 173 TO-8783 House 2 Bone 4300 ± 40 2944 ± 44 SNU 01-146 4 House 3 Bone 5640 ± 90 4496 ± 99 SNU 01-147-1 2 House 3 Bone 5540 ± 40 4398 ± 39 SNU 01-148 69 Auraji (n = 3) Not available 3 70 Jucheon-ri (n = 2) (Yemaek Cultural Property Research Center, 2010) House 1 Charcoal 4670 ± 50 3463 ± 66 OWd090049 3 House 2 Charcoal 4840 ± 50 3616 ± 63 OWd090045 71 Sinwol-dong (n = 1) (Korea Cultural Heritage Foundation, 2003) House Charcoal 3670 ± 50 2057 ± 72 SNU02-074 4 72 Sinmae-ri (n = 1) Not available 3 73 Naepyeong-ri (n = 1) Not available 3 74 Geodu-ri (n = 1) Not available 3 75 Cheonjeon-ri (n = 1) (Gangwon Research Institute of Cultural Property, 2008) House 74 Charcoal 3730 ± 60 2141 ± 90 Unknown 4 76 Yeoknae-ri (n = 3) Not available 3 77 Cheoltong-ri (n = 7) (Yemaek Cultural Property Research Center, 2009) House 3 Charcoal 4400 ± 50 3069 ± 114 SNU07-133 4 House 3 Charcoal 4238 ± 30 2842 ± 54 PLD-7636 House 4 Charcoal 4380 ± 60 3053 ± 109 SNU07-135 House 4 Charcoal 4380 ± 60 3053 ± 109 SNU07-135 House 5 Charcoal 4210 ± 60 2786 ± 92 SNU07-136 House 5 Charcoal 4260 ± 27 2895 ± 9 PLD-7639 House 6 Charcoal 4290 ± 60 2930 ± 71 SNU07-137 (continued on next page) M. Kim et al. / Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 40 (2015) 160–182 167
  9. 9. southern regions, and are most densely distributed in the central- western region (Fig. 2). Most sites consist of 1–5 pit houses and relatively many houses are found in Unseo-dong (n = 66), Amsa-dong (n = 30), Seoggyo-ri (n = 26), Neunggok-dong (n = 24), and Singil-dong (n = 24) (Fig. 3 and Table 1). Not all pit houses discovered in one site are necessar- ily contemporaneous as the superimposition among the houses indicates. Of the 30 pit houses at Amsa-dong, one of the most famous Chulmun sites, the superimposition of many suggests some temporal differences. Except for such cases, the relatively numer- ous pit houses that appear to be contemporaneous in a single site needs special attention as they may indicate the presence of per- manent or periodic aggregation of many people. In this regard, the sites of Unseo-dong, Neuggok-dong, and Singil-dong are note- worthy because of the numerous discovered houses, numbering 66, 24, and 24, respectively, and because the houses rarely overlap, which is suggestive of simultaneous occupation in a large village. Unseo-dong is currently the largest known Chulmun settlement measured by the number of pit houses. The houses are densely dis- tributed over two hills and are rarely superimposed, suggesting Table 1 (continued) No. Site Provenience Material Uncalibrated BP Calibrated BC (1 sigma) Lab number Phase House 6 Charcoal 4232 ± 28 2840 ± 54 PLD-7640 78 Munam-ri (n = 12) (National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage, 2014; Kunikida and Yoshida, 2007) House 02-3 Charcoal 6200 ± 70 5158 ± 96 SNU12-R193 2 House 02-6 Charcoal 5920 ± 70 4811 ± 83 SNU12-R194 House 02-7 Charcoal 6030 ± 120 4962 ± 161 SNU12-R195 1 House 02-7 Charcoal 6595 ± 40 5553 ± 43 TKa-13909 House 13-1 Charcoal 3780 ± 50 2216 ± 75 SNU12-R008 4 House 13-2 Charcoal 4120 ± 40 2730 ± 100 SNU12-R009 3 House 13-2 Charcoal 4480 ± 40 3205 ± 99 SNU12-R201 House 13-3 Charcoal 4450 ± 40 3165 ± 123 SNU12-R010 House 13-3 Charcoal 4480 ± 50 3196 ± 108 SNU12-R202 House 13-4 Charcoal 4600 ± 50 3344 ± 140 SNU12-R203 House 13-7 Charcoal 4660 ± 40 3450 ± 56 Beta-288909 House 13-7 Charcoal 4690 ± 40 3488 ± 87 Beta-284063 79 Gapyeong-ri (n = 2) (National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage, 1999) House 1 Charcoal 4570 ± 60 3296 ± 145 KCP-145 3 House 1 Charcoal 4390 ± 60 3083 ± 132 KCP-151 80 Songjeon-ri (n = 2) (Yemaek Cultural Property Research Center, 2008) House 1 Charcoal 4467 ± 26 3201 ± 99 PLD-7647 3 House 1 Charcoal 4600 ± 60 3338 ± 145 KR06-129 House 2 Acorn 4425 ± 28 3067 ± 66 PLD-7648 House 2 Acorn 4660 ± 60 3460 ± 74 KR06-130 81 Osan-ri (Localities A and B, n = 11) (Seoul National University Museum, 1988a) House B-2 Charcoal 4360 ± 50 3000 ± 69 Unknown 3 Osan-ri (Locality C, n = 6) (Ko, 2012) House 1 Charcoal 5751 ± 24 4613 ± 48 Unknown 2 House 2 Charcoal 5758 ± 24 4618 ± 48 Unknown House 3 Charcoal 5770 ± 24 4629 ± 45 Unknown House 4 Charcoal 5851 ± 27 4735 ± 31 Unknown House 5 Charcoal 6599 ± 26 5555 ± 38 Unknown 1 Layer Charcoal 6151 ± 26 5123 ± 65 Unknown 82 Jigyeong-ri (n = 10) (Gangneung National University Museum, 2002) House 4 Charcoal 4590 ± 70 3320 ± 157 Beta-120738 3 House 6 Charcoal 4420 ± 60 3119 ± 145 Beta-120739 House 7 Charcoal 4600 ± 80 3328 ± 160 Beta-120740 83 Chodang-dong (n = 7) (Gangwon Research Institute of Cultural Property, 2005) House 4 Charcoal 4720 ± 60 3507 ± 98 SNU04-950 3 84 Hasi-dong (n = 1) Not available 3 85 Jangjae-ri Anganggol (n = 6) (Chungcheong Institute of Cultural Heritage, 2008) House 2 Charcoal 4550 ± 50 3248 ± 104 KR06-059 3 House 4 Charcoal 4500 ± 80 3192 ± 132 KR06-100 86 Baekam-ri Jeombaekgol (n = 3) (Korea Institute for Archaeology and Environment, 2010) House 2 Charcoal 4470 ± 60 3174 ± 125 SNU08-452 3 House 3 Charcoal 4610 ± 80 3341 ± 155 SNU08-453 87 Seoggyo-ri (n = 26) (Jungbu Institute for Archaeology, 2013) House 2 Charcoal 4400 ± 70 3106 ± 147 SNU11-503 3 House 5 Charcoal 4970 ± 50 3786 ± 85 SNU11-531 House 6 Charcoal 4630 ± 40 3434 ± 59 SNU11-532 House 4 Charcoal 4650 ± 50 3447 ± 62 SNU11-533 House 13 Charcoal 4540 ± 50 3242 ± 101 SNU11-534 House 15 Charcoal 4720 ± 50 3508 ± 98 SNU11-542 House 18 Charcoal 4730 ± 50 3511 ± 98 SNU11-536 House 19 Charcoal 4650 ± 40 3445 ± 56 SNU11-537 House 23 Charcoal 4700 ± 50 3501 ± 96 SNU11-538 House 23 Charcoal 4620 ± 50 3425 ± 68 SNU11-543 House 24 Charcoal 4700 ± 50 3501 ± 96 SNU11-539 House 24 Charcoal 4780 ± 50 3570 ± 56 SNU11-544 House 25 Charcoal 4690 ± 50 3496 ± 93 SNU11-540 1 The number for each site corresponds to the site number in Figs. 1, 2 and 8. 2 n = number of Chulmun-period pit houses discovered at each site. 3 Radiocarbon dates were calibrated using the CalPal_2007_HULU calibration curve. 168 M. Kim et al. / Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 40 (2015) 160–182
  10. 10. some contemporaneity of the occupation (Fig. 4). The sites of Seoggyo-ri, Neunggok-dong and Singil-dong can be divided into a few residential units that consist of a plaza and associated houses (Figs. 5–7). Some researchers have hypothesized temporal differ- ences among the houses. Lee (2012), for instance, argued that the Unseo-dong houses could be grouped into four residential units Fig. 2. Settlements of Phase 3 (ca. 4000–3000 BC). Table 2 Summary of carbonized crops from Chulmun pit houses. No. Site Provenience Carbonized grains Phase Reference 19 Neunggok-dong Houses 15 and 19 Foxtail and broomcorn millets 3 Gyeonggi Institute of Cultural Property (2010) 44 Daecheon-ri House 1 Rice, barley, wheat, and foxtail millet 3 Ahn (2008) 68 Tongsam-dong Jeonghwa House 1 Foxtail and broomcorn millets 3 Lee (2011) 78 Munam-ri Hearths Rice, foxtail millet, broomcorn millet 3 Lee (2014) 85 Jangjae-ri Anganggol House 6 Foxtail millet 3 Lee (2011) 87 Seoggyo-ri Houses 3, 6, 22, 23, and 25 Foxtail and broomcorn millets 3 Jungbu Institute for Archaeology (2013) 9 Jungsan-dong Hangang Houses 9, 22, and 25 Foxtail and broomcorn millets 4 Hangang Institute of Cultural Heritage (2012a) 57 Sangchon-ri Pits Foxtail and broomcorn millets 4 Lee (2011) 58 Pyeonggeo-dong House 2 (Area 3-1), Houses 1, 2, 3, and 5 (Area 4-1) Foxtail millet, broomcorn millet, red bean, and soybean 4 Lee (2011) 1 The number for each site corresponds to the site number in Figs. 2 and 8 and Table 1. 2 Dates of rice, barley and wheat from Daecheon-ri and Munam-ri are contested (Ahn, 2008; Lee, 2014). M. Kim et al. / Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 40 (2015) 160–182 169
  11. 11. that were occupied with some temporal difference and that the difference is also reflected in the radiocarbon dates. Although the subtle temporal differences among the houses should be acknowl- edged and require further investigation, the prevailing view among researchers is that these sites represent large communities and that most houses, if not all, would have been contemporaneous (Lim, 2010). The evidence from settlement patterns suggests that the transi- tion to vertically and horizontally organized social differentiation might have commenced during this phase. This phase witnessed the emergence of large villages, which are envisioned as the ‘‘mothers” and centers for the adjacent smaller villages (Shin et al., 2012). As mentioned earlier, some large villages consist of a few distinctive residential units that would reflect intra-village differentiation. In noting the presence of one or two large buildings centered among several smaller ones, Shin et al. (2012) further argued that inequality emerged within each residential unit. The emerging social inequality and craft specialization are also reflected in such remains as differentiated burials, luxury items, and specialized toolkits (Ahn, 2005; Shin et al., 2012). It is not clear, however, whether the social status during this phases was acquired or ascribed. The evidence for status difference and craft specialization is too limited to support any detailed discussion on the institutionalization of social inequality. 3.4. Phase 4 (3000–2000 BC) Phase 4 is characterized by an overall decrease in site number and restricted site distribution (Fig. 8). In total, 35 sites belong to this phase, although this number may increase because some Phase 3 sites have relatively late radiocarbon dates with wide error ranges and may have been occupied in Phase 4. The sites of Nongseo-ri, Sanjeong-ri, Gwanchang-ri, Hakam-ri and Gapyeong- ri produced radiocarbon dates that were close to 3000 BC, and it is conceivable that these sites may have also been occupied in the beginning of Phase 4 (Table 1). The maximum site number for Phase 4 may increase up to 40 when the sites with uncertain dates are included. Despite some uncertainty around the dates, the decrease in settlement number in the transition from Phase 3 to 4 is noteworthy. Furthermore, the sites are highly restricted in distribution and are found almost exclusively in the upper part of the central-western region and the southeastern region, with only a few being found in the southwestern and eastern regions. Most Phase 4 sites are small scale and consist of less than 5 pit houses, while relatively numerous houses are found in Jungsan- dong (n = 38), Sangchon-ri (n = 25), and Bonggye-ri (n = 10) (Table 1). Although Jungsan-dong has many pit houses, they are scattered across a wide area of 0.24 km2 and do not represent a sin- gle community. The sites of Sangchon-ri and Bonggye-ri presum- ably represent single villages, Sangchon-ri being the largest Fig. 3. Number of pit houses for Phase 3 settlements. Fig. 4. Distribution of Unseo-dong Chulmun houses (reprinted and modified from Jungang Institute of Cultural Heritage, 2010). 170 M. Kim et al. / Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 40 (2015) 160–182
  12. 12. community in Phase 4 (Figs. 9 and 10). The details of the Sangchon- ri site are unfortunately not well known because the site excava- tion report has not yet been published. The general observation for Phase 4 is that a large settlement comparable with Unseo- dong in Phase 3 is no longer present and the settlements are hardly separable into multiple residential units. Fig. 5. Distribution of Seoggyo-ri Chulmun houses (reprinted and modified from Jungbu Institute for Archaeology, 2013). Fig. 6. Distribution of Neunggok-dong Chulmun houses (reprinted and modified from Gyeonggi Institute of Cultural Property, 2010). Fig. 7. Distribution of Singil-dong Chulmun houses (reprinted and modified from Korea Institute of Heritage, 2009c). M. Kim et al. / Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 40 (2015) 160–182 171
  13. 13. 3.5. Phase 5 (2000–1500 BC) Finally, only five settlements (Unseo-dong, Unbuk-dong, Dangdong-ri, Yanggwi-ri, and Ojin-ri) are dated to Phase 5, or have a pit house dated to this phase (Fig. 8). The important change in Phase 5 is obviously the drastic decrease in settlement number and size, although it should be noted that this phase has a shorter time span than the previous phases. Dangdong-ri is the largest set- tlement in Phase 5 but is composed only of four pit houses (Table 1). 4. Discussion 4.1. Reviewing Chulmun sequence The presented pattern of increase and decrease in settlement number over the five phases may be misleading for a number of reasons. Most importantly, the global warming trend and the resultant sea-level rise in the early Holocene inundated extensive areas, which are likely to have contained coastal sites, leading to the scarcity of settlements in Phases 1 and 2. The sea level around the Korean peninsula was approximately 25 m lower than the cur- rent sea level in 8000 BC, and then rose rapidly almost to the cur- rent level by 4000 BC (Ahn, 2011). It has not been fully resolved whether the sea level at its maximum height was higher than the present sea level. One group of scholars argue that the sea level during the Holocene was up to 2 m higher than the current level with some minor oscillations, while others contend that the sea level during the Holocene only rose continuously to reach the pre- sent level (Ahn, 2011). Because the coastal topography around the Korean peninsula ascends steeply on the eastern side and gently on the southern and western sides, the hypothetical inundation of early Chulmun sites, if happened, would have been severe on the southern and western coasts. The presumed destruction of early sites makes it difficult to conclude whether the population had increased before Phase 3, during which the evidence for plant cul- tivation starts to appear. Fig. 8. Settlements of Phases 4 and 5 (ca. 3000–1500 BC). Phase 5 settlements are indicated by arrows. 172 M. Kim et al. / Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 40 (2015) 160–182
  14. 14. The paucity and imprecision of radiocarbon dates cause another problem. There has been a tendency among Korean archaeologists to rely primarily on pottery typology as a means to build chronol- ogy and to regard radiocarbon dates as a secondary data set. This tendency originated from the research tradition in the 1970s and 1980s during which radiocarbon dates were associated with large error ranges and were of little help in building fine-grained chronology. The application of radiocarbon dating has become increasingly common in recent excavations, yet remains in limited use. Furthermore, some sites are associated with only a few sam- ples with widely different dates, making it difficult to assess the absolute site dates. Wide date ranges were possibly caused by a number of factors, such as the long occupational span of the settle- ments, sample contamination, and errors and mistakes made dur- ing lab analysis. As noted earlier, some Phase 3 and 4 sites are not clearly differentiated based solely on the radiocarbon dates. Despite these few limitations, some conclusions can be reached with regard to the temporal changes in the Chulmun settlement patterns. There was a burgeoning of new settlements in Phase 3, which implies population increase and/or population relocation directed inland. Many sites were located along the coastlines and it is likely that the utilization of littoral resources continued to be important. Many sites were newly established further inland, however, and the subsistence activities in these sites could have been radically different (Fig. 2). Previous research has uncovered archaeological evidence for plant cultivation from both coastal and inland settlements of Phase 3 (Table 2). It is presumed that plant cultivation is closely related to the increased number of set- tlements in Phase 3, although it is difficult with the present data to determine which one came first and to confirm whether they were in a causal relationship, as well as to assess the importance of culti- gens in the overall subsistence economy. The majority of the sites in Phase 3 are small scale with 1–5 houses. There are a few settlements with more than 20 houses, such as Unseo-dong, Seoggyo-ri, Neunggok-dong, and Singil- dong, and these settlements reflect the aggregation of relatively many people. Most sites were excavated as salvation projects and the excavations were limited to the areas that were to be directly affected by the subsequent land works. It is reasonable to assume, accordingly, that more large settlements will be discov- ered in the future depending on the scale of the excavations. The general impression for Phase 3 is that this phase witnessed the burgeoning of a few large settlements while numerous smaller set- tlements were widely scattered across the landscape, especially in the central-western region. Some large settlements were divided into multiple residential units, which suggests an articulation of horizontal social differentiation within each village. The number of settlements decreases in subsequent phases and social differentiation within villages becomes less clear. Approxi- mately 58 settlements are dated to Phase 3, whereas only 35 and 5 are dated to Phases 4 and 5, respectively. The decreasing number of sites in the last two phases is not explained by coastal inunda- tion as the sea level had almost attained the present level by 4000 BC despite some subsequent fluctuations. As mentioned ear- lier, there may have been more Phase 4 settlements than appear in Fig. 3 because some Phase 3 settlements produced relatively late Fig. 9. Distribution of Sangchon-ri Chulmun houses (reprinted and modified from Ku and Bae, 2009). Fig. 10. Distribution of Bonggye-ri Chulmun houses (reprinted and modified from Ku and Bae, 2009). M. Kim et al. / Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 40 (2015) 160–182 173
  15. 15. Table 3 Radiocarbon dates from the Chulmun shell middens. No. Site Provenience Material Uncalibrated BP Calibrated BC Lab number Phase 1 Daeyeonpyeong-do (National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage, 2005) Trench B3 Shell 5060 ± 110 3853 ± 114 SNU05-A020 3 Trench B6 Shell 5020 ± 40 3833 ± 80 SNU05-A017 3 Trench D3 Shell 5090 ± 50 3882 ± 65 SNU05-A021 3 Trench B4 Shell 5370 ± 70 4199 ± 102 SNU05-A019 2 Trench B5 Shell 5250 ± 70 4104 ± 99 SNU05-A018 2 2 Moi-do (National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage, 2003) House 1 Shell 2790 ± 60 951 ± 73 KCP592 5 3 Soyeonpyeong-do (National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage, 2002) Midden 2 Shell 4030 ± 60 2594 ± 96 KCP539 4 Midden 1 Shell 3980 ± 60 2488 ± 85 KCP540 4 4 Yongyu-do (Seoul National University Museum, 2006) Hearth 5 Charcoal 3810 ± 40 2266 ± 65 SNU02-462 4 Trench NS-II Shell 4010 ± 60 2556 ± 76 SNU02-463 4 Trench NS-IV Shell 4080 ± 60 2685 ± 132 SNU02-464 4 5 Si-do (Kang et al., 1993; National Museum of Korea, 1970) Area 3 Charcoal 3040 ± 60 1294 ± 84 Unknown 5 Unknown Charcoal 3100 ± 60 1363 ± 66 Unknown 5 Unknown Charcoal 3040 ± 60 1294 ± 84 Unknown 5 Unknown Charcoal 2870 ± 60 1064 ± 93 Unknown 5 6 Yeongjong-do (Jungang Institute of Cultural Heritage, 2008) Unknown Charcoal 3600 ± 50 1966 ± 61 OWd090016 5 7 Janggeum-do Not available 8 Somuncheom-do (Jungang Institute of Cultural Heritage, 2008) Trench S2E1 Charcoal 3640 ± 60 2027 ± 85 SNU07-R110 4 Trench N5E2 Charcoal 2920 ± 50 1130 ± 81 SNU07-R102 5 Trench N3E1 Charcoal 3340 ± 50 1624 ± 66 SNU07-R103 5 Trench N3E1 Charcoal 2820 ± 50 989 ± 64 SNU07-R104 5 Trench N1E2 Charcoal 2750 ± 50 907 ± 57 SNU07-R105 5 Trench N1E1 Charcoal 2950 ± 60 1170 ± 95 SNU07-R106 5 Trench N1E1 Charcoal 3450 ± 50 1782 ± 76 SNU07-R107 5 Trench S2E1 Charcoal 2920 ± 60 1133 ± 95 SNU07-R108 5 Trench S2E1 Charcoal 3250 ± 60 1537 ± 69 SNU07-R109 5 Trench S3E1 Charcoal 2720 ± 50 878 ± 44 SNU07-R111 5 Trench S3E2 Charcoal 2550 ± 50 681 ± 99 SNU07-R112 5 Trench S5E1 Charcoal 3170 ± 50 1453 ± 42 SNU07-R113 5 Trench S1E1 Charcoal 3490 ± 60 1820 ± 72 SNU07-R114 5 Trench S1E2 Charcoal 3410 ± 50 1723 ± 70 SNU07-R115 5 Trench S1E2 Charcoal 3270 ± 50 1555 ± 57 SNU07-R116 5 Trench N1E2 Charcoal 3350 ± 50 1635 ± 69 SNU07-R147 5 9 Yeongheung-do (Hanyang University Museum, 2005) Midden 1 Shell 5630 ± 30 4453 ± 44 SNU07-k049 2 Midden 1 Shell 5680 ± 60 4532 ± 71 SNU03-k050 2 Midden 1 Shell 5680 ± 40 4520 ± 43 SNU03-k051 2 Midden 1 Shell 5200 ± 50 4024 ± 47 SNU03-k052 2 Midden 1 Shell 5310 ± 120 4146 ± 131 SNU03-k054 2 Midden 1 Shell 5280 ± 80 4124 ± 101 SNU03-k055 2 Midden 1 Shell 5570 ± 60 4417 ± 49 SNU03-k056 2 Midden 1 Shell 5540 ± 80 4397 ± 66 SNU03-k058 2 Midden 1 Shell 5100 ± 120 3903 ± 135 SNU03-k057 3 Midden 1 Shell 4260 ± 60 2843 ± 91 SNU03-k053 4 10 Daebu-do (Gijeon Cultural Property Research Center, 2004) Not available 11 Oi-do North (Kang et al., 1993) Unknown Charcoal 3900 ± 50 2382 ± 72 KSU-617 4 12 Oi-do Gaundesalmak (Seoul National University Museum, 2001) Trench N2E1 Soil 4270 ± 60 2869 ± 98 SNU99-128 4 Hearth 1 Charcoal 4790 ± 80 3540 ± 103 SNU00-143 3 13 Oi-do Sinpo-dong (Seoul National University Museum, 1988b) Unknown Shell 4080 ± 45 2695 ± 123 Unknown 4 14 Byeolmang Not available 15 Daejuk-ri (Baekje Cultural Property Research Center, 2010; Chungcheong Institute of Cultural Heritage, 2000; Hanseo University Museum, 2001) Unknown Charcoal 4530 ± 60 3233 ± 105 Unknown 3 Unknown Charcoal 5150 ± 150 3979 ± 183 Unknown 3 Midden 1 Charcoal 4480 ± 60 3183 ± 121 KR08-219 3 Midden 1 Charcoal 4460 ± 60 3165 ± 129 KR08-220 3 Unknown Charcoal 3960 ± 170 2478 ± 252 Unknown 4 Layer 3 Shell 4170 ± 60 2756 ± 96 KCP527 4 Layer 5 Shell 4140 ± 60 2734 ± 103 KCP530 4 16 Gonam-ri (Hanyang University Museum, 1993) Trench B-1 Shell 4150 ± 250 2728 ± 352 UCL-235 4 Trench B-2 Shell 3200 ± 200 1465 ± 252 Unknown 5 Trench B-3 Shell 3130 ± 60 1397 ± 69 Unknown 5 Trench A-2 Shell 3150 ± 200 1399 ± 252 Unknown 5 17 Songhak-ri (Hangang Institute of Cultural Heritage, 2014) Midden 1 Charcoal 4540 ± 40 3243 ± 99 SNU12-201 3 Midden 3 Charcoal 4470 ± 40 3193 ± 107 SNU12-204 3 Midden 3 Charcoal 4940 ± 50 3728 ± 51 SNU12-205 3 174 M. Kim et al. / Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 40 (2015) 160–182
  16. 16. Table 3 (continued) No. Site Provenience Material Uncalibrated BP Calibrated BC Lab number Phase Midden 1 Charcoal 4240 ± 40 2832 ± 65 SNU12-197 4 Midden 1 Charcoal 4120 ± 50 2725 ± 105 SNU12-198 4 Midden 1 Charcoal 4340 ± 60 2994 ± 75 SNU12-200 4 Midden 3 Charcoal 4290 ± 40 2931 ± 36 SNU12-202 4 Midden 3 Charcoal 4340 ± 50 2978 ± 58 SNU12-203 4 18 Jangam (Chungnam National University Museum, 2008) Feature 1 Charcoal 5030 ± 60 3834 ± 86 BETA-85257 3 Feature 2 Charcoal 4860 ± 80 3644 ± 94 BETA-85258 3 Trench C1-D1 Shell 4170 ± 70 2750 ± 103 BETA-85259 4 Trench C3-D3 Shell 3800 ± 70 2260 ± 115 BETA-85260 4 19 Ga-do (Chungnam National University Museum, 2001) Trench 2 Charcoal 5460 ± 60 4309 ± 49 Beta-92374 2 Trench 2 Charcoal 4830 ± 50 3606 ± 58 Beta-92372 3 Trench S6-S7W3 Shell 4640 ± 70 3432 ± 87 KCP 116 3 Trench S4W4 Charcoal 4060 ± 60 2654 ± 132 Beta-92371 4 Trench S5W5 Charcoal 4160 ± 60 2748 ± 98 Beta-92373 4 Trench S6-S7W2 Shell 3840 ± 70 2312 ± 108 KCP 115 4 Trench S5-S6W2 Shell 3830 ± 70 2298 ± 113 KCP 150 4 Trench S1W4 Shell 3160 ± 60 1435 ± 60 KCP 117 5 20 Bieung-do Not available 21 Osik-do Not available 22 Noraeseom (Wonkwang University Museum, 2002) Trench C2 Shell 5180 ± 70 3990 ± 114 KCP 128 3 Trench C4 Shell 4541 ± 60 3241 ± 107 KCP 237 3 Trench B4, C4 Shell 5046 ± 63 3846 ± 81 KCP 238 3 Trench C2, C3 Shell 4976 ± 64 3798 ± 95 KCP 240 3 Midden A Shell 4380 ± 40 3007 ± 64 SNU00-244 3 Trench C2, C3 Shell 4090 ± 58 2699 ± 122 KCP 239 4 Midden A Shell 4245 ± 25 2889 ± 10 NUTA2-1993 4 Midden B Shell 3930 ± 40 2417 ± 60 SNU00-245 4 Midden B Shell 3895 ± 25 2395 ± 49 NUTA2-1994 4 23 Ddiseom (Wonkwang University Museum, 2001) Trench N1W1 Shell 4280 ± 60 2889 ± 100 KCP 111 4 24 Seonyu-do (Kim, 1971) Unknown Charcoal 4810 ± 40 3593 ± 48 Unknown 3 25 Daeheuksan-do (Kang et al., 1993) Unknown Unknown 3420 ± 120 1737 ± 149 Unknown 5 26 Hatae-do Not available 27 Gageo-do Not available 28 Yeoseo-do (Mokpo National University Museum, 2007) Unknown Shell 5460 ± 60 4309 ± 49 SNU06-AOO6 2 Unknown Shell 5480 ± 80 4334 ± 83 SNU06-AOO10 2 Unknown Shell 5600 ± 60 4439 ± 57 SNU06-AOO13 2 Unknown Shell 5610 ± 80 4459 ± 77 SNU06-AOO9 2 Unknown Shell 5630 ± 80 4478 ± 86 SNU06-AOO12 2 Unknown Shell 5650 ± 60 4483 ± 71 SNU06-AOO11 2 Unknown Shell 5760 ± 80 4613 ± 88 SNU06-AOO8 2 Unknown Shell 6050 ± 60 4957 ± 83 SNU06-AOO7 2 29 Sobu-do (Kang et al., 1993) Unknown Shell 3750 ± 40 2154 ± 75 KSU-442 4 30 An-do (Gwangju National Museum, 2009) Trench 5 Bone 7410 ± 60 6301 ± 65 SNU07-633 1 Trench 5 Bone 7430 ± 60 6315 ± 63 SNU07-634 1 Trench 2 Shell 6660 ± 80 5589 ± 59 SNU07-A025 1 Hearth 1 Shell 6780 ± 60 5684 ± 39 SNU07-A027 1 Trench 2 Bone 6620 ± 110 5562 ± 78 SNU07-635 1 Hearth 1 Shell 5370 ± 60 4201 ± 99 SNU07-A026 2 Trench 2 Shell 4490 ± 60 3196 ± 113 SNU07-A024 3 31 Song-do (Gwangju National Museum, 1989) Layer III-C Charcoal 5440 ± 170 4263 ± 185 NUTA-1334 2 Layer IV Charcoal 5430 ± 170 4255 ± 184 NUTA-1335 2 32 Gyeong-do Not available 33 Dontak (Mokpo National University Museum, 2012) Grid 2 Shell 5270 ± 80 4117 ± 102 SNU11-A019 2 Grid 4 Shell 5010 ± 50 3822 ± 87 SNU11-A020 3 Grid 2 Shell 3760 ± 50 2176 ± 91 SNU11-A016 4 Grid 2 Shell 3910 ± 50 2391 ± 71 SNU11-A017 4 Grid 2 Shell 3690 ± 70 2087 ± 99 SNU11-A018 4 34 Mok-do (Jinju National Museum, 1999) Layer IV Shell 4910 ± 130 3718 ± 161 Unknown 3 Layer III Shell 4210 ± 120 2789 ± 159 Unknown 4 35 Gupyeong-ri Not available 36 Neuk-do Not available 37 Sangnodae-do (Son, 1982) Layer V Charcoal 6430 ± 180 5354 ± 183 Unknown 1 Unknown Shell 3370 ± 40 1670 ± 51 KCP-29 5 38 Yokji-do (Jinju National Museum, 1989) Hearth 1 Charcoal 3850 ± 20 2339 ± 56 PLD-24965 4 39 Sandeung (Busan Maritime University Museum, 1989) Layer VI Shell 4660 ± 110 3397 ± 179 NUTA-678 3 Layer VI Shell 4360 ± 110 3078 ± 171 NUTA-679 3 40 Yeondae-do (Jinju National Museum, 1993) Trench S Shell 6090 ± 160 5017 ± 193 NUTA-2314 1 Trench T1 Shell 6010 ± 160 4936 ± 204 NUTA-2315 2 41 Bibong-ri (Gimhae National Museum, 2008, 2012) Unknown Charcoal 6710 ± 50 5625 ± 45 Beta-219086 1 Unknown Charcoal 6490 ± 50 5444 ± 51 Beta-219089 1 Layer 3 Charcoal 6270 ± 60 5223 ± 83 SNU06-203 1 Layer 4 Charcoal 6390 ± 60 5386 ± 61 SNU06-210 1 (continued on next page) M. Kim et al. / Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 40 (2015) 160–182 175
  17. 17. Table 3 (continued) No. Site Provenience Material Uncalibrated BP Calibrated BC Lab number Phase Layer 5 Charcoal 6550 ± 50 5521 ± 35 SNU06-204 1 Layer 44 Charcoal 6670 ± 60 5593 ± 46 SNU06-208 1 Wood Charcoal 6800 ± 50 5694 ± 34 SNU06-306 1 Unknown Charcoal 5970 ± 40 4863 ± 53 Beta-219088 2 Unknown Charcoal 5230 ± 40 4068 ± 72 Beta-219091 2 Layer 1 Charcoal 5330 ± 40 4161 ± 72 SNU05-343 2 Pit 17 Shell 5420 ± 150 4243 ± 165 SNU06-A002 2 Layer 2 Charcoal 5970 ± 60 4864 ± 73 SNU06-209 2 Layer 1 Bone 5640 ± 25 4481 ± 23 PLD-19845 2 Unknown Charcoal 4500 ± 50 3214 99 Beta-219090 3 Pit 1 Charcoal 4650 ± 60 3449 ± 70 SNU06-201 3 Pit 2 Charcoal 4420 ± 50 3116 ± 141 SNU06-205 3 Pit 9 Charcoal 4900 ± 50 3702 ± 44 SNU06-206 3 Pit 11 Charcoal 4530 ± 40 3237 ± 96 SNU05-345 3 Pit 12 Charcoal 4680 ± 50 3485 ± 85 SNU05-346 3 Layer 1 Shell 4550 ± 120 3267 ± 190 SNU06-A001 3 Layer 1 Bone 5070 ± 25 3878 ± 55 PLD-19843 3 Layer 1 Bone 4940 ± 20 3715 ± 36 PLD-19844 3 Layer 1 Bone 4935 ± 25 3712 ± 37 PLD-19846 3 Pit 1 Charcoal 4340 ± 40 2967 ± 47 SNU05-344 4 Unknown Charcoal 3450 ± 40 1784 ± 71 Beta-219087 5 Trench II Charcoal 2810 ± 60 981 ± 77 SNU05-348 5 Hearth 2 Charcoal 3560 ± 60 1900 ± 90 SNU06-202 5 Hearth 2 Charcoal 3600 ± 50 1966 ± 61 SNU05-347 5 Hearth 4 Charcoal 3540 ± 60 1875 ± 83 SNU06-207 5 Wood Wood 2470 ± 50 606 ± 117 OWd090554 5 Wood Wood 2610 ± 50 752 ± 70 OWd090555 5 Wood Wood 2630 ± 50 815 ± 32 OWd090556 5 42 Nongso-ri (Kang et al., 1993) Unknown Shell 3440 ± 120 1762 ± 148 TH-1000 5 43 Ga-dong (Ulsan Cultural Property Research Center, 2014) Hearth 1 Charcoal 3850 ± 20 2339 ± 56 PLD-24965 4 Trench B2 Charcoal 3110 ± 20 1382 ± 35 PLD-24966 5 Trench C3 Charcoal 3205 ± 20 1475 ± 21 PLD-24967 5 Trench C3 Seed 3240 ± 20 1501 ± 23 PLD-24968 5 44 Suga-ri (Pusan National University Museum, 1981, 2011) Trench E1 Shell 4360 ± 70 3038 ± 106 N-3448b 3 Trench E1 Charcoal 4380 ± 100 3096 ± 162 N-3448a 3 Trench B1 Shell 4250 ± 70 2821 ± 106 N-3457 4 Trench C1 Shell 4160 ± 90 2734 ± 119 N-3456 4 Trench D1 Shell 4200 ± 90 2766 ± 117 N-3452 4 Trench E2 Shell 3040 ± 80 1276 ± 110 N-3451 5 Trench A1 Shell 3290 ± 70 1582 ± 79 N-3453 5 45 Beombang (Busan Metropolitan City Museum, 1993, 1996) Layer 11 Shell 4590 ± 70 3320 ± 157 KCP127 3 Unknown Unknown 3900 ± 70 2373 ± 95 Unknown 4 46 Bukjeong Not available 47 Yul-ri (Pusan National University Museum, 1980) Unknown Unknown 3687 ± 75 2085 ± 104 Unknown 4 48 Tongsam-dong (Busan Museum, 2007; Kang et al., 1993; Lee, 1975; National Museum of Korea, 2005; Sample, 1974) Trench D Bone 6400 ± 50 5394 55 SNU00-092 1 Layer 8 Bone 6740 ± 40 5663 ± 31 SNU 01-160 1 Layer 9 Bone 6910 ± 60 5806 62 SNU 01-162 1 Trench E Charcoal 5890 ± 140 4775 ± 172 GX-0378 2 Layer 5 Shell 5820 ± 140 4695 ± 162 GAK-6666 2 Layer 5 Shell 5500 ± 100 4345 ± 101 GAK-6667 2 Layer 5 Shell 5190 ± 130 4016 ± 173 GAK-6669 2 Unknown Charcoal 5180 ± 130 4006 ± 172 N-1132 2 Trench F Bone 5800 ± 70 4653 ± 83 SNU00-090 2 Trench F Bone 5580 ± 70 4430 ± 60 SNU00-091 2 House 3 Bone 5640 ± 90 4496 ± 99 SNU 01-147-1 2 House 3 Bone 5540 ± 40 4398 ± 39 SNU 01-148 2 Layer 7 Bone 5650 ± 70 4492 ± 84 SNU 01-158 2 Layer 9 Charcoal 5910 ± 50 4790 ± 54 SNU 01-163 2 Layer III Charcoal 4400 ± 90 3111 ± 156 AERIK-27 3 Layer C Charcoal 5090 ± 130 3896 ± 144 GX-0379 3 Layer 5 Shell 5160 ± 120 3985 ± 162 GAK-6668 3 Layer 4 Shell 4490 ± 110 3183 ± 157 GAK-6665 3 Layer 3 Shell 4490 ± 110 3183 ± 157 GAK-6664 3 Layer 3 Shell 4510 ± 120 3205 ± 168 GAK-6662 3 Unknown Charcoal 4880 ± 160 3671 ± 199 N-1213 3 Unknown Charcoal 4950 ± 100 3779 ± 114 Unknown 3 Trench F Bone 4650 ± 50 3447 ± 62 SNU00-089 3 Trench H Bone 4600 ± 100 3323 ± 173 SNU00-094 3 House 1 Charcoal 4360 ± 60 3010 ± 77 SNU 01-144 3 House 1 Bone 4680 ± 60 3490 ± 93 SNU 01-145-1 3 Layer 2 Bone 4360 ± 50 3000 ± 69 SNU 01-149-1 3 Layer 4 Bone 4550 ± 50 3248 ± 104 SNU 01-152 3 176 M. Kim et al. / Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 40 (2015) 160–182
  18. 18. radiocarbon dates and could have been occupied in Phase 4. Yet this does not alter the general pattern of decreasing settlement number in Phases 4 and 5. Sangchon-ri is the only Phase 4 settle- ment that represents a single village with more than 20 pit houses, but there is no indication that the site was divided into multiple residential units (Fig. 9). The decrease of settlement number in Phases 4 and 5 may reflect the conflation of population decrease and relocation. The paucity of settlements in Phase 5 is intriguing because there are many shell middens for this phase. Of the 313 Chulmun-period shell middens across the Korean peninsula, most have not been excavated and only 38 are associated with radiocarbon dates (Table 3; Korea Cultural Property Investigation and Research Institute Association, 2010). The excavations of shell middens are often limited to a few trenches and do not necessarily provide data comparable in quality with those of full-scale excavations of settle- ments. Nonetheless, an examination of the distributional changes of datable shell middens suggests that despite the scarcity of set- tlements, shell middens continued to be made during Phases 4 and 5, while some were newly made in remote small islands (Fig. 11; Table 4). This suggests an increase in the relative impor- tance of coastal resources and the possible relocation of residential bases toward the coastlines, although shell middens are typically not associated with pit house remains. The continued use of shell middens and the paucity of villages suggest that the land use pat- tern may have changed significantly toward the end of the Chul- mun period. The specific reasons for the presumed population decrease and/ or relocation in the last two phases require further research for better elucidation. Such research should include a comparative perspective across the Far East Asian region, because similar trends have been noted for the Jomon period (ca. 14,000–300 BC) of Japan. Koyama (1978) argued that the population continued to increase during the first half of the Jomon period to a maximum in the Mid- dle Jomon period of ca. 3000–2000 BC, and then decreased after- ward. Imamura (1996) noted that in the Chubu and Kanto regions of Japan, 70% of all the excavated Jomon pit houses belong to the Middle Jomon period despite the extremely long time span of the Jomon period. Yasuda (2003) further insisted that the changes in site number were related to the cooling and drier cli- matic trend that started around 3500 BC across Asia and the subse- quent relocation of the Jomon people toward inlands. If climatic deterioration across Asia influenced the Jomon period in Japan, it is likely to have had a similar influence on the Chulmun period in Korea. The period of drastic increase in site number, how- ever, is not contemporaneous in Korea and Japan: ca. 4000– 3000 BC for the Chulmun period compared to ca. 3000–2000 BC for the Jomon period, respectively. Furthermore, the changes in settlement number are not necessarily consistent across different regions of the Japanese archipelago. Most importantly, although Table 3 (continued) No. Site Provenience Material Uncalibrated BP Calibrated BC Lab number Phase Layer 5-1 Bone 4470 ± 50 3180 ± 119 SNU 01-153 3 Layer 5-2 Bone 5180 ± 60 3988 ± 69 SNU 01-154 3 Layer 5-3 Bone 4380 ± 50 3015 ± 73 SNU 01-155 3 Layer 5-4 Bone 4430 ± 50 3129 ± 140 SNU 01-156-1 3 Layer 5C Bone 4600 ± 50 3344 ± 140 SNU 01-157-1 3 Layer 7 Bone 5180 ± 70 3990 ± 114 SNU 01-159 3 Layer 8 Bone 4400 ± 40 3023 ± 69 SNU 01-161 3 House 1 Millet 4590 ± 100 3314 ± 173 TO-8783 3 Layer III Charcoal 4020 ± 100 2584 ± 168 AERIK-23 4 Layer III Charcoal 3980 ± 100 2508 ± 160 AERIK-24 4 Layer III Charcoal 3930 ± 100 2419 ± 144 AERIK-25 4 Layer III Charcoal 3880 ± 100 2346 ± 135 AERIK-26 4 Layer II Charcoal 4170 ± 100 2739 ± 127 AERIK-22 4 Layer 3 Shell 4140 ± 120 2707 ± 151 GAK-6663 4 Layer 3 Shell 3800 ± 110 2245 ± 165 GAK-6661 4 Layer IV Bone 3800 ± 60 2256 ± 100 SNU00-086-1 4 Layer IV Bone 4360 ± 40 2985 ± 53 SNU00-087 4 Layer IV Bone 4300 ± 40 2944 ± 44 SNU00-088 4 Trench H Bone 4200 ± 40 2793 ± 81 SNU00-093 4 House 2 Bone 4300 ± 40 2944 ± 44 SNU 01-146 4 Layer 2 Charcoal 3910 ± 40 2397 ± 60 SNU 01-150 4 Layer 3 Bone 4120 ± 40 2730 ± 100 SNU 01-151 4 Trench C Charcoal 3400 ± 120 1717 ± 150 GX-0493 5 Trench B Charcoal 3400 ± 220 1742 ± 269 GX-0492 5 Layer 2 Shell 3470 ± 100 1796 ± 124 GAK-6660 5 49 Sejuk (Dongkook University, 2007) Trench B2 Potsherd 6280 ± 40 5267 ± 36 SNU00-393 1 Trench B2 Potsherd 6260 ± 40 5254 ± 39 SNU00-394 1 Trench A2 Potsherd 6110 ± 80 5058 ± 119 SNU00-395 1 Trench B2 Potsherd 6420 ± 110 5185 ± 130 SNU00-397 1 Trench B2 Potsherd 6480 ± 120 5439 ± 104 SNU00-385 1 Trench B4 Potsherd 6260 ± 250 5164 ± 270 SNU00-386 1 Trench B3 Potsherd 6740 ± 30 5660 ± 23 SNU00-403 1 Trench B3 Potsherd 6440 ± 90 5407 ± 74 SNU00-403-1 1 Trench A8 Potsherd 6260 ± 40 5254 ± 39 SNU00-387 1 Trench A8 Potsherd 6330 ± 40 5305 ± 50 SNU00-388 1 Trench B5 Wood 6240 ± 50 5197 ± 87 Beta-119435 1 Trench B2 Potsherd 5700 ± 60 4559 ± 77 SNU00-398 2 Trench C1 Acorn 5930 ± 110 4823 ± 134 SNU00-390 2 Trench B5 Wood 6040 ± 80 4958 ± 107 Beta-119433 2 Trench B5 Wood 6020 ± 70 4925 ± 87 Beta-119434 2 Trench C3 Wood 4390 ± 60 3083 ± 132 Beta-119436 3 1 The number for each site corresponds to the site number in Fig. 11. 2 Radiocarbon dates were calibrated using the CalPal_2007_HULU calibration curve. M. Kim et al. / Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 40 (2015) 160–182 177
  19. 19. the overall settlement number decreased in Phase 4 of the Chul- mun period, the patterns are rather regionalized and the upper part of the central-western region and the southeastern region actually witnessed the establishment of new settlements (Fig. 8). The different patterns between the Chulmun and Jomon periods, as well as among different regions in each culture, suggest that pan-Asiatic climatic deterioration can only partly explain the changes in settlement patterns. The current investigation shows that the Chulmun culture did not go through unilinear changes in population and social com- plexity, such as small to large or simple to complex. It is possible that the increase in settlement number in Phase 3 reflects popula- tion growth supported by plant cultivation. Yet the hypothetical population increase did not continue beyond the millennium of Phase 3 and the population started to decrease no later than 3000 BC. Most settlements were small scale with 1–5 pit houses even when the site number peaked. Although plant cultivation and subsistence intensification are likely to have stimulated popu- lation growth, this change did not necessarily induce social crowd- ing that would have provided an environment conducive for interpersonal and inter-lineage interactions. Except for the cases of a few settlements with more than 20 pit houses, people were sparsely distributed across the landscape even during the time of hypothetical maximum population. 4.2. Leveling mechanisms, fission, and social differentiation Social inequality (and equality) has been a central research topic in anthropology. This topic, however, has rarely been dis- cussed in the context of Chulmun archaeology. Many theoretical studies in anthropology concern the transformation in social struc- tures and attempt to understand the emergence of hierarchical social orders, while others have focused more on the maintenance of egalitarianism and the so-called ‘‘leveling mechanisms,” i.e., Fig. 11. Excavated shell middens in South Korea (the number for each site corresponds to the site number in Tables 3 and 4; see Korea Cultural Property Investigation and Research Institute Association (2010) for the details of each shell midden). 178 M. Kim et al. / Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 40 (2015) 160–182
  20. 20. environmental, demographic, and social factors that suppress the growth of authoritative leadership and ensure egalitarian relation- ships. The classical examples of the power-curbing mechanisms include the Ju/’hoansi practice of shaming meat providers (Lee, 1969), as well as high residential mobility, flexible social composi- tion and sharing (Woodburn, 1982). The leveling mechanisms can be external to a society and ‘‘operate independently of people’s intentions” such as scattered and unpredictable resources, or they can be intentional and deliberate actions aimed at curbing emer- gent powers, such as criticism, disobedience, desertion and assas- sination (Boehm, 1993). Researchers have highlighted that egalitarianism was hardly a default status of social relationship upon which various forces acted to create inequality. Rather, peo- ple in both foraging and agricultural communities implemented complex codes of leveling behaviors to maintain egalitarian social structures (Ames, 2010; Boehm, 1993; Wiessner, 2002). The entire Chulmun period spanned almost 6500 years from ca.8000 to 1500 BC, which is a sufficiently long time for the devel- opment of complex society. Seen in this light, the lack of sociopo- litical complexity in the Chulmun period is remarkable and demands an explanation. The previous archaeological studies have focused on the subsequent Korean Bronze Age (ca. 1500–300 BC) and attempted to understand how and why sociological complex- ity emerged during this period. Such a research tradition is under- standable because archaeological evidence for elites only appears in the Bronze Age. The intention of this paper, on the other hand, is to approach the same questions from a different angle by inquir- ing the question of how the Chulmun people were able to maintain an egalitarian social relationship for over several millennia and contributed to the relatively late articulation of social inequality in Korean prehistory. The absence of leadership is strongly correlated with the small- ness of group scale, and the data presented in this study suggest that group size is an important avenue of research for understand- ing the Chulmun social structure. Boehm (1993) posits a causative relationship between egalitarian behaviors and community size, and argues that the successful operation of leveling mechanisms will restrict community size because leadership will be weak in such societies and fission will thus readily occur. Yet fission is not simply a side effect of successful leveling behaviors but is one of them, because fission, whether induced by human agency or by environmental conditions, will ultimately restrict the domi- nation of aspiring leaders (Bandy, 2004). Lee and Daly (2004) note that mobility is an important element in the politics of band soci- eties because people ‘‘vote with their feet” by moving away from an unpopular leader. Efforts have been made in anthropology to understand the relationship between group size and different types of social organization (Alberti, 2014; Johnson, 1982; Rappaport, 1968). Researchers rely on different concepts such as ‘‘scalar stress” (Johnson, 1982) and ‘‘irritation coefficient” (Rappaport, 1968), but basically agree that the expansion in group size beyond a certain threshold causes problems and that these problems should be socially mitigated. As the Chulmun communi- ties grew, the power of a few individuals may have begun to extend beyond the boundaries of households. Under such condi- tions, splitting the group into multiple units and maintaining the smallness of each unit could have been an effective power- curbing behavior that prevented excessive power concentration in aspiring leaders and hindered the establishment of hierarchical social orders. At the times of increasing levels of intra-group conflict in expanding communities, fission will be attempted when the cost of fissioning is lower than that of remaining in large aggregation. Factors that increase the fissioning cost and thus induce people to remain in large agglomeration include high levels of external threats, high levels of investment in non-portable capital, and social and environmental circumscription (Bandy, 2004; Carneiro, 1988). Many people may decide to remain under a unified leader- ship for safety in times of external conflicts. Investment in non- potable capital, such as irrigation facilities and agricultural fields, may similarly discourage fissioning. Finally, circumscription, whether induced by environmental constraints or by other social factors such as high population density, may also restrict the pro- cess of fissioning (Carneiro, 1988). In the absence of these factors, communities with an increasing population are expected to demonstrate a high rate of fissioning that, intended or not, func- tions as a leveling behavior and restricts the articulation of social differentiation. The currently available archaeological information suggests that the fissioning cost was considerably low during the Chulmun period and that people could readily split into smaller units in times of conflicts and other scale-related problems. The landscape Table 4 Phase of each shell midden represented by radiocarbon dates. No. Site Phase 1 2 3 4 5 1 Daeyeonpyeong-do s s 2 Moi-do s 3 Soyeonpyeong-do s 4 Yongyu-do s 5 Si-do s 6 Yeongjong-do s s 7 Janggeum-do s s 8 Somuncheom-do s s 9 Yeongheung-do s s s 10 Daebu-do s s 11 Oi-do North s 12 Oi-do Gaundesalmak s s 13 Oi-do Sinpo-dong s 14 Byeolmang s s 15 Daejuk-ri s s 16 Gonam-ri s 17 Songhak-ri s s 18 Jangam s s 19 Ga-do s s s s 20 Bieung-do s s 21 Osik-do s 22 Noraeseom s s 23 Ddiseom s 24 Seonyu-do s 25 Daeheuksan-do s 26 Hatae-do s 27 Gageo-do s s s s 28 Yeoseo-do s 29 Sobu-do s 30 An-do s s s 31 Song-do s 32 Gyeong-do s s s s 33 Dontak s s s 34 Mok-do s s 35 Gupyeong-ri s 36 Neuk-do s 37 Sangnodae-do s s 38 Yokji-do s 39 Sandeung s 40 Yeondae-do s s 41 Bibong-ri s s s s s 42 Nongso-ri s 43 Ga-dong s s 44 Suga-ri s s s 45 Beombang s s 46 Bukjeong s 47 Yul-ri s s 48 Tongsam-dong s s s s s 49 Sejuk s s s Number of sites 6 14 22 32 20 1 The number for each site corresponds to the site number in Fig. 11. M. Kim et al. / Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 40 (2015) 160–182 179
  21. 21. before 4000 BC was largely unpopulated and the degree of social and environmental circumscription that would have discouraged emigration appears to have been extremely low. Millet cultivation newly incorporated into the preexisting foraging economy is likely to have contributed to the dispersion, rather than to the aggregation, of people. Unlike rice cultivation of the subsequent Korean Bronze age, which requires large amounts of water, investments in labor-intensive paddy fields and sophisticated management, millet grows with very little water and adapts well to a wide variety of temperatures, soils and elevations with min- imal labor requirements (Fuller and Qin, 2009; Weber and Fuller, 2008; Weber et al., 2010). Millet cultivation can be practiced with few people, and the dry fields do not necessarily need to be located close to the irrigation facilities. It is likely that an unpop- ulated landscape and a low level of agricultural investments allowed the Chulmun groups to fission at a very low threshold value. The present data sets, seen against the backdrop of theoretical considerations summarized herein, offer an opportunity to criti- cally evaluate some views and interpretations on the Chulmun cul- ture. Shin et al. (2012) envisioned the Chulmun period as affluent hunter–gather–fishers favorably located in a rich environment, and argued that the adoption of millet cultivation fueled the soci- etal elaboration throughout the Chulmun period, leading to the emergence of ‘‘local elite family lineages” in the Late Chulmun (2500–1500 BC) and eventually the appearance of a hierarchical society in the Korean Bronze Age. The development of social com- plexity during the Chulmun period and afterward was presented as a unilinear and stepwise process. As demonstrated in this paper, however, such a presentation is not supported by the archaeolog- ical evidence. The asserted emergence of local elites in 2500–1500 BC is archaeologically unsupported because this period is characterized by a drastic decrease in site number and an almost complete lack of any material evidence indicative of social differ- entiation. In the same light, it is difficult to construe the transition to the Bronze Age as an extension and culmination of the Chulmun social evolution. The present study nonetheless affords some support to the pre- vious arguments shedding light on the nature of the Chulmun social developments. Shin et al. (2012) argued that during the Mid- dle Chulmun period (4000–2500 BC) when ‘‘community growth reached a saturation point,” Chulmun villages ‘‘began to split off into smaller hamlets,” ‘‘fanned out to various parts of the penin- sula, and ‘‘relocated at considerable distances from one another.” The adoption of plant cultivation could have expanded the human carrying capacity of each region and hence encouraged the forma- tion of large aggregate villages. The demographic changes in each social unit would then have increased interpersonal tensions and information load, requiring some social adjustments at the individ- ual, household, and community levels. One possible adaptive solu- tion for such changes would have been the operation of hierarchical and heterarchical social organizations (Cohen, 1985; Johnson, 1982). The currently available archaeological data, how- ever, suggest a different story. The Chulmun lifeways when the population was probably at the maximum in ca. 4000–3000 BC can be visualized as a dispersal into small hamlets scattered around the landscape. Permanent population aggregation, an important condition for the emergence of new social arrange- ments, does not appear to have intensified in 4000–3000 BC, and the articulation of social differentiation revealed in multiple resi- dential units in some large villages of the previous era did not con- tinue after ca. 3000 BC. The Chulmun settlement patterns at the maximum population level generally reflect the decentralization, fission and coexistence of autonomous minimal social units with wide intervening distances, rather than centralization and the emergence of powerful individuals or lineages. 5. Conclusion This paper has reviewed the temporal changes in Chulmun vil- lages over the period of 8000–1500 BC in an attempt to examine how the relationship between population and social differentiation was revealed in the archaeological data. Although the Chulmun people are generally presented as having relied on hunting, gather- ing and fishing, they differed from ethnographically documented egalitarian hunter–gatherers in a number of aspects, such as an intensified use of marine resources, use of storage, and sedentary lifeways. Recent archaeobotanical research has revealed that mil- lets were cultivated in the Chulmun period, although the impor- tance of cultigens in the overall subsistence economy is assumed low. The Chulmun case is comparable with the so-called complex hunter–gatherers on the Northwest Coast and California of North America and other incipient agricultural societies in prehistory. The current study commenced with the recognition that despite the increasing evidence for cultural complexity and plant cultiva- tion, the archaeological remains suggestive of hierarchical social organization are extremely rare for the Chulmun period. This paper searched for answers in the demographic structures, while simul- taneously acknowledging that other social and ecological factors should be addressed further in future research. The current investigation has demonstrated that the number of settlements increased greatly in the millennium 4000–3000 BC, presumably under the influence of millet cultivation and/or an intensified use of wild resources. Among the 87 Chulmun settle- ments in South Korea, 58 are dated to this phase, some of which had a long occupation span and continued to be used in the follow- ing phases. The site number decreased in 3000–1500 BC, which is attributed to the conflation of population decrease and relocation. This suggests that although a change in subsistence economy could have triggered population growth, its impact did not lead to a con- tinuous population growth that persisted until the end of the Chul- mun period. This study further highlights that even at the peak Chulmun population, people were mostly organized into small hamlets, with relatively few large aggregate villages capable of providing a social environment for intensified interpersonal and inter-lineage interactions. Although population is likely to have grown in 4000–3000 BC, population pressure at a community level, which would have provided an ideal social arena for aspiring indi- vidual leaders, was largely absent or only ephemeral. This explana- tion is, of course, unlikely to be the only reason explaining the absence of fully articulated social differentiation during the Chul- mun period; the accumulating archaeological data will undoubt- edly better elucidate this issue in the future. Acknowledgments This study was financially supported by Chonnam National University, 2014. The authors are grateful to the anonymous reviewers for their insightful and constructive comments. References Ahn, S.-M., 1988. The Neolithic period. J. Kor. Archaeol. Soc. 21, 35–62. Ahn, S.-M., 2005. Review of Neolithic agriculture in southern Korea. J. Kor. Neolithic Res. Soc. 10, 7–25. Ahn, S.-M., 2008. Crop assemblage of Korean Bronze age. J. Honam Archaeol. Soc. 28, 5–50. Ahn, S.-M., 2011. The establishment and development of the Neolithic culture. In: Jungang Institute of Cultural Heritage (Ed.), Introduction to Korean Neolithic Culture. Seogyeong Munhwasa, Seoul, pp. 63–97. Ahn, S.-M., 2013. Temporal change in crop assemblages revealed by botanical remains. In: Ahn, S.-M. (Ed.), Archaeology of Agriculture. Sahwe Pyeongron, Seoul, pp. 87–95. Alberti, G., 2014. Modeling group size and scalar stress by logistic regression from an archaeological perspective. PLoS ONE 9, 1–15. 180 M. Kim et al. / Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 40 (2015) 160–182

×